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    Water our valuable resource Water our valuable resource Presentation Transcript

    • Water Resources Textbook page 114 - 125
    • Water Resources
      • Lesson outline
      • Importance of water
      • Distribution of water
      • Reasons for water constraint
      • Solving the problem of water constraint
      • Effectiveness of the solutions
    • Importance of water
      • Living things need water for survival and well-being – almost 70% of the human body consists of water
      • Water bodies are habitats for plants, animals and marine creatures
      • Water bodies are sources of food (seafood) for humans
      • Water is needed for many human activities such as washing and cooking
    • 97% - salt water 2% - frozen fresh water 1% - fresh water Distribution of water Unevenly distributed
    • Amount of fresh water per person
    • SURFACE RUNOFF GROUND WATER CONDENSATION EVAPORATION & TRANSPIRATION PRECIPITATION HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
    • Reasons for water constraint
      • Population growth - Increase in water usage for farming, industry and domestic use
      • Rising living standards - Increase in water usage for creating comfortable and convenient modern lifestyles
      • Pollution – chemical waste from factories, farms and households
      • Uneven distribution of water – lack of natural water sources or water is polluted
    • Solving water constraint
      • Increasing the price of water
      • Increasing the size of catchment areas
      • Using technological advances
      • Conserving water through public education
      • Establishing international agreements
    • Solving water constraint
      • 1. Increasing the price of water
      • Reduces water wastage and promotes water conservation
      • Affects those who cannot afford to pay the higher price of water, the poor will suffer
    • Solving water constraint
      • 2. Increasing the size of catchment areas
      • Keeps the cost of water treatment down and rainwater is cleaner and does not contain salt
      • Forests are conserved and helps to slow down global warming
      • Less land available for other purposes such as housing, roads, industries
      • Catchment areas will not be useful during seasons of low rainfall or drought
    • Solving water constraint
      • 3. Using technological advances
      • - Recycling waste water, desalination and using pumps to extract groundwater
      • Costly, require a large amount of energy and only developed countries can afford
      • Recycled and desalinated water taste differently – many people are not used to it
    • Solving water constraint
      • 4. Conserving water through public education
      • Driving home the message that fresh water is limited and precious, and must be carefully used at all times through schools and campaigns
      • Government does not need to invest on water-related facilities and money can be used to improve infrastructure such as roads
      • Needs cooperation from everyone but many people do not see the importance of it
    • Solving water constraint
      • 5. Establishing international agreements
      • An arrangement between two or more countries regarding the supplying and use of water over a specific period of time
      • Enforcing water agreements can be difficult as there are often political issues tied to these agreements
    • Water Supply in Singapore
      • Textbook page 128 - 133
      • Lesson outline
      • Water situation in Singapore
      • Usage of water
      • Water as a strategic resource
      • Alternative sources of water
      • Challenges in the future
    • Reservoirs in Singapore Marina
    • Water Constraint in Singapore
      • Limited water and can only supply half of what we need
      • Water shortage - due to no large river to provide freshwater and inadequate rainfall
      • Increasing demand of water due to growing population, providing better standard of living and developing high-tech industries
    • Usage of Water in Household
    • Water as a Strategic Resource
      •  Water scarcity makes us very vulnerable, long term water shortage will have a big impact on the whole nation
      • Machines in factories get overheated and cannot function – factories close down and jobs are lost
      • Restaurants and hotels cannot run businesses - tourist industry gets affected and revenue will drop
      • Lack of water for domestic use – standard of living drops and people might leave the country
    • Alternative sources of water
      •  Water from local catchment areas
      • Imported water - buying water from Malaysia (Expiry date of water agreements – 2011 and 2061)
      • Recycled water – removing impurities from used water
      • Desalinated water – removing salt from sea water
    • Our National Taps Local catchment area Imported water Recycled water Desalinated water Singapore’s Water Supply
    • Water Treatment at waterworks 1. Reservoir 2. Pumping Station 3. Raw water mixing chamber 4. Settling tank 5. Sand filters 6. Clear water tank 7. Pumping Station 8. Service reservoir
    • Marina Barrage
    • Barrage helps to control floods
    •  
    • How to conserve water  Water conservation taxes – additional fee added to the price of the water consumed by households and varies according to the amount of water they use
    • How to conserve water  Save water campaigns to encourage people to conserve water – talks conducted in schools, leaflets distributed to households, mobile exhibitions on the use of water-saving devices and water conservation tips
    • Tips on saving water
    • How to conserve water
      • Water rationing exercises – supply of water is temporarily cut off to spread awareness on the importance of conserving water
    • We must conserve water !