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THE VOWEL INVENTORY centra Front back l The picture below show the mouth cavity and it is equivalent grid in which the tonge is moved up-down orback to utter the vowel sound sprea neutra rounde d l d
VOWELS DIPHTHONGS VOWEL PRODUCTION Is a speech sound When vowels occur in The aspects consederer produced by human combinations, they are to determine the vowelbeings when the breath called diphthongs, features are as follows: flows out throught Every vowel is voiced in vowels are both languages; vowel characterized by the A diphthong starts in quality are clssified as relative height/ one position and moves simple and complex.frontness of the tonge to another position or Other is tongue position:and relaativerounding viceversa. high middle low. of the lips Area these are front central or back
SPANISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central backT /i/o high /u/n tg ee n /o/ mid sp /e/ eosi lowtio /a/n Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
Phonemic and phonetic vowel contrast monophthongs Is a single vowel articulated without change in a quality throughout the course of a syllable
Spanish The fronto section of the tongue rises to make contact both both sides of the /i/ upper lateral teeth sides of the upper lateral teethEnglish Tonge is positioned forward and high in with the teeth laterally and the tip /IY/ the oral cavity with positioned behind the sides in contact the lower teethEnglish The tonge is positined forward and slightly lower, with the sides and the tip positineed behind /I/ in contact with the teeth laterally the lower teeth.
SPANISH /e/ with ENGLISH /ey/ and /ɛ/ English /ɛ/ Spanish /e/ English /ey/ The tonge is positioned The dorso section of The tonge is positioned forward and high in the the tonge reaches the forward and high in the oral cavity with the sides borders of the hard oral cavity with it is sides in contact with the palatal making a in contact with the lateral lateral teeth and the tip groove between the teeth. The lips are spread placed behind the lowertongue and the palatal. and retracted. teeth. The lips are spread and retracted.
SPANISH /a/ with ENGLISH /a/ and /æ/ English English Spanish /a/ / æ/ /a/ The dorso section of the The tonge istongue moves The tongue slightly back and upwards positioned slightly low in the oral gently to the forward and low in cavity with the tipcentral area of the oral cavity with of the tongethe oral cavity the apex positioned placing behind the tongue behind the lower the lower front remains teeth. teeth. moveless.
ENGLISH /ə/ The schwa is the common vowel in spoken english ant it is a quite short vowel sound in many ligtly pronounced unstressed syllables inmultisyllabic words. The tonge is positioned in the middle of the oral cavityOccurs in english but it does not in spanish. The schwa happens mostly as part of unstressed syllables
ENGLISH AND SPANISH DIPHTHONGS English and spanish English and spanish diphthong /ay/ diphthong /aw/ This diphthong production is This diphthong production is pretty similar in both similar in both languages. The languages. The picture picture sequence show the sequence show how the tongue moves from the low- tongue moves from the low- central position to the high- front central position to the back position. The lip change high-front position. The lips their shape from neutra to change their shape fromrounded during this diphthong neutral to spread during this production. diphthong production
ENGLISH AND SPANISH DIPHTHONG /oy/ / /ɔy/English Spanish /ɔy/ /oy/ The tongue the tongue moves from moves from mid-low the midback position backpositionto high front to the highposition. The front.lips are lips are rounded and rounded become become spread. spread.
SPANISH RISING DIPHTHONGS Is voiced,complex non adjancent glide, high front /y becoming low central tense spread becoming a/ neutral /ye Voiced complex-adjacent glide high front becoming / low front tense spreads/yo Voiced. Complex-non adjacent glide high front / becoming mid back tense spread bocoming rounded /y Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high front w/ bocoming mid back tense spread becoming rounded. Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high back/w becoming low central tense rounded becominga/ neutral Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high back/w becoming mid front tense rounded becominge/ spread./w Voiced complex non adjacent glide high back becoming high front tense rounded becomingy/ spread./w Voiced complex adjacent glide high backo/ becoming mid tense rounded.
THE CONSONANT INVENTORY Used primarily for breathing and eating secondarily for speaking constrcting airflow in the mouth at various points, we make the distinctive sounds for human speech. The vocal tract has active and passivearticulators. They are also know as articulators and points articulation. ARTICULATORY BASIS Four principal dimiensions are considered when regarding “consonant articulation” voicing articulator and point of the articulation cavity and manner.
with the soundquality produced by the vocal VOICING cords. When vocal cordsvibrated, it is said to be voiced; otherwise, it is siad to be voiceless Voiced voicelessconsonant A simple s. explanation of voiced Voiceless consonants consonants is do not used the voice. that they used They are percussive the voice. This is and hard sounds. You easy to test by can test if a consonant putting your is voiceless by putting finger on your your finger on your throat. throat
ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATION Manner The Point the ofarticulat Is the articulati cavity articulati or doer of on on the Is any part It It refers to thearticulatio of the concern way how air n and mouth s the flows out moves that can place during the freely be where production of enough reached air goes a sound. The to be by the through. sound might active in It can be stop articulator. the fricative nasal It is also be the lateral vibrant apeech. known as mouth affricateor a It is also Major or nasal continuant.known as passive cavity. The manner of Major articulator consonants ActiveArticulato
PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONSONANT CONTRAST STOP OR PLOSIVEThe active articulator English and Spanish touches the passive stops include: /p/. /b/ articuator and /p/. /d/,/k/. /g/.If /p/, completely the /t/. or/k/ are airflow through the pronounced at the mouth beginning of an English word, a strong puff of breath will be felt it is The puff of air creates a called aspiration variation of the basic phoneme in English . To prove this, say “ tip” the aspiration will be felt or move the paper slip. If /p/,/t or /k// are pronounced in the middle or end of a word, that aspiration will not be there..
PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONSONANT CONTRAST OF CONTRAST. ENGLISH AND SPANISH STOPS The active articulator touches the passive articulator and completely cuts of the airflow through the mouth. STOP OR English and spanish stops include: /p/ PLOSIVE /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/. If /p/ /t/ or /k/ are pronounced at the beginning of an english words a strong puff of breath will be felt. It is called aspiration HOMORGANIC This refers to sounds made at the SOUNDS same place of articulation literally, with the same organ.
HOMORGANIC SOUND In phonetic, this , but with most refers to sound sound the organ ismade at the same even though the ten tongue so in place of lower lip also these cases it refersarticulation, literally porduces to which point in with the same or homorganic sound the oral cavity the organ tongue is touching
EnglishPosition /p/ [ph ] [p] [pˈ] [p-] I X X X M X X X F X XThe /p/ phonemic distribution is: totalThe /p/ phonetic distribution is : partial,complementary and free variation.
/p-b/PRODUCTION PICTURE There are in fact English and Spanish /p/ several degrees of /b/ use the same organ to aspiration in english it be uttered. The dimension is quite strong in initial that makes them sound position before a differently is voicing stressed vowel as in Spanish spelling:<p> patron/ “pen” and some patron , capa /kapa/ what less strong in medial position English spelling <p> pick / pick/ happy /hæpIy/ As it is perceptible speakers d not aspirate any voiceless stop sound in word initial there are several way to position in Englishdemonstrate aspiration of the furthermore this/p/ sound in voiceless stops/P/ b// /t/ in word- final position tends to teaching the proper be pronounced like the pronunciation. voiceless
/t-d/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES. /t/ PHONEMIC AND /d/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES. PHONETIC FEATURES. BOTH SPANISH AND ENGLISH USE THE SAME PHONOLOGICAL SYMBOL /d/. IT IS, IN /t/, THE CONSONANT QUALITY DIFFERS DUE TO THE SPANISH, VOICED, APICO-DENTAL, ORAL, POINT OF ARTICULATION. THUS, SPANISH /t/ IS STOP AND HAS FOUR ALLOPHONES: [d] VOICELESS, APICO-DENTAL, ORAL, STOP. THIS PHONEME PRESENTS JUST ONE ALLOPHONE: [t] IS VOICED, APICO-DENTAL, ORAL, STOP; [-δ-]VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP AND HAS VOICED, APICO-INTERDENTAL, ORAL,SEVEN VARIANTS: [tʰ-] VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, FRICATIVE (OTHER SYMBOL IS [đ] WHICH IS ORAL, STOP, STRONGLY ASPIRATED, [-t-] VOICELESS, UTTERED WHEN FOUND BETWEEN VOWELS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP, UNASPIRATED, [- ɾ-] AFTER THE FLAP SOUND /ɾ/ AND A VOICED VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, FLAP. /t/ IS CONSONANT SOUND; [-θ] VOICELESS, BETWEEN VOWELS AND THE STRESS ISPLACED ON A APICO-INTERDENTAL, ORAL, FRICATIVE.. INPREVIOUS SYLLABLE, [- ʔ-] VOICELESS, GLOTTAL, STOP, ENGLISH, THE /d/ SOUND IS VOICED, NASAL, RELEASED WHICH OCCURS IN FINAL-WORD APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP AND THREE POSITION BETWEEN A VOWEL AND AN <-n>, v [-t] ALLOPHONES MIGHT BE FOUND: [d]VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, NASALIZED, STOP, [-t] VOICED, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP; [- VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP, UNRELEASED, AND [-t -̍] VOICELESS, APICO- ɾ-] VOICED, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, FLAP ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP, RELEASED. , (OTHER SOUND OCCURS JUST IN INTERVOCALIC POSITIONBEFORE UNEXEMPLES: UNSTRESSED SYLLABLE; r [-ʔ-] v VOICELESS, GLOTTAL, STOP, NASAL, RELEASED).SPANISH: <resta> [resta] EXEMPLE:ENGLISH: <hoped> [‘howpt] SPANISH: <d> andar /andaɾ/ ENGLISH: <d> date /‘deyt/
strongly aspirated Spanish and [-p-] voiceless, english voiceless, bilabial, oral, stop /P/ PHONETIC bilabial, oral,. Stop, unaspirated[-p’], however spanihs voiceless, bilabial,AND PHONEMIC has just one oral, stop DISTRIBUTION allophone unreleased, [-p-] [p]voiceless, voiceless, bilabial, bilabial, oral, stop, oral, stop released.
CONTRASTIVE TRANSFER ANALYSISIn light of the fact that l2pronunciation error are often caused The fact that native of Englishby the transfer of well established can recognize foreign accentsound systems, it is important to in ESL/EFL learners speech suchexamine some of the characteristic as Spanish accent or any otherphonological different between ones is a clear.Spanish and EnglishSuch observationof L2 pronunciation Although Contrastive transfererror above, in contrastive analysis assists languagesturn naturally has often been learners and teachers tosuggestion the criticized for its identify easily the soundcritical need for inadequacy to to be learned, improvedteachers to predict the transfer or emphasized in theirbecome more error that learners production in order toaware of the will make in actualimpact that have a more affective learning contextslearners level of communication.
For student who have mastered the ipa phonetic transcriptions can improve their understanding of the importance This manner ofHowever, when speaking greatlyspeaking to CONTEXTUALIZE influences, andnative speakers, sometimes evenstudent are often D PHONETIC changes, thesurprise ay how TRASCRIPTION pronunciation ofthe phonetic single word.traanscription These words have a strong and a weak form whose pronunciation will depend on some factors
STRONG AND WEAK FORMSIn connected speech, many of the smallwords we use very frequently tend to takeon a different shape from the one listed inthe dictionary.Function words are essentially closedclass words, such as pronouns,prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliaries,etc.
/B/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES Both Spanish and English Spanish has two allophones: /b/ sound is voiced, [b] voiced, bilabial, oral. bilabial, oral, stop Stop, [-b] or [-b-] are some[-β-]voiced bilabial oral, arbitrary symbols thatfricative, which ocurs can be found inafter /i7, /r/ between none official IPAvowels as well as notationbetween a vowel
Despite the fact that Spanish and English use the same phonological symbols /t/ the consonant quality differs due to the point of articulationEnglish /t/ is This phonemesvoiceless, apico presents just onedental oral, stop allophones [t] isand has seven voiceless, apicovariant [tʰ-] dental, oral, stopvoiceless, apico /t/PHONEMIC AND unaspirated.alveolar, oral, stop, PHONETIC FEATURESstrongly aspirated [-ɾ-]] [-t-] voiceless apico voiceless alveolar , apico oral, stop alveolar , unaspirated oral, flap. ([t̯][ţ]̧[r])
/d/ PONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES [d] voiced, apico –BOTH SPANISH AND ENBLISH USE THE SAME dental, oral, stop,PHONILOGICAL SYMBOLS/D7, Ts is inSpanish, voiced apico dental, oral, stop [-ð-]] voiced, apicoand has four allophones – inerdental, oral, fricativeWhich is utteredwhen found [-φ] zero allophonebetween vowels, which depending onafter the flap sound the dialect might occur/r/, and between a in middle and or finalvowel and voiced word positionconsonant sound.
The /k/ sound keeps the same features in both languages: voiceless dorsovelar, oral, stop [-k-] voiceless However, they differ in dorso velar stop./k/PHONEMIC their phonetic analysis. StronglyAND PHONETIC unaspirated FEATURES The english /k/ The Spanish /k/ has has four one allophone [k] allophones [Kʰ-] voiceless, dorso- velar, oral, stop, voiceless, dorso unaspirated. velar, oral, stop, strongly aspirated,
/g/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATUIRES Both languages have phonemically the same /g/ sound: voiced, dorso- velar. Oral, stop Spanish has three variations [g] voiced dorso- velar, oral, stop; [-ɤ-] voiced dorso- velar oral, fricative ([ɡ̷])which occurs between vowel sound after /ɾ/ and /I/. And between a vowel sound and a voiced consonant; [φzero allophones. English has one allophone: voiced dorso velar, oral, stop
CONTRAST OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH FRICATIVES When fricative souds are produced, the the airflow through articulator partially the opening becomes touches the point of turbulent. articulation and gets close enough Although the letter of different dialects Spanish has a wide <v> is part of the may face different dialectal variation, Spanish alphabet, it is pronounciationconsequently speakers pronounced like the problems stop [b] or fricative
/f/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES SPANISH ENGLISH Has two allophones Has one allophone . f/voiceless, labiodental, oral, fricative; /φ/ voiceless, bilabial, f/ voiceless, bilabial, oral, oraal, fricative which is used in fricative. free variationREMINDER: Many english.nouns ending in/f/ change inti /v/ went the plural ending is added. This process is known as a morphophonemic change. . .
/s/ PRODUCTION. /s/ voiceless, apico-alveolar, oral, fricative. /s/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES Both languages have the /s/ sound which is voiceless, apico- alveolar,oral, fricative. English variants: [s] [-s̻-]
/z/ PRODUCTION /z/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES/z/ voiced, apico- alveolar, oral, fricative Both languages have the /s/ sound which is voiceless, apico- alveolar,oral because of its positional variation fricative.In Spanish and it is an allophone. the [z] sound occurs English has one before a voiced allophone: [z] consonant sound
PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES/Ө/ The voiceless, [Ө] is voceless, apico- apico- interdental, oral,interdental, oral, fricative, / Ө /, fricative exists in both languages The English / Ө with the / sound has no distinction than phonetic in Spanish it is variation. an allophone Consequently, while in English its allophene it is a phoneme
Examples: This /ʃ/ sound English /ʃ/ PHONEMIC occurs exclusively in PropulsionAND PHONETIC /pɹə‘pəlʃən/ FEATURES English has one Permission allophone [ʃ] /pəɹmɪʃən/
/ʒ /PRODUCTION The English /ʒ //ʒ/ Sound occurs in English only middle sounds features and final position are voiced, fronto- palatal, oral Examples allophone which Garage /gəɹaʒ/, groove, fricative, keeps the same <si>ocacion /ə‘keyʒən/ and has an features as it s <s>measure /mɛʒəɹ/ allophone phoneme. <g> regime /ɹeyɪʒiym/ <z> azure /æʒəɹ
Oral Dorso velar /x /SPANISH PRODUCTION /x /Is a sound which exists particularly in Voiceless Spanish. Fricative This phoneme has three allophones [x] voiceless, dorso- which may occur in Examples velar,oral,fricative. free variation<j>jarabe /xaɾabe/ regarding the [h] voiceless,<g>girasol /xiɾa‘sol/ glottal,oral,fricative. position. This are<x>Xavier /xabyeɾ/ [Ø] zero allophone
/h / PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISH Oral Spanish /h /has an Glotta allophone of [x] Fricative used by people front the coastal Voiceless region.[-ɦ-] voiceless, glottal, oral, fricative, and This phoneme in happens just English has twobetween voiced allophones. This are sounds [h] voiceless, glottal, oral, fricative.
CONTRAST OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH AFFRICATES Those consonants have the same or similar places of articulation. ENGLISH AFFRICATES SPANISH AFFRICATES/tʃ/ [tʃ] /tʃ/ [tʃ][dʒ]
/dʒ/ PRODUCTIONENGLISH-SPANISHSpanish spellings: /ʤ/ does not exist as a phonemeIn english its occurs as phoneme and allophone/ʤ/voiced, apico alveolar, lamino, fronto palatal,oral affricateExamples of English <jam> /ʤæm/<larger> /laɹʤəɹ/<large> /laɹʤ
When we pronounce this consonants, the air to flow out through the nasal cavity. Contrastive nasal sound chart Articulator and point articulation bilabial Apico Dorso Dorso alveolar velar palatalE /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ -S /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɲ/ vd vd vd vd ALL OF THEM ARE VOICED, OCCLUSIVE, CONTINUANT
/m/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISH The /m/sounds is similar in both languages:[m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, SPANISH occlusive, continuant ENGLISH. The /m/ phoneme has [-ɱ-] voiced, labiodental, The /m/ phoneme has three allophones: nasal, occlusive, one allophone: continuant which occurs[m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, before the voiceless [m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive, continuant labiodental fricative. occlusive, continuant
/ŋ/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES [-ņ-] is voiced, dorso-velar, Both nasal , REMINDERlanguages occlusive, In english, continuant. The have the [ŋ] is /ŋ/ is a Syllabic spanish /ŋ/ sound. In Spanish, voiced, phoneme. which [ŋ] occursIt voiced, is /ŋ/ is dorso-velar, The english happens in free voiced, allophone nasal , /ŋ/ has to just in vatiationdorso-velar, of /n/. occlusive, possible contextual in final- nasal , continuant. allophones speech occlusive, between 2 wordcontinuant position any dorso velar sound, /k-g- x/
/ɲ/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES The /ɲ/ sound belong particulary to Spanish. Both the phoneme and its allopone keep the same features: /ɲ/ is voiced, dorso-palatal, nasal , occlusive, • The /ɲ/ sound occurs continuant. in spanish, french and Italian. • English speakers have the tendency REMINDER to tendency to pronunce/ny/ due to its absence in the english consonant inventory
When an /l/ Sounds like English lateral is formed, the this with only incluides CONTRAST tongue tip airflow along /l/. Spanish OF ENGLISH touches the the sides of lateralsAND SPANISH alveolar the tongue includes /l/ LATERALS ridge (or are called maybe the and /ʎ/ lateral upper teeth)
/l/ PHONEMIC Spanish variants EnglishAND PHONETIC •[l] voiced, apico- allophones are:FEATURES alveolar , oral, lateral •[l] voiced, apico-•English and spanish •[˛l] voiceless, apico- alveolar , oral, lateral have the /l/ sound alveolar , oral, lateral •[˛l] voiceless, apico- which is voiced, •[ l̪ ] ] voiced, apico- alveolar , oral, lateral apico-alveolar , oral, lateral dental , oral, lateral, •[-ɫ] voiced, dorso- which occurs before velar, oral, dark,•English has more a dental sound /t-d/ allophones than lateral spanish •[-˛ɫ] voiced, dorso- velar, oral, dark, lateral, syllabic, which occurs in final- word position
In Ecuador and The /ʎ/ some other sound countries of Latin America some belong variants many happen: [ʎ] particulary /ʎ/ voiced, fronto-PHONEMIC to spanish. palatal, oral, lateral AND It is [y] voiced,PHONETIC voiced, fronto-palatal, FEATURES fronto- oral, groove, frcative palatal, These may oral, happen in free variation lateral.
The /ɹ/sound of english is called a retroflex The english R-sound certainly count as an Retroflex sounds are CONTRAST OFapico-postalveolar and made with the ENGLISH ANDhas a legitimate claim tongue tip curled SPANISH R- on the symbol even back SOUNDS without a retracted diacritic. Yetthe symbol for it appears in the IPA chart in the dental-alveolar- palatalveolar mega-column
CONTRASTIVE R-SOUNDS CHART ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATION Apico Apico Apico post alveolar alveolar alveolarenglish /ɹ/ [ɾ] - oralspanish - /ɾ/ /r/ oral retroflex flap trill vd vd vd voicing
• Despite the fact we may refer to r- sounds in both languages, Spanish and English use different phonological symbols which implies different manners of producing them in spanish and english • SPAINISH /ɾ/ is voiced,apico-alveolar,oral,flap or R-PHONEMIC AND tap.it has the following variants: [ɾ] voiced,apico-PHONETIC FEATURES alveolar,oral,flap;[ŗ] voiceless, apico- alveolar,oral,flap; [ŗ] voiced, apico- dental.oral.fap. • ENGLISH, it /ɹ/ is voiced, apico postalveolar,oral,approximant,reflex and it has the following possibilities: [ɹ] voiced, apico- postalveolar,oral,retroflex, semiconsonant,[ɹ] voiceless, apico-postalveolar,oral,retroflex.
TONGUE TWISTERS•SPANISH: /r/•Guerra tenia una parra, y parra tenía una parra, y la perra de Parra mordió a la parra de Guerra:-dígame usted, señor Guerra ¿Por qué le a pagado con la porra a la parra ?- porque si la parra de Parra no hubiese mordido a `la parra de Guerra, Guerra no le hubiese pagado con la porra a la perra.
/W/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURESIn spanish, there following variants spacially as part of a diphong:[w-] voiced, bilabial-dorso-velar,oral semiconsonant; [-u] voiced,bilabial-dorso-velar.oral semi vowel :[w]voiced,bilabial-dorso-velar,oral semiconsonant.[g] color.English as well as in spanish, the following allophones are part ofdiphongs or glided sounds:[w-] voiced.bilabial-dorso-velar. Oral,semiconsonat; [-u] voiced,bilabial-dorso-velar, oral, semivowel.The /w/ approximant sound occurs in both languages. It is voiced,bilavial-dorso-velar, oral, appoximant.