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Race Illusion from film and added Du Bois

Race Illusion from film and added Du Bois

More in: Education , Spiritual
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  • 1. 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. 8 Name the race or ethnicity of the subjects in the following images
  • 4. 9 Mexican. No, wait more like “Hispanic,” or is it “Latino?” Can’t decide?
  • 5. 10 How about African American? Or just African?
  • 6. 11 Is there a little Asian here? Hard to tell isn’t it?
  • 7. 12 Athlete. Pick a race. Now don’t stereotype! All right, you get the picture (literally).
  • 8. 13
  • 9. Race is mostly a modern idea. Peoples were previously sorted by class, religion and even language. 14
  • 10. •The term Race refers to physical characteristics that others deem socially significant. •This could be skin color, hair shape or eye shape. These are insignificant characteristics which, nonetheless, are apparent. •Note that while race refers to said physical characteristics it is NOT biologically determined. 15
  • 11. States Farley (2005): An ethnic group is “a group of people who are generally regarded by themselves or others as a distinct group, with such recognition based on social or cultural characteristics such as nationality, language, and religion.” 16
  • 12. In the United States, a few examples of ethnic groups would be Jewish Americans, Italian Americans, and Hispanics. 17
  • 13. Stereotypes: An unreliable generalization about members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group. Giddens Think of some stereotypes about such minority groups as Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, African Americans or Jewish Americans. 18
  • 14. Prejudice: Prejudice is an attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority. Discrimination: Discrimination is the action of prejudice—it is the practice of deliberately treating one group or individual differently than another. 19 Prejudice and Discrimination
  • 15. Racism: The extremely negative attitude, the prejudice, based upon significant physical distinctions. A racist is a person who believes that some individuals are superior, or inferior, to others as a result of racial differences. Giddens 20
  • 16. Racism has flourished for three primary reasons: 1. The culturally symbolic antagonism between white and black. 2. The invention and diffusion of the concept of race. 3. The exploitative relations that Europeans established with nonwhite peoples. Giddens 21
  • 17. Institutional Racism or Institutional Discrimination: Any arrangement or practice within a social institution or its related organizations that tends to favor one racial or ethnic group over another. It may be conscious and deliberate or subtle and unintended. Farley, 2005 22
  • 18. Ethnocentrism: The tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life are superior to all others. This can happen on a local level or on a national level. 23
  • 19. Hitler Youth 24
  • 20. There is no genetic basis for race—no one characteristic or trait distinguishes one group of people from another. 25
  • 21. As such, then race is a social construct. States Omni and Winant (in Konradi and Schmidt 2004:179): Race is “a concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodies.” 26
  • 22. It might be best to take a constructionist view of race and understand it as a social construction. Thus it is to be understood as structural rather than as an individual feature of society. (ibid: 180) 27
  • 23. 28
  • 24. Slavery pre-dates race. So there is no logical connection based upon historical evidence for racial dominance. That is, a past of slavery is no reason for one race to be subordinate to another. 29
  • 25. The idea of freedom and race were born together in the U.S. While some believed in equality, this was an economy largely based upon slavery. 30
  • 26. “… that all men are created equal.” 31
  • 27. 32
  • 28. As the race concept evolved it justified the extermination of Native Americans, the exclusion of Asian immigrants and the taking of Mexican lands. 33
  • 29. A controversial study by Herrnstein and Murray on the superiority of the white race, written in 1994. 34
  • 30. Charles Murray Richard Herrnstein
  • 31. Researchers Herrnstein and Murray (1994) did a study that claimed that minority groups and those in lower SES had lower IQs, and that this was about 40 percent genetically based. Do you recall the concept of “social Darwinism?” 38
  • 32. The eight major claims of the study are: 1 General intelligence exists. 2 At least half of the variation in intelligence is genetically transmitted. 3 Intelligence has become more necessary in the work world than before. 4 Colleges have shifted their entrance priorities away from inherited wealth to those based upon merit. 5 Society is now dominated by a “cognitive elite.” 6 As the elite forms a social group it reproduces itself through marriage. 7 As well, poor people tend to marry those alike passing on their “modest” abilities to their children. 8 Because of this genetically passed on intelligence we should see the poor as having higher crime rates and drug abuse. 39
  • 33. Assertion (1) Intelligence is a single, unitary phenomenon consisting of a "core human mental ability." This "general intelligence" underlies all forms of "complex mental work." 40
  • 34. Response: People may be smart in some respects, in some contexts, and at some tasks, but not in others. Some may have a facility for numbers, others for words…The kind of intelligence facilitating high performance in one arena does not necessarily have the same payoff in another. …[R]anking on a single intelligence continuum cannot explain much about their social and economic outcomes. 41
  • 35. Assertion (2) Standardized intelligence tests provide a precise measure of general intelligence, making it possible to rank individuals on a linear scale according to their intelligence quotient. 42
  • 36. Response: There are many kinds of cognitive abilities and many kinds of social endeavors as well, each favoring a somewhat different set of skills and talents. IQ scores, therefore, tell us little about people's overall practical competence, nor do they dictate social and economic destinies. 43
  • 37. Assertion (3) Intelligence is "substantially inherited," with genes accounting for at least 40 percent and as much as 80 percent of the variation among individuals in cognitive ability. 44
  • 38. Response: The Bell Curve, according to many critics, overestimates the genetic basis and heritability of IQ and underestimates the influence of the social environment. [..] While they claim the heritability of IQ may be as much as 80 percent, other research, drawing on a wider range of studies, suggests a much lower figure, somewhere between 30 and 50 percent. 45
  • 39. Assertion (4) People at birth are either blessed or doomed with a level of intelligence that is largely unalterable. Social and educational interventions cannot appreciably raise the cognitive ability of persons born with low IQs….Though it is not impossible to boost IQ, they admit, it is impractical because of insufficient knowledge and limitations in "the available repertoire of social interventions." 46
  • 40. Response: The problem is not that nothing can be done, but that an "inexpensive, reliable method of raising IQ is not available." This is a political, not a scientific, judgment, however 47
  • 41. The ordinary routine of neutral reviewers [peer review] having a month or two to go over the book with care did not occur. Another handpicked group was flown to Washington at the expense of the American Enterprise Institute and given a weekend-long personal briefing on the book's contents by Murray himself … just before publication. The result was what you'd expect: The first wave of publicity was either credulous or angry, but short on evidence, because nobody had had time to digest and evaluate the book carefully. 48
  • 42. For a more complete critique of the work of Murray and Herrnstein, see the following link: Critique of the Bell Curve study (NOTE: You must already be logged in to Hartnell’s EBSCOhost for link to work.) 49
  • 43. In the concluding remarks: "It is time for America once again to try living with inequality, as life is lived...." 50
  • 44.  Just suppose that blacks, and browns, and reds, and yellows, and whites, had different IQs. What should we do?  Do you ever think of treating a C student worse than an A student? How about disabilities?  Keep thinking… 52
  • 45.  Imagine taking the Star Ship Enterprise to a planet far, far away. The population has an IQ that is 20 points lower than your species' does. They read, make music, have science. Will you treat them as inferiors? Would you take advantage of them for their resources?  What if they had an average IQ 20 point higher than ours. How would that impact the relationship? 53
  • 46. This is a related to the pseudo-science of eugenics—the idea that a more “pure” race can be bread. (The German Nazis stated that they got most of their ideas for eugenics from the United States.) I keep forgetting not everyone knows this story. Learn more here: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/human-testing-the-eugenics- movement-and-irbs-724 54
  • 47. Steven Jay Gould states in the film on race that modern humans have not been around long enough to have evolved into separate races. 55
  • 48. Most traits are inherited independently of one another. The genes for skin color have nothing to do with genes for hair texture, eye shape, blood type, musical talent, or athletic ability. 56
  • 49. So what interests sociologists is not so much race per se, but the significance some people place on traits such as skin color and hair shape. 57
  • 50. Most variation is within, not between “races.” Of the small amount of total human genetic variation, 85% exists within any local population, be they Italians, Kurds, Koreans, etc. Two random Koreans are likely to be as genetically different as a Korean and an Italian. 58
  • 51. Races are NOT characterized by clear-cut and fixed differences. Apparent differences are vague at best. Take a walk from central Africa to Norway. Differences are gradual, not punctuated. (Yes, the Inuit is an exception. A diet high in vitamin D is a common, if not perfect, explanation.) 59
  • 52. Race is not biological, but racism is still real. Out of a desire for exploitation, a need to justify that exploitation and perhaps a collective desire for self-worth, races impact one another in the competition for resources. All manner of justification is used for racial stereotyping, but mostly it is the manufacture of opportunity. 60
  • 53. 61
  • 54. Racial formation is the process which “defines both who the racial groups in a society are and how the meaning of race is understood.” (Omi and Winant in Farley, 2005:7) 62
  • 55. In fact, “the process of defining and, over time, redefining racial groups is always driven by political interests.” (Farley, 2005:7) 63
  • 56. Thus, if you are a biologist, race does not exist. But if you are a sociologist, it most certainly does. 64
  • 57.  Individual racism  Institutional racism 65
  • 58. Individual or “ideological” racism is what we normally think of when we think of racism at all. This is the term used for the belief that some races “are biologically, intellectually or culturally inferior to others.” (Ibid:13) 66
  • 59. But it is institutional racism that persists today as a powerful social force, even if an unintentional one. It is rooted in American history and persists today. 67
  • 60. Institutional racism and institutional discrimination are arrangements or practices in social institutions and their related organizations that tend to favor one racial or ethnic group … over another.” (Ibid: 15) 68
  • 61.  Measuring standard test scores from children of greatly varied SES backgrounds.  Proportionality by ethnicity of employees in the least preferred jobs.  Current recruitment techniques and quotas by the military (recently emphasizing Hispanics).  Redlining housing districts.  Environmental racism. 69
  • 62. The difference, then, between individual and institutional racism is not a difference in intent or of visibility. Both the individual act of racism and the racist institutional policy may occur without the presence of conscious bigotry and both may be masked intentionally or innocently. (Knowles and Prewitt in Konradi and Schmidt, 2004:181) 70
  • 63. 71
  • 64.  A majority is not by numbers.  A majority is by power. 72
  • 65. Minority and Majority groups: A minority group is subordinate to a majority group. This is not determined by numbers but rather by POWER. A majority group is dominant by virtue of how much power it has over a minority group. A good example of this would be South Africa and its white rule of apartheid. 73
  • 66. 74
  • 67. 75
  • 68. Among his many academic achievements was his sociological study of a black community entitled “The Philadelphia Negro,” the first such study of its kind. 76
  • 69. Assimilation Pluralism and Separatism 85
  • 70. Assimilation is the process “whereby groups with distinctive identities become culturally and socially fused.” (Marger in Hughes and Kroehler, 2007:159) 86
  • 71. Pluralism is a situation by which diverse groups coexist side by side and mutually accommodate themselves to their differences while maintaining boundries. Ethnic differences are maintained and only some resources are shared while others are not. 87
  • 72. Separatism is the establishment of, or attempt to establish, entirely separate societies made up of distinct racial, ethnic, or other groups that formerly existed within one society. Farley, 2005 Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)88
  • 73. 89
  • 74. 90
  • 75. Just had to share this so I stuck it here until I find a proper place: bobcesca.thedailybanter.com/blog-archives/ 2013/05/the-daily-show-traps-far-right-radio-host. html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss& utm_campaign=the-daily-show-traps-far-right-radio-host& utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=twitterf eed 91
  • 76. 92
  • 77. 93 1964 2014
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  • 90. 106