Man lives on the surface where conditions for
the growth of life are favourable.
Atmosphere- gaseous envelope that surrounds
the earth’s surface
Hydrosphere- water portion which covers about
71% of the surface of the earth
Lithosphere- solid potion of the earth
Biosphere- life sphere which is composed of
plants and animals
Geography: from the Greek word “geographia”;
Science of the earth and its life especially the
description of land, sea and air, and the
distribution of plants and animas including man
and his industries with reference to the mutual
relations of these diverse elements
“land and people”
Man is the architect of the earth’s surface
Study of the earth as the home of man
Cultural environment: man-made features
Geographic environment: physical environment
and its relationship with man’s culture
Herodotus: Father of History and Geography;
he always placed historic events on their
1. Man’s exploration in space through the man-made
satellites is dubbed as the new frontier of
2. Physical geography: consists of the systematic
study of the origin, distribution, and significance of
the major physical features of the earth such as
climates, landforms, oceans, and natural resources.
3. Human or cultural geography: gives emphasis to
the study of man’s imprints upon the earth such as
the population, settlement patterns, and the
features resulting from man’s productive activities
in earning living.
4. Sir Patrick Geddes called geography the “synthesis and
mother of all sciences.” As a natural science, it finds
common ground with geology, biology, astronomy,
meteorology, pedology, and oceanography. Among the
social sciences and the humanities, it is linked with
history, economics, political science, anthropology,
sociology, and demography.
5. Emmanual Kant called it “the basis of history”.
6. Professor Houston: geography is the study of the earth
and its relation to the solar system, government, society
and nature. Geography is the core in the unity of
knowledge and the queen of the sciences.
1. Geography as a Natural Science.
Geography belongs to the field of natural
science because the physical earth is its central
theme. Together with geology, they constitute
the twin earth sciences. While geography takes
up the study of the surface of the earth and its
relation to the manifold activities of man,
geology takes up the study of the history of the
earth and its inhabitants as they are recorded in
2. Geography as Social Science. Geography is
history in place and history as geography in time.
Geography takes up the study of man as the
architect of the earth’s surface.
3. Geography as Humanities. Humanities is the
study of the intangible achievements of man as
distinguished from his material
accomplishments. The cultural elements of
geography include the study of man’s
institutions, such as language, religion, and fine
arts, which are within the domain of the
1. Climatology: study of the climates of the world
and their relationship to man’s activities;
related to meteorology which is the study of
2. Biogeography: study of the physical
environment and its relationship to the plant
and animal life; related to biology and ecology.
3. Geomorphology: study of the origin and
classification of the landforms of the earth;
related to geology
4. Mathematical Geography: study of the
measurement of the size and shape of the earth
as a member of the solar system. It includes
some aspects of cartography which portrays the
location and features of any place or region on a