Development In Practice

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A presentation given to M.A. students at NUI Galway on how to do development in practice, with special attention to the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector. Consideration of ASM as a sector, …

A presentation given to M.A. students at NUI Galway on how to do development in practice, with special attention to the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector. Consideration of ASM as a sector, impediments to development of the ASM sector, and principles to mobilise in the field. Please contact Estelle Levin at estellelevin@hotmail.com for permission to use.

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  • Offer my clients ways of mobilising natural resources in ways which deliver on commercial or economic ambitions without undermining social or ecological resiliency. Areas of expertise : Natural resources governance, Minerals, e.g. policy, governance, political economy, CSR smallholder and subsistence production systems, e.g. ASM Conflict minerals Sustainable supply chains Community-driven development Development Programme Planning & Management Programme and project design, implementation, evaluation. Research design, implementation and analysis oriented at strategic decision-making. Inclusive community development planning, research, and consultations. CSR strategy and assessment Ethical product development, e.g. fair trade minerals Multi-stakeholder processes, stakeholder engagement & corporate responsibility Fundraising Core lenses : Human Geographer Sustainability theory and praxis Political economy & political ecology Participatory methodologies 10 years working on natural resources & development; 8 years in the field
  • Who pays me Vs. Who I serve
  • Livelihood strategies: full-time / part-time, year-round or seasonally, permanently or temporarily, by itself or in combination with other livelihoods, e.g. farming Rush mining happens in response to new mineral finds, escalating diamond prices, or a deteriorating economic context, and is characterised by unstable communities which are prone to conflict, often bringing more harm than damage to the local environment and communities; Temporary ASM is fuelled by emergency situations, e.g. Zimbabwe, DRC, characterised by high population flows in initially unstable communities that may disappear after time or evolve into long-term settlements; Isolated, remote ASM activities have little or no involvement with nearby communities, e.g. bush mining in the perimeter of Kono District in Sierra Leone; Seasonal ASM within the agricultural cycle is possibly the most common type of ASM and normally involves stable communities; Traditional year-round ASM activities are generally associated with stable communities for whom ASM forms part of a traditional diversified livelihood.
  • Livelihood strategies: full-time / part-time, year-round or seasonally, permanently or temporarily, by itself or in combination with other livelihoods, e.g. farming Rush mining happens in response to new mineral finds, escalating diamond prices, or a deteriorating economic context, and is characterised by unstable communities which are prone to conflict, often bringing more harm than damage to the local environment and communities; Temporary ASM is fuelled by emergency situations, e.g. Zimbabwe, DRC, characterised by high population flows in initially unstable communities that may disappear after time or evolve into long-term settlements; Isolated, remote ASM activities have little or no involvement with nearby communities, e.g. bush mining in the perimeter of Kono District in Sierra Leone; Seasonal ASM within the agricultural cycle is possibly the most common type of ASM and normally involves stable communities; Traditional year-round ASM activities are generally associated with stable communities for whom ASM forms part of a traditional diversified livelihood.
  • Livelihood strategies: full-time / part-time, year-round or seasonally, permanently or temporarily, by itself or in combination with other livelihoods, e.g. farming Rush mining happens in response to new mineral finds, escalating diamond prices, or a deteriorating economic context, and is characterised by unstable communities which are prone to conflict, often bringing more harm than damage to the local environment and communities; Temporary ASM is fuelled by emergency situations, e.g. Zimbabwe, DRC, characterised by high population flows in initially unstable communities that may disappear after time or evolve into long-term settlements; Isolated, remote ASM activities have little or no involvement with nearby communities, e.g. bush mining in the perimeter of Kono District in Sierra Leone; Seasonal ASM within the agricultural cycle is possibly the most common type of ASM and normally involves stable communities; Traditional year-round ASM activities are generally associated with stable communities for whom ASM forms part of a traditional diversified livelihood.
  • Livelihood strategies: full-time / part-time, year-round or seasonally, permanently or temporarily, by itself or in combination with other livelihoods, e.g. farming Rush mining happens in response to new mineral finds, escalating diamond prices, or a deteriorating economic context, and is characterised by unstable communities which are prone to conflict, often bringing more harm than damage to the local environment and communities; Temporary ASM is fuelled by emergency situations, e.g. Zimbabwe, DRC, characterised by high population flows in initially unstable communities that may disappear after time or evolve into long-term settlements; Isolated, remote ASM activities have little or no involvement with nearby communities, e.g. bush mining in the perimeter of Kono District in Sierra Leone; Seasonal ASM within the agricultural cycle is possibly the most common type of ASM and normally involves stable communities; Traditional year-round ASM activities are generally associated with stable communities for whom ASM forms part of a traditional diversified livelihood.
  • Bad governance and the resource curse Supply chain complexity + poor state capacity + poor legislation  bad governance & corruption Protection rackets, shadow state, predatory state  diamonds retard development Violence and insecurity Insecurity of title  defend access to productive sites through violence Value of diamonds and gold  theft & murder Rush situations breed criminality and immoral behaviour Trading and finance Credit  debt Miners get poor prices (credit, lack of competition, lack of knowledge, price fixing, middle men) Health and safety Poor understanding of risks or risk management Faith in religious practices Accidents extremely common Protective gear inadequate, machinery unmaintained Environmental health issues Child labour Western conceptions vs. reality Gender issues Women often confined to less productive / support positions Rush mining Environmental Damage Poverty Trap
  • POVERTY is as much cultural as it is economic DEVELOPMENT: What does it mean? Western concepts: State-led; Industry-led African concepts: Food security; Household resiliency; dignity; choice; not farming ECONOMIC GROWTH: the issue is how it is achieved (what route a country chooses) and what ultimate ends it's supposed to serve. Taking a view of 'growth is development' is so dangerous, as it induces the view that growth is good at all costs . We see growth as an end, not a means . How much growth is enough? Countries aim for as much as possible. Unrealistic economic growth ambitions encourage governments to favour drastic actions (e.g. in the interests of big, foreign mining companies rather than nurturing their own nascent sectors). These actions create long-term damage to social and ecological resiliency for short-term economic and political gains . This damage is often traumatic for the affected communities, individuals, and ecosystems. F ocusing on (as much) growth (as possible) as the ultimate indicator and driver of development often erodes the socio-cultural and ecological commons on which longer-term economic and social wellbeing rest, and thus it is actually impoverishing when you take a holistic perspective. I favour approaches which seek to build on and develop longer-term economic and socio-cultural resiliency and
  • What happens when a development project comes to town? Political and economic opportunism Partial engagement Privileged few get to feed into, direct, and benefit Expectations get created People give their time – very precious Different clients require different outcomes Different stakeholders See development differently Have divergent goals, beliefs, interests Different concepts of time, entitlement, justice Have different capitals at their disposal, e.g. HUMAN: skills, knowledge, physical ability FINANCIAL: savings, liquidity, loans SOCIAL: political influence, identity markers NATURAL: access to land and resources PHYSICAL: access to telecommunications, roads, electricity, etc. i.e. They have different risk profiles and different potentials Unbalanced communication flows
  • Unachievable laws Reality vs. the law legal is not possible  insecurity of tenure, corruption, short-termism Unachievable time-scales Unrealistically short Funding fashions go by political time-frames Extremely damaging e.g. CBFF, PDA, LGL Imposition of external models Can lead to outright failures Inadequate problem identification and comprehension Lack of integration of local interests, values and beliefs in problem-solving Minimal risk planning Inadequate local ownership and capacity building Or cultural imperialism Imposition of structures to please western consumers’ concepts of development, e.g. some certification / advocacy campaigns
  • Timothy Mitchell, Rule of Experts – technopolitics gives language to fall back on that gives the illusion of expertise.

Transcript

  • 1. Development in Practice Estelle Levin Presentation at NUI Galway 4 th March 2010 Sierra Leone © Estelle Levin, 2004 & 2007
  • 2. Outline
    • Who am I?
      • Scope of my work
      • Clients
    • ASM
      • What is artisanal mining?
      • Who are the artisanal miners?
      • Types of artisanal mining
      • Why do ASM?
      • ASM as development opportunity
      • Development challenges in ASM
      • Which institutions are interested
      • Development approaches to ASM
    • Impediments to development in ASM
      • Problematic concepts
      • Relationships of Power
      • Idealism
      • Prejudice
    • Principles to mobilise in the field
    © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 3.
    • Employment:
    • 1999 MA (Hons) Geography, Edi.
    • 2000-1 Clarkson Research Services
    • 2002 Foundation Human Nature
    • 2002-5 MA Geography, UBC
    • 2005 World Bank
    • 2006 Gorilla Organisation
    • 2006 - 10 Consultant
    • Country Work Experience (2002-10):
    • Ecuador, Brazil. Desk-work on Bolivia, Peru, Colombia.
    • Mongolia.
    • Côte d’Ivoire, Tanzania, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Angola, DRC, Sierra Leone, Madagascar
    • Canada, USA, Europe
    My background © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 4.
    • Areas of expertise :
    • Natural resources policy, governance, political economy
      • Smallholder and subsistence production systems, e.g. ASM
      • Conflict minerals
    • Development Programme Planning & Management
      • Community-driven development
      • Multi-stakeholder processes, stakeholder engagement & corporate responsibility
    • CSR strategy and assessment
    • Sustainable supply chains
      • Ethical product development, e.g. fair trade minerals
    • Fundraising
    • Core lenses :
    • Human Geographer
    • Sustainability theory and praxis
    • Political economy & political ecology
    • Participatory methodologies
    • 10 years working on natural resources & development; 8 years in the field
    Scope of my Work © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 5.
    • Development agencies
      • Multilateral
        • World Bank (CASM)
        • UNECA (DFID)
      • Bilateral
        • BGR
        • DFID
    • Private Sector
      • Mining companies
        • Lihir Gold Ltd, Côte d’Ivoire
        • Target Resources plc, Sierra Leone
        • Anglogold Ashanti, DRC
      • Jewellers
        • Cred Jewellery
        • Urth Solution
    Selected clients Workshop with gold miners, Sierra Leone © Estelle Levin, 2009
    • NGOs
      • Conservation & Environmental Sustainability
        • The Gorilla Organization
        • WWF
        • FESS
      • Conflict Minerals
        • PAC
        • Global Witness
      • Fair Trade
        • Alliance for Responsible Mining (ARM)
        • Fairtrade Labelling Organisation (FLO)
        • Transfair USA
      • Development
        • PACT
    © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 6.
    • What is artisanal mining?
    • Who are the artisanal miners?
    • Types of artisanal mining
    • Why do people do ASM?
    • ASM as a development opportunity
    • Key development challenges in ASM
    • Key institutions in ASM
    • Key development approaches to ASM
    Artisanal and Small-scale Mining © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 7. Mining Sector Typology From Levin, Mitchell & MacFarlane (2008) Feasibility Study for the Development of a Fair Trade Standard and Certification System for Transfair USA © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use Profit Profit Profit Profit Survival / Subsistence Survival / Subsistence Owner’s Motivation Minority/majority national government Minority/majority national government Majority foreign, Minority local / national (private or local or national government) Majority local, minority foreign No No Possible joint venture partner in mine? Mechanised Mechanised Mechanised Mechanised (machinery may not be state-of-the-art) Semi-mechanised (rudimentary tools, basic poorly maintained machinery) Unmechanised Semi-mechanised (rudimentary tools, basic, poorly maintained machinery) Technology Assets >US$1 billion Assets > US $100m Annual throughput > 100,000 tonnes ore Assets <US$100m Annual throughput <100,000 tonnes ore Assets <US$100m Annual throughput <100,000 tonnes ore Assets <$0.5m Assets <US$50,000 Capital Hired labour Hired labour Hired labour Hired labour Owner operator Supported labour Some hired labour Owner operator Supported labour Some hired labour Owner-operator or hired labour Formal, Legal Professional corporate Formal, Legal Professional corporate Formal, Legal Professional corporate Formal, Legal Professional Informal, illegal Formal, Legal Semi-professional Informal, Illegal Unprofessional Level of Professionalism Organised Organised Organised Organised Organised artisanal miners Individuals Limited organisation (family groups, small gangs) Level of Organisation Large-scale companies / mines Medium-scale companies / mines Foreign owned small-scale companies / mines Locally owned small-scale companies / mines Micro-mining Subsistence artisanal miners Type of Organisation
  • 8. 1. What is artisanal mining?
    • ASM is often distinguished from larger operations based on:
    • MINING
    • Shallower workings
    • Smaller concessions
    • Highly labour intensive
    • Requires low capital investment
    • Rudimentary tools
    • Absence or limited use of machinery
    • Informal, often unregulated, and, in many countries, illegal;
    • Health & safety procedures largely absent
    • Environmental protection measures largely absent
    • Often co-located with corporate operations
    Artisanal diamond miners, Sierra Leone © Estelle Levin, 2004 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 9. Extraction
    • Surface / underground
    • Sedimentary / hard rock
    • Manual / mechanised
    • Individuals / gangs / family units
    • cooperatives / associations / companies
    Artisanal diamond and gold mining, Sierra Leone Underground emerald mining, Brazil © Estelle Levin, 2007, 2009 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 10. Processing
    • Hard rock
      • Sorting
      • Crushing / milling
      • Panning
      • Purifying / concentrating
    • Sedimentary
      • Gravimetric concentration, e.g. sluices
      • Panning
    Artisanal gold mining, Cote d’Ivoire © Estelle Levin, 2010 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 11. 2. Who are the artisanal miners?
    • 20-30 million people in >60 countries
    • Poor, vulnerable people; Women and children; Young men
    • Case study: Ivory Coast 2010
    • Immigrants:
      • Professional orpailleurs from other gold mining sites which are believed to be less productive
      • Internally Displaced People who fled the war and have no land to farm locally
      • Mechanics, drivers, and other professionals seeking work with the corporate mine;
    • Residents:
      • Cacao traders or wives of cacao traders who have gotten into debt
      • Students who need to pay their tuition fees.
      • Unemployed youths who cannot find work elsewhere and cannot or do not want to work in family plantations.
      • Agricultural contract labourers .
      • Female heads of households , e.g. widows, single mothers
      • Housewives whose husbands can no longer afford to support the whole family
      • Uneducated girls
      • Market traders who realised they could earn more panning gold.
    Artisanal gold miner (caillou hunter), Ivory Coast Photo © Estelle Levin, 2010 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 12. 3. Types of artisanal mining
    • All minerals
    • 5 types of ASM:
      • Rush mining
      • Temporary ASM
      • Isolated, remote ASM
      • Seasonal ASM
      • Traditional year-round ASM activities
    • Hentschel et al. (2003)
    Artisanal gold mining, Cote d’Ivoire © Estelle Levin, 2010 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 13. 4. Why do people do ASM?
    • Flexibility
    • Cash
    • Subsistence
    • Relief, e.g. emergency, recession
    • Limited choices: unskilled, uneducated
    • Emancipation
    • Hope & dignity
    Underground gold miners, Ivory Coast © Estelle Levin, 2010 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Social & Political illegitimacy DISEMPOWERMENT Social & political legitimacy EMPOWERMENT 5. ASM as Development Opportunity INTERVENTION INTERVENTION INTERVENTION © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use Diagram adapted from Levin & Mitchell (2009) Transfair USA Fairtrade Diamond Feasibility Study , powerpoint presentation given to key stakeholders in New York, February 2009
  • 15. 6. Key development challenges in ASM
    • Bad governance and the resource curse
    • Violence and insecurity
    • Trading and finance
    • Health and safety
    • Child labour
    • Gender issues
    Kasese Salt Mines, Uganda © Estelle Levin, 2007
    • Rush mining
    • Poverty trap
    • ASM & Agriculture
    • Environmental damage
    • Invasion of protected areas
    • Invasion of corporate concessions
    © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 16. 7. Which institutions are interested?
    • End Users
      • Electronics & ICT
      • Jewellers
    • Competitors
      • LSM
    • Country Governments
      • National
      • Local
      • Traditional
    Mining companies and development organisations, Sierra Leone © Estelle Levin, 2009
    • Development agencies
      • Bilateral
      • Multilateral
    • NGOs
      • Human rights
      • Advocacy
      • Conflict minerals
      • Conservation
      • Development
    • Fair trade organisations
    © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 17. 8. Key development approaches to ASM
    • Industrialisation and eradication
        • Sierra Leone, Madagascar, Tanzania
    • Revision of Law and Formalisation
        • World Bank various, e.g. Madagascar, Tz & Ug SMMRP
    • Minerals certification
        • ARM/FLO’s Fairtrade gold
        • Transfair’s Fair Trade diamonds
        • BGR’s certified trading chains
    • Training in responsible mining
        • UNIDO Global Mercury Program
        • Proyecto Gama, Peru
    • Corporate Social Responsibility
        • De Beers MCDP (‘Mwadui’), various in DRC, etc.
    • Environmental Reclamation
        • FESS, Sierra Leone;
        • Oro Verde, Colombia
    Formal gold miner and APM ‘Fair Trade’ Gold Centre, Tanzania Gold miners learning about responsible ASM, Sierra Leone © Estelle Levin, 2008, 2009 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 18. Impediments to development
    • Problematic concepts
    • Relationships of Power
    • Idealism
    • Prejudice
    © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 19. 1. Problematic Concepts
    • Poverty
    • Development
    • Economic Growth
    • Consultation
    • Formalisation
    • Corporate Social Responsibility
    • Knowledge Transfer
    Freedom / Lack of Choice Sustainability Economic Resiliency Participation Professionalisation Corporate Accountability Knowledge Exchange Malagasy tourmaline miners © Estelle Levin, 2007 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 20. 2. Relationships of Power
    • Different clients require different outcomes
    • Different stakeholders
      • See development differently
      • Have divergent goals, beliefs, interests
        • Different concepts of time, entitlement, justice
      • Have different capitals at their disposal
      • i.e. They have different risk profiles and different potentials
    • Outcomes
    • Unbalanced communication flows
    • Empowerment of elites
    • Impoverishment of vulnerable
    • Disappointment, disillusionment, mistrust
    Ministry of Energy and Minerals, Tanzania Landowner and his wife, Tanzania © Estelle Levin, 2008 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 21. 3. Idealism
    • Unachievable laws
    • Unachievable time-scales
    • Imposition of external models
      • Can lead to outright failures
      • Or cultural imperialism
    Artisanal diamond mining, Sierra Leone © Estelle Levin, 2006 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 22. 4. Prejudice
    • CONSULTANTS:
      • “ I have studied Development; I know better!”
      • “ I am European; I know better!”
      • “ So long as I deal with the authorities / principal ethnic groups / elders, I am dealing with the people.”
      • “ I interviewed women so I have their perspectives.”
    • STAKEHOLDERS:
    • Access to information
    • Quality of information
      • Trust
      • Truth
    • Physical security
    • ATTITUDE
    • Aware but not paranoid
    • (Self-)critical but not excessively
    • Humble but confident
    • Curious but respectful
    • Sceptical but adaptable,
    • Patient but not too indulgent
    © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 23. Principles I try to mobilise in the field
    • SUSTAINABILITY vs. DEVELOPMENT; RESILIENCY vs. GROWTH
    • PEOPLE are central
    • PROCESS and PARTICIPATION!
      • Planning, implementation, evaluation
      • Why, what, how, who, why
    • SCALE MATTERS
    • PRECAUTIOUS:
      • Plan for the real,
      • Consider capacities, interests, prejudices
    • Seek sufficiency, not excess
    • Measuring successful development
      • AGENCY : stakeholders’ capacity to direct their social and economic worlds
      • FREEDOM : what are people’s realistic choices for a.) coping with hardship and b.) improving their lives over time?
      • DIGNITY : stakeholders’ self-image
      • EXCHANGE : mutual benefits
      • UNDERSTANDING : stakeholder appraisal
      • RESILIENCY : improving individual, household, and societal security
    Artisanal gold panners, Sierra Leone © Estelle Levin, 2009 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use
  • 24. Thank you! [email_address] +44 7876 74 3587 Sierra Leone © Estelle Levin, 2004 & 2007 © Estelle Levin, 2009. Please contact [email_address] for permission to use