Chapter One    Understanding   Social Problems
Personal vs. Social Problems• Personal Problem: one  whose causes and  solutions lie within the  individual and his or her...
The Consequences ofProblems• The sense of inadequacy – blaming or  downgrading oneself.• Individual strategies are employe...
Social Problem• A condition or pattern of behavior that  – Contradicts some other condition or pattern of    behavior;  – ...
A Theory-Based Model• Structural Functionalism  – Focuses on social systems and the way in which their    interdependent p...
Structural Functionalism• A problem involves a system of  interdependent parts, including  – Norms – shared expectations a...
A Model for Analyzing SocialProblems               © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Quality of Life• Americans evaluate  their quality of life  according to how well  they are doing  –   Financially,  –   P...
Multiple Levels of SocialProblems•   Individual level•   Group levels•   Societal levels•   Global levels                 ...
Analyzing Social Problems• Get the feel of the problem by seeing how  it affects people’s lives and examining how  the pro...
Recognizing Fallacies• Fallacy of Dramatic         • Fallacy of Appeal to  Instance                      Prejudice• Fallac...
Fallacy of Authority• The illegitimate appeal to authority  – The authority may be ambiguous.  – The authority may be irre...
Social Research• Survey Research  – Using questionnaires and/or interviews to gain    data about some phenomenon• Statisti...
Social Research – Continued• Experiments  – Manipulation of one or more variables, control    of other variables, and meas...
Lauer12e ch01 1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Lauer12e ch01 1

144

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
144
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lauer12e ch01 1

  1. 1. Chapter One Understanding Social Problems
  2. 2. Personal vs. Social Problems• Personal Problem: one whose causes and solutions lie within the individual and his or her own environment.• Social Problem: one whose causes and solutions lie outside the individual and the immediate environment. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. The Consequences ofProblems• The sense of inadequacy – blaming or downgrading oneself.• Individual strategies are employed to cope with the problem, such as coping mechanisms.• The victim is blamed.• The offender is castigated. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Social Problem• A condition or pattern of behavior that – Contradicts some other condition or pattern of behavior; – Is caused, facilitated, or prolonged by factors that operate at multiple levels of social life; – Involves intergroup conflict; and – Requires social action to be resolved. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. A Theory-Based Model• Structural Functionalism – Focuses on social systems and the way in which their interdependent parts maintain order.• Conflict Theory – Focuses on contradictory interests of groups, inequalities in society, and the resulting conflict and change.• Symbolic Interactionism – Focuses on the interaction between individuals, the importance of knowing individuals’ perspectives to understand their behavior, and the ways in which social life is constructed through interaction. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Structural Functionalism• A problem involves a system of interdependent parts, including – Norms – shared expectations about behavior. – Roles – behavior associated with a particular position in the social structure. – Institutions – collective means of dealing with basic social functions. – Values – things preferred because they are defined as having worth. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. A Model for Analyzing SocialProblems © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Quality of Life• Americans evaluate their quality of life according to how well they are doing – Financially, – Physically, – Emotionally, – Socially, and – Culturally © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Multiple Levels of SocialProblems• Individual level• Group levels• Societal levels• Global levels © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Analyzing Social Problems• Get the feel of the problem by seeing how it affects people’s lives and examining how the problem involves a contradiction and is defined as incompatible with the desired quality of life.• Analyze the multiple-level factors involved.• Consider various ways to attack the problem. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Recognizing Fallacies• Fallacy of Dramatic • Fallacy of Appeal to Instance Prejudice• Fallacy of Retrospective • Fallacy of Circular Determinism Reasoning • Fallacy of Authority• Fallacy of Misplaced • Fallacy of Concreteness Composition• Fallacy of Personal • Fallacy of Non Attack SequiturThese Concepts will be used in Every Chapter © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Fallacy of Authority• The illegitimate appeal to authority – The authority may be ambiguous. – The authority may be irrelevant to the problem. – The authority may be pursuing a bias rather than studying the problem. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Social Research• Survey Research – Using questionnaires and/or interviews to gain data about some phenomenon• Statistical Analysis of Official Records – Mean – Test of Significance – Frequency Distribution – Median score © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Social Research – Continued• Experiments – Manipulation of one or more variables, control of other variables, and measurement of the consequences in still other variables. • Independent Variables • Dependent Variables• Participant Observation – Direct participation in, and observation of the social reality being studied. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

×