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  • A mountain pass (also gap, notch) is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Undercut: cut or wear Away the part tts below the cliff

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  • C at oss A et g ns C at os l a sa in hp g poetn rt io c C at os l a C at os s m aue esrs po ess rcse1 W vs . ae2T e . id s3 C r ns ros ion . ur tE Ta s ot io rnp r tn a D p sio e oitn e Fr s Fr s om om Forms S it ps B ah s ec e S it ps Tm o s o blo 1. C liffs & Wave c ut platforms 2. Headlands & Bays 1
  • D fitn e io s in • C liffs • As e rc f e t p o ka e c a n a o s C n il l g c at a t o . t f wrs r o ad o r b cwrs ak ad . • Wave c ut platform/ s hore platform • Ag nls p g e t l in e o p t r f n a te lf m o d th ao u b s o te l ae fh c f if2
  • Formation of C liffs and Wave c ut platforms• W vs ae erodes a o s b hda l atn n a rs n c at y yru c a d baio ic io• Eoio po es t cs rs n rcs a ak lines of weaknes s es ( ) t A• N t (n r w as u)wle ep n dt po u e oc ar p s/ t il d e e e o rd c a h o c b cv ae• Underc utting o te ae eus a oeh n in c f ) fh cv rsl in n vra g g l ( t ifB• O eh n in c f a c lp eC vra g g l m y oa s ( ) if l• C liff retreats further inland wh oe rs n it m r eoio• T e ae fh c f r s g nlp t r ko n s h h b s o te l f m a e t lf m n w a te if o e ao wave c ut platform ( ) D 3
  • D fitn e io s inHeadlandsE t s n o b do kutgo t t te e uu l x nio s f e rc j in u ino h sa say e t lwh c f eis n twrs rs n it a l. R s t to ad eoio . if aBaysB d o wt c n et t te es u t o y f a r o n c d o h sa d e o e esr u d gl db cin o sm wvs ur n in a l k g f o e ae o n o f 4
  • Formation of Headlands and Bays• W vs p rah h c at c m rin o ae a po c te o s o pis g f s alternate s trips o rs t t adrcs n l s feis n h r o k a de a s rs t t o rcs eis n sf o k. a t• T e s res is tant roc ks wle h les il eroded fas ter b ta te oe eis n h r rcs( ) h n h m r rs t t ad o k. A a• W e te o e rcs r eo e a a, bays h n h sf ro k ae rd d wy t ae om d rf e. r• T e e a in h r rcs x n in inote e h rm in g ad o k et d g t h sa e ae n w a headlands . ( ) r ko n s B 5
  • Overview 6
  • U in aaee d g mds ib t poes f sg l ld iar , ec e h rcso bl a r e l g oe r [ ] o s r dif 4 nh t• W aves reach the coast at an oblique angle creates a longshore current• T he materials move in a zigzag pattern in a down drift direction ( beach drift)• T he swash carries materials up the beach at the same angle as when the wave approaches the shore• A s the swash dies away, the backwash and any materials carries by it return straight down the beach at right angles to the water line due to gravity.• Longshore drift = beach drift + longshore current 7
  • The process by which waves are been or turned from its origin 3 Wave refrac tion• Waves us ually approac h c oas t at an angle• But when it hits the headlands , the energy is c onc entrated and erodes the headlands• The energy is s pread out as it moves towards the bay. Res ults in depos ition of 2 s entiments at the bay- forms 1 beac hes . 8