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Poverty update 6 23-13
 

Poverty update 6 23-13

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    Poverty update 6 23-13 Poverty update 6 23-13 Presentation Transcript

    • Poverty in the US and Elsewhere "Conservatives say if you don't give the rich more money, they will lose their incentive to invest. As for the poor, they tell us they've lost all incentive because we've given them too much money.” George Carlin 1
    • The many are not enslaved because they are poor, they are poor because they are enslaved. Bertrand Russell 2
    • "If a free society cannot help the many are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich." ~ John F. Kennedy inaugural address, January 20, 1961 3
    • Poverty in the US Our typical view of such phenomena is called “ideographic.” This looks at the individual case. The person on the street. Another view is called “nomothetic.” This word basically means “law” (nomos) and looks at “general” circumstances. That is, how might this condition be in the social realm, not just for this individual. 4
    • Poverty in the US As such, we might use our “sociological imagination” as C. Wright Mills suggested not all that long ago. That is, when a condition applies to an individual only, there is a personal trouble. But when such a condition is affecting many people, then there is a public issue (i.e. a social problem). For more on this consider reading his work in more detail at http://socialsciences.nsula.edu/assets/Site-Files/ThePromise.pdf 5
    • Poverty in the US The stigma and stereotyping of poverty in the United States is intense, and the media, for whatever reasons, does much to perpetuate these negative images. 6
    • Poverty in the US Let’s look at some of the common stereotypes. (Perhaps your personal experience supports some): 1. Lazy 2. Addicted to alcohol or drugs 3. Prefer welfare to employment (“work the system”) 4. The “Welfare Queen,” who is usually black, drives and Cadillac. 5. The single mother who had more children to extend welfare benefits. 7
    • The Welfare Queen Myth The term "welfare queen" was created by then presidential candidate Ronald Reagan in 1976 during his 1976 concession speech. He would tell the story of a woman from Chicago's South Side who was arrested for welfare fraud: 8
    • Reagan’s Speech 1976 • "She has eighty names, thirty addresses, twelve Social Security cards and is collecting veteran's benefits on four nonexisting deceased husbands. And she is collecting Social Security on her cards. She's got Medicaid, getting food stamps, and she is collecting welfare under each of her names. Her tax-free cash income is over $150,000." 9
    • Reagan’s Speech 1976 • Per a New York Times article Reagan did not have the facts. • In fact the woman he referred to had four aliases, not 89, collected about $8,000, not $150,000. • Regardless, the myth continues. 10
    • How many are we? As of 2010, the number of people in the United States who qualify as being in poverty is now about 46.2 million people. That is around 15 percent of our population. 11
    • The Number and Rate of the Poverty in the US, 1959-2010 12
    • Who are our Poor? • • • • Minorities Children Disabled Single mothers 13
    • 14
    • Alyssa lives with her parents in Kentucky. She is an only child but her grandmother, uncle, and orphaned cousin live close by. Their small, shabby house, heated only by a wooden stove, is falling apart. The ceiling in Alyssa's bedroom is beginning to cave in. The family would like to buy a trailer if they could afford it. Alyssa's mother works at McDonald's and her father works at Walmart; everything they earn goes towards bringing up their daughter. (http://www.motherjones.com/media/2012/11/kids-bedrooms-james-mollison)
    • Food Stamps SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) Per GOVT web page: http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/applicant_recipients/facts.htm It states that it helps low-income people buy the food they need for good health. You may be able to get SNAP benefits if you are: •Working for low wages or working part-time •Unemployed; •Receiving welfare or other public assistance payments •Elderly or disabled and are low-income; •Homeless.
    • Poverty Numbers by Race 2009 •Non-Hispanic Whites: 29.8 million (12.3%) •Hispanic: 12.3 million (25.3 %) •African American: 10 million (25.8%) •Asian & Pacific Islander: 17.5 million (12.5%) (US Census 2009) 17
    • Women • In 2007, 28.3 percent of households headed by single women were poor. (Read that number again please.) • 13.6 percent of households headed by single men and 4.9 percent of married-couple households lived in poverty. (National Poverty Center) 18
    • Children Under 18 in Poverty Category Number (in thousands) All children under 18 16,401 Percent White, non-Hispanic 5,002 12.4 Black 4,817 38.2 Hispanic 6,110 35.0 Asian and Pacific Islander 547 13.3 22.0 19 NOTE: These numbers have gone up quite a bit since 2005
    • Family Income and SAT Scores Family Income 1991 SAT (verbal + math) Over $70,000 997 $60,000-70,000 949 $50,000-60,000 931 $40,000-50,000 910 $30,000-40,000 884 $20,000-30,000 856 $10,000-20,000 813 Under $10,000 768 Cox and Wiley III, 1992 20
    • By age 50, 42 percent of Americans will have been in poverty for at least a year. (Lauer and Lauer 2006) 21
    • Families with children are among the fastest growing group of the homeless. Later we can look at poverty in the world. For a peek, look at how we compare to many other countries. 22
    • Poverty in the US Perhaps you have heard the song: “Teenage Immigrant Welfare Mothers on Drugs.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uByGoPGP9wY Need I say more? Perhaps I should. 23
    • 24
    • More on shelter, or lack of 25
    • In Sweden the poverty-level is applies to incomes at about 60 percent of the median Swedish income; and in other European countries it varies between 40 and 60 percent. 26
    • Median income as a measure in the US: In 1992, $13,000 was the poverty level for families consisting of an elderly couple because the median income for such families was $26,000. But the official poverty figure was only $8,500, about onethird the median income. 27
    • Wealth and Income Distribution While income (what you earn regularly) is a useful measure of social strata, wealth (what you have) is better. Let’s look at the US distribution of wealth: 28
    • • The wealthiest 1 percent of American households own nearly 40 percent of the nation’s wealth. • The lowest 40 percent own about 1 percent of the nation’s wealth • The poorest 20 percent of Americans receive 5.7 percent, and the richest 20 percent receive 55 percent of all after-tax income—the greatest inequality in the developed world. • (Lauer and Lauer 2006) 29
    • Gini Index by select developed nations Country Best off 10th Poorest 10th Inequality Index Sweden 152% 56% 2.7 Netherlands 175 62 2.9 Norway 162 55 2.9 Switzerland 185 54 3.4 France 193 55 3.5 UK 194 51 3.8 Canada 184 46 4.0 Italy 198 49 4.1 United States 206 35 5.9 30
    • GNP Per Capita for Selected Countries 31
    • 2 Minute Writing: Would you pay more in taxes to eliminate poverty? 32
    • Global Poverty 33
    • Two Categories • Absolute Poverty • Relative Poverty 34
    • Absolute poverty is a condition in which people do not have adequate resources to met their minimum needs, such as food, water, clothing and shelter. 35
    • Childhood poverty rates in rich countries. UNICEF, 2005 36
    • Absolute Poverty USA 37
    • Relative poverty applies to those for whom the minimum needs have been met, but who still experience a great deal of economic uncertainty. They have few options for the goods they can afford. Also, although they are often working, they are underemployeed. 38
    • Relative Poverty Relative Poverty is what we my think of as the dominant form in the United States, and indeed, the rest of the so-called “developed” world. 39
    • Relative Poverty UK 40
    • Some Relative Poverty around us now 41
    • More of the absolute stuff USA 42
    • Criterion for Global Poverty The UNDP (United Nations Development Program) has use as a measure the “less than a dollar a day” criterion. It estimates that 1.3 billion people meet this measure worldwide. 43
    • 44
    • Also is the capability poverty measure (CPM) for poverty. It is based upon three criteria: 1 The capability to be well nourished (measured by the proportion of children under the age of five who are underweight. 45
    • 2 The capability for healthy reproduction, measured by the proportion of births unattended by trained health personnel. 3 The capability to be educated, measured by female illiteracy. 46
    • Family Income and SAT Scores Family Income 1991 SAT (verbal + math) Over $70,000 997 $60,000-70,000 949 $50,000-60,000 931 $40,000-50,000 910 $30,000-40,000 884 $20,000-30,000 856 $10,000-20,000 813 Under $10,000 768 Cox and Wiley III, 1992 47
    • Relative Rates of Poverty Source: Michael F. Forster,"Measurement of low Income and Poverty in a Perspective of International Comparisons," Occasional Paper No.14. Paris:OECD,1994. Country/Year Percent USA 1986 Australia 1985-6 Canada 1987 18.7% 15.7 15.4 U.K. 1986 Sweden 1987 Italy 1986 France 1984 Germany 1984-5 Belgium 1985 Netherlands 1987 12.4 12.1 10.1 8.9 8.5 5.4 4.7 48
    • 49
    • Could you live on this here in Salinas? 50
    • Gini Index by select developed nations Country Best off 10th Poorest 10th Inequality Index Sweden 152% 56% 2.7 Netherlands 175 62 2.9 Norway 162 55 2.9 Switzerland 185 54 3.4 France 193 55 3.5 UK 194 51 3.8 Canada 184 46 4.0 Italy 198 49 4.1 United States 206 35 5.9 51
    • Another Version of the Kuznet Curve 52
    • More on the Kuznet Curve “As countries’ average income rise from the very poorest levels, income distribution first becomes more unequal, then more equal…it does not usually improve the status of the poorest; rather, it raises the rewards of upper income groups and leaves the poor further behind.” Konradi and Schmidt, 2004 53