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  • 1. CONDITIONALS Conditionals or 'if clauses' describe the result of something that might happen (in the present or future) or might have happened but didn't (in the past) . They are made using different English verb tenses. There are four kinds summarized as follows: The Zero Conditional: ALWAYS TRUE / SCIENTIFIC FACTS (SEGURO 100 %) CONDITION RESULT If + present simple present simple If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. The First Conditional: HIGHLY PROBABLE (MUY PROBABLE 75 %) + FUTURE TIME CLAUSES CONDITION RESULT If + present simple will + base If it rains tomorrow, we'll go to the cinema. When you get home, call me. (Future time clause) The Second Conditional: UNLIKELY, UNREAL, WISH DESEO, SUEÑO) CONDITION If + past simple (IMPROBABLE 25 %, IRREAL, RESULT would + base If I had a lot of money, I would travel around the world. The Third Conditional: IMPOSSIBLE, REGRETS (IMPOSIBLE 0 %, LAMENTOS) CONDITION If + past perfect RESULT would have + past participle If I had gone to bed early, I would have caught the train. We can put 'if' at the beginning, or in the middle. It doesn't matter at all. Notice that if we put "if" at the beginning we need to write a comma before the next sentence. THEORY AND PRACTICE ZERO CONDITIONAL This conditional is used when the result will always happen. So, if water reaches 100 degrees, it always boils. It's a fact. I'm talking in general, not about one particular situation. The result of the 'if clause' is always the main cluase.
  • 2. The 'if' in this conditional can usually be replaced by 'when' without changing the meaning. For example: If water reaches 100 degrees, it boils. (It is always true, there can't be a different result sometimes). If I eat peanuts, I am sick. (This is true only for me, maybe, not for everyone, but it's still true that I'm sick every time I eat peanuts) Here are some more examples: If people eat too much, they get fat. If you touch a fire, you get burned. People die if they don't eat. You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen. Snakes bite if they are scared If babies are hungry, they cry A.Now, make zero conditionals: For example: (not / rain / the flowers / die) If it doesn’t rain, the flowers die. 1. (I / wake up late / I / be late for work) _______________________________________________________________ 2. (my husband / cook / he / burn the food) _______________________________________________________________ 3. (Julie / not wear a hat / she / get sunstroke) _______________________________________________________________ 4. (children / not eat well / they / not be healthy) _______________________________________________________________ 5. (you / mix water and electricity / you / get a shock) _______________________________________________________________ 6. (people / eat / too many sweets / they / get fat) _______________________________________________________________ 7. (you / smoke / you / get yellow fingers) _______________________________________________________________ 8. (children / play outside / they / not get overweight) _______________________________________________________________ 9. (you / heat ice / it / melt) _______________________________________________________________ 10. (I / speak to John / he / get annoyed) _______________________________________________________________ 11. (I / feel good the next day / I / go to bed early) _______________________________________________________________ 12. (lots of people / come / Jenny / have a party)
  • 3. _______________________________________________________________ 13. (she / buy expensive clothes / she / go shopping) _______________________________________________________________ 14. (my daughter / pass her exams / she / work hard) _______________________________________________________________ 15. (David / be sick / he / drink milk) _______________________________________________________________ 16. (the river / freeze / it / be very cold) _______________________________________________________________ 17. (I / like to visit the museums / I / be in a new city) _______________________________________________________________ 18. (I / cycle to work / the weather / be fine) _______________________________________________________________ 19. (my flatmate / clean it really well / she / clean the house) _______________________________________________________________ THE FIRST CONDITIONAL The first conditional has the present simple after 'if', then the future simple in the other clause: if + present simple, ... will + base It's used to talk about things which might happen in the future. Of course, we can't know what will happen in the future, but this describes possible things, which could easily come true. If it rains, I won't go to the park. If I study today, I'll go to the party tonight. If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes. She'll be late if the train is delayed. She'll miss the bus if she doesn't leave soon. If I see her, I'll tell her. UNLESS We can also use unless (a menos que) instead of “if... not” (si... no). Unless you study, you won't pass the exam. (A menos que estudies, no aprobarás el examen de First Certificate) (= If you don't study, you won't pass the exam) (= Si no estudias, no aprobarás el examen) Unless I wear clothes like theirs, my friends will think I'm a bit strange. (A menos que use el mismo tipo de ropa que ellos, mis amigos pensarán que soy algo raro/a) (= If I don't wear clothes like theirs, my friends will think I'm a bit strange) (Si no uso el mismo tipo de ropa que ellos, mis compañeros pensarán que soy algo raro/a)
  • 4. MODAL VERBS We can also use modal verbs:. If you have finished, you may go. >> MODAL VERB: may (Si has terminado, puedes irte) If you're feeling ill, you ought to see a doctor. >> MODAL VERB: ought to (Si te estás sintiendo mal, deberías ver a un médico) If Mirta, Ricardo and Miguel could do those webs, they can do anything. MODAL VERBS: could (past) - can (present) (Si Mirta, Ricardo y Miguel pudieron hacer esas webs, pueden hacer cualquier cosa). IMPERATIVE + OR / AND + SIMPLE FUTURE Used for threats and promises (usado para expresar amenazas y promesas) Don't say a word about this, or I will kill you. No cuentes una palabra de esto o te mato. Finish your job, and you will have a bonus. Termina tu tarea y tendrás una gratificación. IMPERATIVO + IF / IN CASE + SIMPLE PRESENT Contact me if you need any help. Ponte en contacto conmigo si necesitas ayuda. Call them in case you need help. Llámalos en caso de necesitar ayuda. FUTURE TIME CLAUSES We use the same structure as the first conditional. As soon as you get your exam results, call me. We´ll have dinner when your father gets home. I won´t go to bed until you come home. I´ll have lunch before I leave. After I finish university, I´ll probably take a year off. First vs. Zero Conditional: The first conditional describes a particular situation, whereas the zero conditional describes what happens in general. For example (zero conditional): if you sit in the sun, you get burned (here I'm talking about every time a person sits in the sun - the burning is a natural consequence of the sitting) But (first conditional): if you sit in the sun, you'll get burned (here I'm talking about what will happen today, another day might be different)
  • 5. First vs. Second Conditional: The first conditional describes things that I think are likely to happen in the future, whereas the second conditional talks about things that I don't think will really happen. It's subjective; it depends on my point of view. For example (first conditional): If she studies harder, she'll pass the exam (I think it's possible she will study harder and so she'll pass) But (second conditional): If she studied harder, she would pass the exam (I think that she won't study harder, or it's very unlikely, and so she won't pass) B. Put the verb into the correct first conditional form: 1. If I __________________ (go) out tonight, I __________________ (go) to the cinema. 2. If you __________________ (get) back late, I __________________ (be) angry. 3. If we __________________ (not / see) each other tomorrow, we __________________ (see) each other next week. 4. If he __________________ (come), I __________________ (be) surprised. 5. If we __________________ (wait) here, we __________________ (be) late. 6. If we __________________ (go) on holiday this summer, we __________________ (go) to Spain. 7. If the weather __________________ (not / improve), we __________________ (not / have) a picnic. 8. If I __________________ (not / go) to bed early, I __________________ (be) tired tomorrow. 9. If we __________________ (eat) all this cake, we __________________ (feel) sick. 10. If you __________________ (not / want) to go out, I __________________ (cook) dinner at home. 11. I __________________ (come) early if you __________________ (want). 12. They __________________ (go) to the party if they __________________ (be) invited. 13. She __________________ (stay) in London if she __________________ (get) a job. 14. He __________________ (not / get) a better job if he __________________ (not / pass) that exam. 15. I __________________ (buy) a new dress if I __________________ (have) enough money. 16. She __________________ (cook) dinner if you __________________ (go) to the supermarket. 17. They __________________ (go) on holiday if they __________________ (have) time. 18. We __________________ (be) late if we __________________ (not / hurry). 19. She __________________ (take) a taxi if it __________________ (rain).
  • 6. 20. I __________________ (not / go) if you __________________ (not / come) with me. THE SECOND CONDITIONAL The second conditional uses the past simple after if, then 'would' and the base: if + past simple, ...would + base To give advice we can use 'were' instead of 'was' with 'I' and 'he/she/it'. If I were rich, I would buy a castle. Si fuera rico, compraría un castillo. If I were him, I would go and see a doctor. Si fuera él -en su lugar- consultaría con un médico. It has two uses. First, we can use it to talk about things in the future that are probably not going to be true. Maybe I'm imagining some dream for example. If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.(I probably won't win the lottery) If I met the Queen of England, I would say hello. She would travel all over the world if she were rich. She would pass the exam if she ever studied.(She never studies, so this won't happen) Second, we can use it to talk about something in the present which is impossible, because it's not true. Is that clear? Have a look at the examples: If I had his number, I would call him. (I don't have his number now, so it's impossible for me to call him). If I were you, I wouldn't go out with that man. C. Put the verb into the correct second conditional form: 1. If I _________________ (be) you, I _________________ (get) a new job. 2. If he _________________ (be) younger, he _________________ (travel) more. 3. If we _________________ (not / be) friends, I _________________ (be) angry with you. 4. If I _________________ (have) enough money, I _________________ (buy) a big house. 5. If she _________________ (not / be) always so late, she _________________
  • 7. (be) promoted. 6. If we _________________ (win) the lottery, we _________________ (travel) the world. 7. If you _________________ (have) a better job, we _________________ (be) able to buy a new car 8. If I _________________ (speak) perfect English, I _________________ (have) a good job. 9. If we _________________ (live) in Mexico, I _________________ (speak) Spanish. 10. If she _________________ (pass) the exam, she _________________ (be) able to enter university. 11. She _________________ (be) happier if she _________________ (have) more friends. 12. We _________________ (buy) a house if we _________________ (decide) to stay here. 13. They _________________ (have) more money if they _________________ (not / buy) so many clothes 14. We _________________ (come) to dinner if we _________________ (have) time. 15. She _________________ (call) him if she _________________ (know) his number. 16. They _________________ (go) to Spain on holiday if they _______________ (like) hot weather. 17. She _________________ (pass) the exam if she _________________ (study) more. 18. I _________________ (marry) someone famous if I _________________ (be) a movie star. 19. We never _________________ (be) late again if we _________________ (buy) a new car. 20. You _________________ (lose) weight if you _________________ (eat) less. THE THIRD CONDITIONAL We make the third conditional by using the past perfect after 'if' and then 'would have' and the past participle in the second part of the sentence: if + past perfect, ...would + have + past participle It talks about the past. It's used to describe a situation that didn't happen, and to imagine the result of this situation. If she had studied, she would have passed the exam (but, really we know she didn't study and so she didn't pass) If I hadn't eaten so much, I wouldn't have felt sick (but I did eat a lot, and so I did feel sick). If we had taken a taxi, we wouldn't have missed the plane She wouldn't have been tired if she had gone to bed earlier
  • 8. She would have become a teacher if she had gone to university He would have been on time for the interview if he had left the house at nine D. Put in the correct third conditional verb form: 1. If you ______________ (not / be) late, we ______________ (not / miss) the bus. 2. If she ______________ (study), she ______________ (pass) the exam. 3. If we ______________ (arrive) earlier, we ______________ (see) John. 4. If they ______________ (go) to bed early, they ______________ (not / wake) up late. 5. If he ______________ (become) a musician, he ______________ (record) a CD. 6. If she ______________ (go) to art school, she ______________ (become) a painter. 7. If I ______________ (be) born in a different country, I ______________ (learn) to speak a different language. 8. If she ______________ (go) to university, she ______________ (study) French. 9. If we ______________ (not / go) to the party, we ______________ (not /meet) them. 10. If he ______________ (take) the job, he ______________ (not / go) travelling. 11. He ______________ (be) happier if he ______________ (stay) at home. 12. She ______________ (pass) the exam if she ______________ (study) harder. 13. We ______________ (not / get) married if we ______________ (not / go) to the same university. 14. They ______________ (be) late if they ______________ (not / take) a taxi. 15. She ______________ (not / meet) him if she ______________ (not / come) to London. 16. He ______________ (take) a taxi if he ______________ (have) enough money. 17. I ______________ (call) you if I ______________ (not / forget) my phone. 18. We ______________ (come) if we ______________ (be) invited. 19. She ______________ (not / do) it if she ______________ (know) you were ill. 20. He ______________ (be) on time if he ______________ (leave) earlier. Mixed Conditionals E. Finish the sentences with a clause in the correct conditional: 1: If it is sunny tomorrow _______________________________________________ 2: If you sit in the sun too long __________________________________________ 3: If I were you _______________________________________________________ 4: If I were the Prime Minister ___________________________________________ 5: If she had studied harder _____________________________________________ 6: If I won the lottery __________________________________________________ 7: If I hadn’t gone to bed so late _________________________________________ 8: If I hadn’t come to London ___________________________________________ 9: If you mix water and electricity ________________________________________ 10: If she hadn’t stayed at home __________________________________________ 11: If I go out tonight___________________________________________________ 12: If I were on holiday today ____________________________________________ 13: If I had listened to my mother _________________________________________
  • 9. 14: If I hadn’t eaten so much _____________________________________________ 15: If it rains later ______________________________________________________ 16: If I were British ____________________________________________________ 17: If I were the opposite sex ____________________________________________ 18: If I have enough money ______________________________________________ 19: If you don’t wear a coat in the winter ___________________________________ 20: If I weren’t studying English __________________________________________
  • 10. 14: If I hadn’t eaten so much _____________________________________________ 15: If it rains later ______________________________________________________ 16: If I were British ____________________________________________________ 17: If I were the opposite sex ____________________________________________ 18: If I have enough money ______________________________________________ 19: If you don’t wear a coat in the winter ___________________________________ 20: If I weren’t studying English __________________________________________