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GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre
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GNSS and Positioning for the Future - Kai Borre

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Press Conference, Rome 21 Dec 2012. …

Press Conference, Rome 21 Dec 2012.
Kai Borre, Professor Department of Electronics, Danish GPS Center, Aalborg University, Denmark

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  • 1. DANISH GPS CENTER GNSS and Positioning for the Future Kai Borre Danish GPS Center, Aalborg University, Denmark
  • 2. DANISH GPS CENTER GNSS Development Schedule • GPS and GLONASS evolved slowly in the first decades • In the last decade the development of space and ground control segments is intense 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 2 Test & deployment GPS III GPS II 202020122010 2015 COMPASS COMPASS 1 (end date unknown) Test & deployment of L5 GPS III FOC L1C FOC L5 FOC L2C Full Operational Capability (FOC) GLONASS Full Operational Capability (FOC) COMPASS 2 test & depl. COMPASS 2/3, regional service; global service depl. COMPASS 3 FOC New signals FOC SDCM design/tests GLONASS-M (launched until 2012) GLONASS-K2 (KM after 2015) New: L1OC, L3OC, L1SC, L2SC (CDMA), SAR GLONASS-K1 New: L3OC (CDMA), SAR Galileo launch Sys. testbed v1/v2 IOV Deployment Galileo operational SDCM fully deployed 18 SV OC Test & deployment of L1C Test & deploym. of L2C, staged roll-out of CNAV Courtesy of Darius Plaušinaitis
  • 3. DANISH GPS CENTERThe Menu of Future GNSS Signals • Originally GPS and GLONASS offered one civilian signal on one carrier • Future GNSS offer system diversity and frequency diversity System Signal Carrier frequency [MHz] Component Type Data rate [sps/bps] Modulation Chipping rate [Mcps] Code length [chips] Full length [ms] GLONASS L1 OF 1605.375- 1609.3125 standard Data -/50 BPSK 0.511 511 1 SF high accur. Military 5.11 COMPASS B1 1575.42 B1-CD Open 100/50 MBOC(6,1,1/11) 1.023 B1-CP -/- B1 Authorized 100/50 BOC(14,2) 2.046 -/- Galileo E1 1575.42 A PRS cosBOC(15,2.5) 2.5575 B Data, SOL 250/125 CBOC(6,1,1/11) 1.023 4092 4 C Pilot, SOL -/- 4092 * 25 100 GLONASS L1 OC/SC 1575.42 GPS L1 1575.42 C/A Data -/50 BPSK 1.023 1023 1 P(Y) Military BPSK 10.23 7 days 7 days M BOC(10,5) 5.115 Galileo E6 1278.75 A PRS cosBOC(10,5) B Data 1000/500 BPSK(5) 5.115 5115 1 C Pilot -/- 5115 * 100 100 COMPASS B3 1268.52 B3 Authorized -/500 QPSK(10) 10.23 B3-AD 100/50 BOC(15,2.5) 2.5575 B3-AP -/- GLONASS L2 OF 1242.9375- 1248.1875 standard Data -/50 BPSK 0.511 511 1 SF high accur. Military 5.11 GPS L2 1227.6 L2 CM Data 50/25 or -/50 TM and BPSK 0.5115 10230 20 L2 CL Pilot -/- 767250 1500 P(Y) Military BPSK 10.23 7 days 7 days M BOC(10,5) 5.115 GLONASS L3 OC 1207.14 QBSK(10) GLONASS L3 OF/SF 1201.743- 1208.088 COMPASS B2 1191.795 B2aD Open 50/25 AltBOC(15,10) 10.23 B2aP -/- B2bD 100/50 B2bP -/- Galileo E5 (1191.795) E5a 1176.45 a-I Data 50/25 AltBOC(15,10) 10.23 10230 * 20 20 a-Q Pilot -/- 10230 * 100 100 E5b 1207.14 b-I Data, SOL 250/150 10230 * 4 4 b-Q Pilot, SOL -/- 10230 * 100 100 GPS L5 1176.45 I Data 100/50 QPSK 10.23 10230 1 Q Pilot -/- 1 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 3 Courtesy of Darius Plaušinaitis
  • 4. DANISH GPS CENTER GNSS Signal Changes • Increasing requirements to positioning, increasing number of systems ask for redesign of GNSS signals 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 4 – New modulations are needed due to • More heavy shearing of spectrum • More signals per carrier • Improved ranging performance – New PRN code generators (Kazami, Weil, Neuman-Hoffman) are considered in addition to the traditional Gold codes • Several signals in a system and several systems are using the same carrier • Better performance of week signals • Better interference performance • Better ranging performance Figure source – “GPS World” GNSS L1 (carrier) spectrum
  • 5. DANISH GPS CENTERGlobal Navigation Satellite Systems • GPS (II – 1980) • GLONASS (1993) • COMPASS • Galileo 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 5 2006 ~1981 • 80’s-90’s – the first professional GPS + GLONASS receivers • 2011 – “launch year” for the first consumer, mobile phone GPS + GLONASS receiver chips (from Qualcomm, Broadcom, ST- Ericsson, u-blox and others)
  • 6. DANISH GPS CENTER Relative Accuracy of Clocks • Clock stability influences signal and observation related parameters 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 6 Clock type Applications Relative accuracy [s/s] Temperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) Watches, clocks, consumer GNSS receivers, mobile phones 10-6 – 5×10-7 Oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO) Geodetic GNSS receivers 10-7 – 10-8 GPS disciplined oscillator (GPSDO) – GPS + above clock Time and frequency synchronization 10-9 – 10-12 Chip scale atomic clock (CSAC) Future high performance GNSS receivers 5×10-12 Rubidium atomic clock Special space and terrestrial applications that require extra high stability and accuracy 10-11 – 10-12 Cesium atomic clock 10-12 – 10-13 Hydrogen maser Space (new application) and terrestrial applications 10-15 – 10-16
  • 7. DANISH GPS CENTER Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) • The primary driver for SBAS is aviation applications that require high safety • SBAS provides services that are not available in GPS or other existing systems 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 7 – DGPS type corrections for improved standard receiver precision – Massive signal integrity monitoring and user alert in less than 6 seconds from the start of an integrity failure – Other system safety and service quality data that are vital for reliable positioning
  • 8. DANISH GPS CENTERSpace Based Augmentation Systems • Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), USA • European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) • System for Differential Correction and Monitoring (SDCM), Russia • GPS And Geo-Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system, India • Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), Japan • Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS), Japan 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 8
  • 9. DANISH GPS CENTER Alternative Systems • Research and development continuously adapt to or modify existing systems to provide positioning services – Legacy ground based systems (no perspectives) – WiFi (very limited capabilities) – Mobile Networks (does not meet today’s GNSS precision level, new versions under development) – TV (DVB) signals based – Proprietary, local (for example LOCATA) – New methods based on GPS+LEO satellites (for example Boeing Timing & Location) 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 9
  • 10. DANISH GPS CENTERBoeing Timing & Location (BTL) I • BTL Geo-location builds on Transit heritage. It complements GPS with an enhanced version of the existing Iridium system • BTL Geo-location provides key technical advantages in 2 parts – (GPS-based systems can not do this) – Iridium signal power (BTL) >> GPS – Iridium penetrates buildings better – Spot beams form unique local contours. Extremely difficult to spoof (today spoofing is of big concern for civil applications in the GNSS world) 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 10
  • 11. DANISH GPS CENTERBoeing Timing & Location (BTL) II 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 11
  • 12. DANISH GPS CENTERBoeing Timing & Location (BTL) III 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 12 Figure source – Wikipedia
  • 13. DANISH GPS CENTER Receiver Development 14/12/2011 Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 13
  • 14. DANISH GPS CENTERCurrent Receiver Development Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 14 2007 Future Research and development 2008-2010 •Snapshot techniques •High sensitivity •Multi-system & multi- frequency receiver •Multipath mitigation •Antenna arrays •Further SDR development •GNSS integrity •Integration of other positioning methods 14/12/2011
  • 15. DANISH GPS CENTER Matlab SDR Plots Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 15 4 4.005 4.01 4.015 4.02 4.025 4.03 4.035 x 10 4 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 Samples (time) Correlation Real correlation result from GNSS SDR -1 0 1 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 Code Offset [chips] Correlation Theoretical correlation 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 Acquisition results PRN number (no bar - SV is not in the acquisition list) AcquisitionMetric Not acquired signals Acquired signals 14/12/2011
  • 16. DANISH GPS CENTER Matlab SDR Conclusions • An extremely convenient educational tool • Quick prototyping – A demo acquisition for Galileo in less than an hour – Students have converted the GPS SDR to EGNOS and Galileo SDRs in ~6 months • Very convenient exploration of particular signal cases (anomalies) or algorithms because the GNSS signal record can be replayed again and again … • Acceleration of some key signal processing steps is much recommended Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 1614/12/2011
  • 17. DANISH GPS CENTER The Old Setup (Virtex IIP) • Virtex IIP 50 FPGA • GPS front-end from Simrad • 1 bit samples • 16 HW channels • Adjustable correlator spacing (on the fly) • About 50% FPGA in use • PPC cores not used Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 17 Old front-end New front- end 14/12/2011
  • 18. DANISH GPS CENTER DGC SDR Simulink Model • Simulink receiver version allows modularity and out of the box good visual representation • The modularity gives benefits similar to the Software Communications Architecture (SCA) Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 18 The adaptor block inside calls nearly unmodified C code of the FPGA receiver 14/12/2011
  • 19. DANISH GPS CENTER Simulink Model Plots Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 1914/12/2011
  • 20. DANISH GPS CENTER The ML507 Setup Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 20 Battery adapter New front-end 14/12/2011
  • 21. DANISH GPS CENTER DGC Receiver Results Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 2114/12/2011
  • 22. DANISH GPS CENTER DGC Receiver Results Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 22 4 m 8 m 14/12/2011
  • 23. DANISH GPS CENTER Future DGC Receiver Version • Universal channels for GPS, Galileo, and other GNSS signals (BOC, BPSK, and other types) • Real-time operation with optional GNSS signal recording or processing of such signal records • Possible options – Flexible support for multiple front-ends to process multiple carriers or antennas – Plotting on a PC of receiver tracking in real-time (non real- time version already exists) – Processing of other, non-GNSS signals (under consideration) • Modular design (friendly for student project) • Inspiration: AGGA-4, GNU Radio, Artus (IFEN) and others… Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 2314/12/2011
  • 24. DANISH GPS CENTER Thank You For Your Attention Also visit http://gps.aau.dk Copyright © 2011 by Kai Borre 2414/12/2011 DGC is organizing an international workshop with the same title as the present talk on August 27-September 2, 2012 at the North Sea, Denmark. Interested participants should contact borre@gps.aau.dk

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