France history


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France history

  1. 1. France historyFrance history is one of the oldest in Europe, States although only appears with the name of themiddle ages in a difficult of irrefutable way to specify date. Recognizes fully Gaul as backgroundhistory of France, although Gaul was a slightly wider than the current French European surface.In European hegemonic wars France attempted to impose several times and that is why, atdifferent times was facing Europe (by separately, or Board) as a counterweight to the Frenchexpansionism. It happened with Charlemagne (Charles, "The great") in the 9th century, Louis XIV("the Sun King") in the 17TH century, and Napoleon I ("Great" Napoleon) in the 19th century.Prehistory[edit] there are important remains of the lower Palaeolithic in the Somme and the traditionalPyrenees (Neanderthal man), as well as in La Ferrasie, La Chapelle-aux-Saints, Le Moustier. TheUpper Paleolithic abundant traces of Cro-Magnon men, Grimaldi and Chancelade, dated to about25,000 years old, which are located in the Valley of Dordoña.1 between the worlds most famouscave paintings are of Lascaux and Font Gaume, in the French Pyrenees.In the Mesolithic some agricultural activities were replaced in importance to the caves and theNeolithic (from the 3rd millennium BC) was the megalithic culture (employed menhirs, dolmensand burials). From about 1500 BC starts the age of bronze, developing trade routes.Homo erectus acheulean industry tools have been found of 900,000 years ago in the Le Vallonnetcave in southern France. The cultures and the iron age Celts located within first millennium to. C.Geography of Francethe French Republic (local name Republique française) is a State of Western Europe, consisting of ametropolitan part and a number of overseas departments. Metropolitan France is bordered byfour seas: the North Sea, the Canal of la Mancha, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea, andaround the island of Corsica. With a metropolitan area of 544 435 square kilometre (675 417 km2with the overseas territories). France extends over 1000 km from North to South and East West.Human geography FranceHuman geography France total population of 64.057.792 inhabitants, for metropolitan France wasestimated in July 2009 62.150.775 inhabitants. Ethnic groups: Celtic and latinos with Teutonicminorities, Slavic, norteafricanas, indochinas and Basques. In the overseas departments arewhites, blacks, mulattoes, Eastern, Chinese, and Native American Indian. Regarding religion, theFrench are mostly Catholic 83-88%, there are 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim Protestant 5% - 10% and 4%religious affiliation. In the overseas departments other than Christians and Muslims, there areHindus, Buddhists and pagans. The languages spoken are French 100%, languages and regional
  2. 2. dialects declined rapidly (Provençal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque and Flemish). Theoverseas departments speaks French and Creole patois.The major French cities are Paris, seat of the Government, Lyon, Marseille and Lille.France is divided into 26 regions, of which 22 are located in metropolitan France (one, Corsica, ismore specifically a territorial collectivity) and four overseas regions.• The 22 regions of metropolitan France:1 Alsace 2. 3 Aquitaine. Auvergne 4. Low 5 Normandy. 6 Burgundy. 7 Britain. Centre 8.Champagne-Ardennes 9. 10 Island. Franco County 11. High 12 Normandy. 13 French island.Languedoc-Roussillon 14. Limousan 15. Lorraine 16. Midi-Pyrénées 17. Nord - Pas - de - Calais 18.The 19 Loire country. Picardy 20. Western 21. Alpes - Costa Azul 22. Rhône-AlpesEconomic geography of Francenatural resources are: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar,fluorite, plaster, wood and fishing. There are deposits of gold, oil, kaolin, niobium, tantalum andclay in French Guyana.As regards land use: arable land; 33,46% permanent crops, 2.03%; other, % 64,51. The figures areother overseas France.Egadío in metropolitan France, are 26,000 square kilometres (2003).La Défense in Paris, seen from the Eiffel Tower business district.Climate of FranceClimate of France with regard to the climate, although France is part of temperate, with heat insummer. The influence of the Mediterranean is manifested by mild and short winters andsummers torridos.The relief available accentuating contrasts temperatures, since the mountain massifs prevent theinfluence of the ocean in the plains of E. In the summer temperatures increase significantly n. s.;NO regions. Enjoy a summer moderate without excessive heat, which contrasts with the hotsummers of the S. and region Mediterranean (the average temperature of July in Brest is 16.6 °
  3. 3. and Marseille 24.1 °). In winter temperatures declined o. e., reflecting the influence of the oceanicmasses; in most continental regions cold is strong and persistent. Strasbourg has an averagetemperature in January of 1.6 and 69 days of frost. In the eastern regions the existence of a reliefin channels (Rhône Groove) channels the NS wind; the mistral dry and cold that blows in the Valleyof the Rhone is the most important. Precipitation are moderate in nature, but are rare regionswhere rainfall is less than 500 mm. The rainfall is abundant in the Atlantic façade and low in theplains in the interior regions cherished by the relief and in the Mediterranean area (Marseille, 555mm) and mountainous areas. In continental regions rains fall mainly in summer and in the form ofshowers; in the Mediterranean regions precipitation, irregular and violent, occur at the beginningand end of the winter. Throughout France climate is characterized by an unstable, resulting timefight extienen country air masses. In winter continental and dry, cold air is pushed by the winds ofe. Contrarrestadas by the Atlantic depressions that coming on the country and dulvifican climate;summer invasion of tropical air is limited by the winds of O.Three characteristic climatic areas can be distinguished: of the dominido Ocean, theMediterranean domain and the continental. The area under the oceanic influences is the mostextensive and covers most of the country, while the pure oceanic climate exists only in Brittanyand Normandy. Characterized by an unstable winds quickly modify the atmospheric state time,and not excessive temperatures; the mists and rain attenuate the winter cold. Abundant rainfall,although vary by region; the number of days pluviosos is always high: 2 days 5 in Paris (813 mm)and 3 out of 5 in Brest (1298 mm), which has more than 200 days of rain per year. Crachin fine andpenetrating, rain falls in Britain, mainly in autumn and winter. The forest of oak and beech treesand meadows and Moors are mixed with other species such as pine and birch. In Britain theclearance has extended the bocage and the Moors at the expense of the forest. Too cool exclusivevine cultivation, but the coarse grains, the Apple trees, forage plants and vegetables are arrangedto this climate. In the Aquitaine basin desapacibles, mild and Misty winters remind the Bretonwinters (Bordeaux receives 1137 mm annually). The heavy rains and showers emborronan freshand late spring, summer, however, somewhat warmer and drier, continues with a sunny autumn.The Paris Basin oceanic climate is gradient of O E. The much stronger winter is marked by periodsof cold, snow and sharp frosts; summer is warm and characterized by blustery rainy continentalcharacter. The average January temperature in Paris is 2.2 ° and July 18.2 °. The Mediterraneandomain is characterized by dry and bright sky; its area is little long because it is limited by the Alpsand the Cévennes mountain box. The latitude and the influence of the Mediterranean lead to mildwinters and torrid summers in Marseille January temperature is 7.1 ° and nice 8th, and theaverage July of 24.1 and 20.9 °, respectively. Continental climate comprises the eastern lands ofthe country; Plains and valleys warm for the mountain, massifs that do not benefit from theinfluence of the winds of O. Characterized by the accused, stations with raw and dry winters, andthe local winds accentuates these characters. Less abundant and irregular rainfall fall mainly insummer, especially in Alsace (Strasbourg, 631 mm), and in the autumn, in the Valley of the Rhone.The mountain climate is determined by the main factor is the altitude. Characterized by raw, longwinters, short, cool summers and abundant rainfall (between 1500 and 2000 mm). Prairies and
  4. 4. outstanding low crops happens the lush forest and coniferous; between the 1500 m and 2000 mappears the alpagFlora of France the flora of the island changes depending on the altitude. Less than 1000 m, prevailing lowmount, vegetation including Myrtle bushes, tree Heath, rockrose, Strawberry trees and Asphodel.At this stage often can be green, cork oaks, Oaks, olives, and chestnut trees. Forests of pine andbeech trees dominate between 1,000 and 1,800 m In excess of 1,800 m the vegetation becomesincreasingly more difficult to see and consists essentially of meadowsfauna of Francethe fauna, sedentary sometimes and many migratory, who lives in the Armoricana peninsulaexplores far reaching the limits of the Arctic circle in certain species. Britain, first French region inseabirds, reproduction is a paradise for ornithologists. With some discretion, can observenumerous species such as the great Cormorant, the Gannet, little penguins, common Puffin,Chough chova and many more. Theres no reason to miss this great opportunity to see rarespecies.Although they have sighted about 25 species of marine mammals in Britain in the last 20 years,most of them not approaching Earth. Only the grey seal, the common seal and the large dolphinare left view in the Bay of Mont Saint-Michel, near of the island of Sein and Molène archipelago.The little humpback whales, orcas, or sperm whales venturing by these latitudes not typically taketo abandon them and follow its path towards other more conducive waters. The Beaver and Ottersemi-aquatic mammals are well adapted to the Breton water courses. On the other hand,endangered, threatened, European Mink is the competence of his cousin, the American mink.About 50 species of land mammals have been surveyed in Britain, including several speciesprotected bats.Traditions of FranceTraditions of France due to the heterogeneity of the population, the State of Guerrero has verydifferent traditions in each region. Music and dance also have very particular features which youcan see the mix of the various ethnic groups that have lived in the entity. Tierra Caliente dancestaste and are. Both from the so-called "hot Earth Sonecillo" and the syrup that brought Spanishartistic caravans bread.
  5. 5. Originating in the Costa Chica of Guerrero named trough, adopted and adapted to the feeling andthe tixtlecos style "starts them grass" and syrups are dancing as an are preamble (right orimitation) palomo or Chilean, giving rise to form the fandango in Tixtla neighborhoods.Customs of France Customs of France from the French usual welcomed and firing with a handshake, which must notbe strong because it would be considered a lack of respect. Among the friends and family is alsocommon to greet with a kiss, practice is widespread among men.Are most common greetings Bonjour, which is to say good morning, and Comment allez-vous? orÇa goes - more informal - mean how are you?? Usually accompanied with the name of the personwho greets.It is a custom among the French arrive at a social gathering last 15 or 20 minutes from the agreedupon time. Which is not bad seen, but greater than these delays.Vacation prefer to spend it in their own country doing various activities such as camping, skiing,and so on. Although people who choose to distant places to vacation is gradually increasing.Symbols of Francethe flag of France: monarchs ruled in France used distinctly three colors: Blue, white and red.The blue flag flew for the coronation of Charlemagne, evokes the San Martin offered a poor layer.Clovis to Charles X, the actual layer is blue sky, adorned with gold Fleur-de-lis symbol of loyalty andfaithfulness.Under the reign of Hugh Capet and under their descendants, the standard of the King will be theRed oriflamme San Dionisio, protector of the Kingdom.1638 To 1790, white was the Royal flag and the flag of the Navy color. From 1814 to 1830, whitewas also the color of the flags of the Royal Army.Anthem of France: Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle, master of engineering in Strasbourg, Garrisoncomposed this air during the night of 24 to 25 April 1792, at the request of the Mayor of the city,Baron Dietrich. Singing, entitled Chant de guerre pour l armée du Rhin (Canto of war for the armyof the Rhine), spread in the country. A general of the army of Egypt, François Mireur, who hadcome to Marseille in preparing the joint March of the volunteers of Montpellier and Marseille,introduced him with the title of Chant de guerre aux armés aux frontières (border armies war
  6. 6. chant). Marsellesas troops then adopted it as progress singing. So intoned into Paris, on 30 July1792, and the Parisians what baptized as La Marseillaise.During the first Republic, this hymn was part of the air and civic songs contributed to the triumphof the revolution. The two Empires, restoration, and the second Spanish Republic preferred songsof circumstances. It was not until the third Republic when La Marseillaise regained its nationalanthem on all those occasions in which military bands have play an official air range. The FrenchState retains and freed French Government again to give a first-order on the anthem of informalstatus, i.e. Le Chant des Partisans (Canto of the partisans). The Marseillaise will finally be institutedas the national anthem in the Constitution of the IV and V Republic (article 2 of the Constitution of4 October 1958). In 1974, Valéry Giscard dEstaing, the then President of the Republic, makeschange according to the ancient scores and to harmonize with a different pace. From 1981, theAnthem interpreted again according to the scores and pace until 1974.The Gallic Rooster Rooster symbol (in Latin, Gaul and Rooster mean the same) was widely used as a religious symbol,sign of hope and faith. From the Renaissance was when the history of the Rooster began to link upwith the idea of French nationality.And in the revolutionary period, when it was consecrated the Rooster as representation ofnational identity. The history of France has as it appears on a shield emblazoned with thePhrygian, Cap on the label of the first consul and fraternity allegory often carries a cane toppedwith a rooster.Later, Napoleon replaced the Republic by the Empire and, thereafter, Eagle replaces the cock withthe Emperor the Rooster did not have any force and could not be the image of an empire asFrance.Although eventually, with the dissolution of the Empire, appeared again the rooster and today inday still remains as emblem (minor), and is present in the Louvre and the Palace of Versailles.Food typicalFrench cuisine is a constant in the life of the French element; simply consider some of the countryepicúreas delight to appreciate the French culinary enthusiasm: foie-gras, truffles, roquefort,seafood, succulent snails collected in the vineyards, fruit, cakes and so on. But you can not liveonly escargot and vin de table. The French population of Northern Africa and Asia has contributedin the Gallic, bringing color and spices to many dishes kitchen. A typical day begins with a bowl ofcafé au lait, a croissant and a thin slice of bread generously greased with butter and jam.
  7. 7. The lunch and dinner are quite similar; may include a first tête pâté (head of pork in jelly) orbouillabaise (fish soup), followed by a second dish of blanquette veau (white sauce beef stew) and,finally, a plateau of fromage (table cheese) or a tarte aux fromage dish pommes (Apple Cake).Before meals, you typically serve a snack as the Kir (sweetened with syrup white wine); the digestif(Armagnac brandy or cognac) is served to the end. Other beverages that help digestion andstimulate conversation are: the espresso, beer and spirits as pastís (90% of alcohol flavored withaniseed and the Absinthe cousin) and the best wines of the world.