Let’s begin with a definition or two:(Much of the information in this series of slides is fromLauer and Lauer, 2000)
War should be understood as an actual, intentional andwidespread armed conflict between politicalcommunities. …War is a phenomenon which occurs only betweenpolitical communities, defined as those entities whicheither are states or intend to become states (in order toallow for civil war).Continued:
Classical war is international war, a warbetween different states, like the two WorldWars. But just as frequent is war within astate between rival groups or communities,like the American Civil War. Certainpolitical pressure groups, like terroristorganizations, might also be considered“political communities,” in that they areassociations of people with a politicalpurpose and, indeed, many of them aspireto statehood or to influence the developmentof statehood in certain landsStanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyFirst published Fri Feb 4, 2000;substantive revision Thu Jul 28, 2005
a major armed conflict betweennations or between organizedgroups within a nation in which athousand or more people arekilled.2006
Now think about terrorism.A definition or two:
Look at the dates of thesecitations and note how theemphasis shifts fromgovernment toorganizations outside ofthe government.
From the OED:Government by intimidation; thesystem of the ‘Terror’ 1793-4; A polityintended to strike with terror thoseagainst whom it is adopted … 1798
The guillotine was used as late asthe 1940s and possibly ’50s inAlgiers
The use of violence or thethreat of violence as ameans to achieve somestrategic goal by strikingfear in victims.Peterson et al, 1999
The use of calculated, unlawfulphysical force or threats of violenceagainst a government, organization, orindividual to gain some political,religious, economic, or social objective.Kendall, 2007
Politically motivated violence againstcitizens of political entities differentfrom those of the perpetrators in orderto coerce and intimidate others intoaccepting the perpetrators’ goals.(Lauer and Lauer 2008)
At present 120 million land mines areplanted in more than 70 countries. Land mines kill or maim at least one personevery hour. One in every 236 people in Cambodia is anamputee because of land mines, 18 countries have destroyed their stocks ofmines. Of 137 countries that have signed a ban ofsuch mines. The US is not one of them.
More and more civilians account for themajority of deaths in war. About half in the 1950s. Three-fourths in the 1980s Nearly 90 percent in the 1990s
In Iraq just over 3000 American servicemenhave died.The civilian total is 150,000 to a half a million,2003 through 2006. (Iraq Family Heath Surveyfor the WHO)
Who do you think would like to play with these?
1 They are often among those killed2 They suffer severe and sometimespermanent injuries.3 Children are recruited for, or forced into,being combatants.
• Residual destruction from unexploded ordnance.• Psychological and interpersonal trauma.• Environmental destruction• Economic costs• The possibility of sanctions (enduring orenforcing) or reparations.• A possible repercussion to said sanctions orreparations. (Nazi Germany and Al-Qaida)
Civilian trauma can last a lifetime.PTSD childs drawingIraq veterans with PTSD
•A year of shock and fatigue•Drug use to escape reality•Children developed a fear of ofpersonal attachment•Survivor’s guilt•Hiroshima became a city of “chaos,pain, crime, anxiety, an deep-rootedfear.”
Think of what weapons of terror existin the realm of warfare.Do we have them?Do we use them?
140,000 died in Hiroshima and another 70,000died instantly in Nagasaki. Another 130,000 died later as a result of thebombing.
In the US from 1945 to 1970 about 800 testswere done on military personnel, many whowere unaware of the risks.The outcomes are contested but one wouldexpect increases of cancer and other maladies.
PTSD Responses to having participated indehumanizing acts. Nazi experimental torture (freezing andoxygen deprivation). Abu Ghraib and other places of torture.
Was Abu Ghraib a case of a “few bad apples?” Or was it situational? Consider the findings of Philip Zimbardo.
Agent Orange (Dioxin) Defoliant
Deforestation Pollution Unexploded ordnance Irrigation canals destroyed Black rain in the Gulf War
As a direct result of the use of powerfuldefoliants in Vietnam, veterans of the war facea 50 percent greater risk of cancer of the lymphnodes.
Iraq cost over a billion dollars a week. World War I utterly destroyed Germany andpreceded a global depression. Military costs come out of social benefitbudgets. International sanctions (discussed next)
We come full circle. The war results insanctions (such as what WWI did toGermany)This caused a deep depression and sense ofalienation for Germans.This paved the way for Hitler.Discuss Iraq next:
Iraq invades Kuwait Allied forces thwart the assault Sanctions are imposed People die and sanctions are circumvented Infrastructure is bombed 500,000 children and untold numbers of adultsdie Al-Quaida emerges
The Patriot Act Right of Habeas Corpus Racial or ethnic profiling Right to privacy Freedom to travel
Chalmers Johnson, who worked for the CIAand is a scholar on Japan, notes the phenomenacalled “blowback.”It is defined as:
“The unintended consequences of policies thatwere kept secret from the American people.”(Johnson, 2004)Consider 9/11 as a consequence of those Iraqsanctions already mentioned.
The 20thcentury was the bloodiest in humanhistory. More than 100 million deaths occurredcompared to 19.4 million in the 19thcentury and3.7 million in the 1stto 15thcenturies.