Agriculture
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  • 1. HOW AGRICULTURE BEGAN
    • Gathering wild plants, hunting wild animals and fishing
    • From simple tools to advanced technology
    • Produce food and materials
    • For own consumption and economic purpose
    =Moving from place to place to look for food =Growing crops (suitable land for growing crops) =Rearing animals Nomadic life Arable farming Pastoral
  • 2. SHIFTING CULTIVATION
    • What is Shifting Cultivation?
    • Where is it practiced in the world?
    • How do Shifting Cultivators carry out their cycle of activities?
    • What are the characteristics of Shifting Cultivation?
  • 3. SHIFTING CULTIVATION A type of farming in which basic tools and burning are used to clear a small area of land for growing crops. When the soil is no longer fertile, the farmers move on to another plot of land to start the process again. Eg Rice, maize, tapioca http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-pQng2qZbqQ
  • 4. Select site Slash and Burn forests (fertilize) Plant crops Move to new site Eg Indonesia Fig 7.4 pg 48 Infertile soil
  • 5. WORLD DISTRIBUTION
  • 6. CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (a) A small plot of land approximately 1 to 2 hectares is selected. (b) The trees are felled at the beginning of the DRY season using very simple tools. (c) After 1 to 2 months, when the felled trees have dried out, they are set on fire and the resulting ashes add nutrients (fertilizer) to the soil.
  • 7. CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (d) Planting takes place at the beginning of the rainy period, when the soil is cool and moist. Long, pointed sticks are used to make holes in the ground and seeds are dropped into the holes. Once the seeds are sown, the shifting cultivators do not spend much time tending their crops.
  • 8. Before Clearing After Clearing
  • 9. CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (e) Harvesting takes place when the crops are ready. Some of the best seeds from the harvest are kept for the next planting season.
  • 10. Select area and slash Harvest Planting crops Burn
  • 11. CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (f) The soil may become infertile after 2 to 3 years of planting. The shifting cultivators will look for another plot of land to carry out the slash-and-burn method again. The original plot of land is left to fallow . They may return to the same spot after 7 to 10 years when the land has regained its fertility .
  • 12. Lets look at text page 49. 1. What do you see in the first picture? 2. What does the second picture tell you about the level of technology?
  • 13. Inputs for Shifting cultivation Flat land for easier farming Relief Traditional eg Dibble Tools Burnt vegetation from trees Fertiliser Infertile after few years Soil No (cannot afford to) Pesticides / Herbicides From previous harvests Seeds Little or no (poor farmers) Capital Family members Labour High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity Sunlight/ Rainfall
  • 14. Shifting Cultivation (Indonesia) Wet Rice Cultivation ( Thailand/China) Plantation agriculture (Malaysia) High Tech farming (Singapore) Agricultural Types
  • 15. Wet rice is grown on terraces (steps cut into steep hillsides)
  • 16. WET RICE CULTIVATION
    • What is Wet Rice Cultivation?
    • Where is it practiced in the world?
    • How do Wet Rice Farmers carry out their cycle of activities?
    • What are the characteristics of Wet Rice Cultivation?
  • 17. Inputs (Wet rice) Traditional Commercial Relief Tools Fertiliser Soil Pesticides / Herbicides Seeds Capital Labour High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity Sunlight/ Rainfall Hired workers Family/Some workers Yes Little or none Purchased (may be HYVs) Previous harvests High Low Intermediate Basic Chemical fertiliser Animal manure Clayey soil, Flooded rice fields, Fertile alluvial soil Cut terraces onto slopes to create flat land
  • 18. WORLD DISTRIBUTION
  • 19. Wet Rice Cultivation (Traditional VS Commercial)
    • Grow padi on flooded field (pg51)
    • Plough (loosen soil) : Using animals or tractors
    • Transplant (Transfer) : Nursery to rice fields
    • Irrigation : Artificial water supply
    • Ripen crops
    • Harvest crop yield
    • Threshing for rice grains ( separate rice grains)
    • eg Thailand
  • 20. Irrigation : To supply (dry land) with water by means of ditches, pipes, or streams; water artificially. (Worksheet page 5)
  • 21. WET RICE CULTIVATION
    • Growing of padi on flooded flat land
    • Main farming activity in Southeast Asia, East Asia and South Asia
    • Availability of clayey alluvial or volcanic soil = Fertile/rich in minerals
    • Abundant rainfall and suitable temperature of more than 25 ° C
  • 22. CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (a) Before the rainy season, farmers build and repair bunds to separate and retain water in rice fields. At the same time, sowing of rice seeds in the nursery begins. (b) Rainy season arrives and ploughing is done with water buffaloes or tractors. (c) Transplanting the seedlings from the nursery to the main field in neat rows.
  • 23. Bunds Close up of a bund Ploughing by tractors Ploughing by water buffaloes
  • 24. CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES - Irrigation is practised in areas where rainfall is not adequate. - Fertilisers are added to increase nutrients for the rice plants. - Use of pesticides and herbicides to kill pests and weeds respectively. If left alone, the weeds would use up the soil nutrients. - Rice fields are kept flooded during the entire growing season.
  • 25. Growing rice seeds into seedlings in the nursery Transplanting seedlings into the main field in neat rows
  • 26. CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (e) When dry season arrives, bunds are broken to let the water drain off. (f) Harvesting is carried out manually using a sickle or through use of machines such as combine harvesters (tools) .  Beginning of Rainy season in Asia – October to December  Rainy season in Asia– January to March  Beginning of dry season in Asia – April to June
  • 27. Lets look at text page 52 fig 7.10. Qn: What kind of settlement pattern do you think Udon Thani has?
  • 28.
    • Some questions:
    • Why is repairing of bunds done before rainy season?
    • Why transplanting needs to be done in neat rows?
    • Why must harvesting be done in dry season?
  • 29. High Tech farming
    • Use modern tech (pg57)
    • Hydroponics (Add nutrient solution using computers) - Water
    • Aeroponics (Spray nutrient solution to roots) - Air
    • Eg Singapore
    • Fig 7.21 pg 60
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6o5LTl6GJw
  • 30. HIGH-TECH FARMING
    • What is High-tech Farming?
    • What are the examples of High-tech farming?
    • What are the characteristics of High-tech Farming?
  • 31. Inputs Relief Tools Fertiliser Soil Pesticides / Herbicides Seeds Capital Labour High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity Sunlight/ Rainfall Educated & skilled workers Yes & No (Organic) HYVs Highest High tech Organic fertiliser Soiless / Soil Flat land
  • 32. HIGH-TECH FARMING
    • The use of modern science and technology to obtain high quantity and high quality outputs.
    • Usually take place around densely populated urban areas where land is limited and costl y.
  • 33. HIGH-TECH FARMING
    • Chemical fertilisers - adding essential nutrients for crops to grow well and fast
    • Irrigation - getting water from rivers though canals and supplying water to the crops through automated sprinklers at regular intervals
    • High-technology - using machines, refrigerated vehicles, computers and Research & Development to raise productio n
  • 34. Automated sprinklers High-tech poultry farm
  • 35. HIGH-TECH FARMING Hydroponics – plants are grown in a trough filled with a nutrient solution instead of soil. Aeroponics – roots of the plants are suspended in the air and nutrient solution is sprayed onto the roots at preset intervals. The greenhouse is covered with a layer of netting to prevent pests. The temperature and moisture in the greenhouse is carefully controlled through computer s.
  • 36. Netting Aeroponics
  • 37.
    • High Yielding Variety Seeds (HYV)
    • Genetically enhanced seeds
    • Increased growth speed
    • To increase crop yield
    • Resistant to disease
    • Expensive
    • Eg maize, wheat, rice
  • 38. Spraying pesticides using aircraft Spotlight to speed up growing process
  • 39. AGRICULTURE IN SINGAPORE
    • Where does some of the food found in our local markets come from?
    • Singapore produces only a small proportion of its food locally.
    • Most of our food is imported from countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Australi a.
  • 40. How many percent of Singapore’s land area is used for farming? 1.6% of the total land area (692 sq k m)
  • 41.
    • Why agriculture in Singapore has shown a decline in importance over the years?
    • - Land shortage and competition for land to meet residential, transport, commercial and industrial needs.
    • - Shortage of labour – Singaporeans are unwilling to work in farm s.
  • 42.
    • What did Singapore do to increase our
    • own food production?
    • Setting up Agrotechnology parks to practise high-tech farming - 6 Agrotechnology parks
    • They house hundreds of farms producing vegetables, livestock, fruits, eggs, milk, fish, orchids for sale locally and abroa d.
  • 43. Plantation agriculture
    • Grow 1 type of crop for money
    • Cultivation of oil palm
    • Processing for commercial purpose
    • Eg Malaysia
    • Fig 7.11 pg 54
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NYfM9R8JZo8&feature=related
  • 44. PLANTATION
    • What is Plantation Agriculture?
    • Where is it practised in the world?
    • How does oil palm plantation farmers carry out the cycle of activities?
    • What are the characteristics of Plantation Agriculture?
  • 45.  
  • 46. PLANTATION
    • Commercial cultivation of cash crops (normally monocrop) on large estates of more than 40ha under favourable climatic conditions
    • High annual rainfall and high annual temperature
    • Found in the tropical regions in Asia, South America and Afric a
  • 47. Inputs Relief Tools Fertiliser Soil Pesticides / Herbicides Seeds Capital Labour High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity Sunlight/ Rainfall A lot of hired labourers Yes HYVs Higher Intermediate Chemical fertiliser Fertile Flat land
  • 48. Processes - Growing oil palm
    • 1) Germination (grow)
    • ~ in small plastic bags in pre-nursery
    • beds
    • 2) Transplanting
    • ~ after 8 weeks/ 2 months
    • ~ seedlings transplanted to nursery
    • ~ irrigation & weeding – done manuall y
  • 49. Oil Palm Plantation Tea Plantation
  • 50. Processes - Growing oil palm
    • 3) Growing in main fields
    • ~ after 9 months
    • ~ seedlings arranged in rows
    • ~ growing cover crops between
    • rows of oil palm eg. legumes to prevent
    • soil erosion
    • ~ weeding & adding fertiliser s
  • 51. The oil palm fruit Using a long-handled chisel to remove the fruits
  • 52. Processes - Growing oil palm
    • 4) Harvesting
    • ~ after the 3rd or 4th year – bear 1 st fruits
    • ~ harvest once in 10 days (10 -20
    • years – perennial crops)
    • ~ use a chisel fitted to a wooden pol e
  • 53. Refinery of palm oil At the Processing Factory
  • 54. Processing of oil palm
    • Done on the oil palm plantation itself
    • Fruits must be quickly transported to the factory – delay in processing – poor oil quality – less oil will be extracted from fruit bunche s
  • 55.  
  • 56. Outputs of oil palm plantation
    • oil palm fruit
    • crude palm oil
    • palm kernal oil
    • palm kernal cake - made into animal fee d
    As raw materials for soap, margarine, cooking oil
  • 57.  
  • 58. Lets try to guess the order of a standard farming process… 1. Ploughing 2. Sowing 5. Harvesting 4. Fertilising 3. Irrigating
  • 59. URPOSE.. Intention/reason NPUT… Resources put in ARIETY… Type produced UTPUT… What’s produced ECHNOLOGY… Machines/tools P I V O T
  • 60. P URPOSE Large plot of land Small plot of land Land size Hired workers Family members Labour type High capital input Low capital input Capital cost Chemical fertilisers Natural fertilisers Types of fertilisers High technology tools/machines Traditional tools/machines Tools/machines For sale For own use Output High level Low level Level of technology Commercial Farming Subsistence Farming Factors
  • 61. P URPOSE.. Intention/reason
    • Commercial
    • Majority of produce to be sold for $$$ in market
    • Subsistence
    • Consumption for the family
  • 62. I NPUT… Resources put in
    • Human
    • *Manmade items
    • Fertiliser ( Nutrients for growth)
    • Farming tools (eg machines)
    • Capital (money invested)
    • Seeds
    • Pesticides (kill crop pests )
    • Herbicides (kill unwanted plants eg weeds)
    • Labour (workers in the farm)
    • Physical
    • *Natural features of Earth
    • Sunlight
    • Rainfall (Water the crops)
    • Relief (gradient of land eg Flat land)
    • Soil (Arable/fertile)
    Important Text pg 43 Memorize these 11 inputs
  • 63.
    • High input per unit area
    • Eg High capital, HYV seeds, hired workers
    • Wet rice – commercial, plantation, high tech
    Extensive Input per unit area Intensive
    • Low input per unit area
    • Eg Little capital, seeds from previous harvest, family members
    • Wet rice – traditional, shifting ( uses small area at a time)
    Fixed area vs
  • 64. Intensive Extensive Different area vs
    • Low input per unit area
    • Larger land area
    • Plantation, Shifting (over many years use up a lot of area)
    • High input per unit area
    • Smaller land area
    • High tech farming
  • 65. V ARIETY… Type produced Monoculture 1 type of crop Different varieties Eg Maize, rice, veg, fruits
  • 66. O UTPUT… What’s produced
    • Keywords
    • Big/Small quantity of output
    • High/Low amount of output
    • Double/triple cropping (grow 2/3 times of crops in same space during growing season)
    • High/Low quality of yield
  • 67. T ECHNOLOGY Simple Complicated
    • Natural fertiliser (animal manure)
    • Seeds from previous harvests
    • Chemical fertiliser (expensive)
    • High yielding variety seeds ( genetically enhanced seeds = More resistance to pests & diseases, grow faster)
    • Machines eg tractors
    • Irrigation facilities ( watering of soil in dry areas /when no rainfall)
    • Dams/drainage canals ( Control water supply)
    Sickles Dribbling sticks Plough Machetes
  • 68. P URPOSE Commercial Commercial - Exports - Raw materials for local markets Commercial -Sale in local & overseas markets Eg Export Rice Subsistence Subsistence High-Technology farming Plantation Agriculture Wet Rice Agriculture (Commercial) Wet Rice Agriculture (Traditional) Shifting Agriculture
  • 69. I NPUT
    • High input/unit area
    • - Intensive
    • - High input/unit area
    • Intensive
    - High input/unit area - Intensive
    • - Low input/unit area
    • Extensive
    • - Low input/unit area
    • Extensive
    High-Technology farming Plantation Agriculture Wet Rice Agriculture (Commercial) Wet Rice Agriculture (Traditional) Shifting Agriculture
  • 70. Flat land Flat land Cut terraces onto slopes to create flat land Flat land Relief High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity e.g. tropical countries like Thailand, Malaysia, India Sunlight/ Rainfall High tech Intermediate Intermediate Basic Traditional Tools Organic fertiliser Chemical fertiliser Chemical fertiliser Animal manure Burnt veg Fertiliser Soiless / Soil Fertile Clayey soil, Flooded rice fields, Fertile alluvial soil Infertile after few years Soil Yes & No (Organic) Yes Yes Little or none No Pesticides / Herbicides HYVs HYVs Purchased (may be HYVs) Previous harvests Previous harvests Seeds Highest Higher High Low Lowest Capital Educated & skilled workers A lot of hired labourers Hired workers Family/Some workers Family Labour Inputs/ Resources High-Technology farming Plantation Agriculture Wet Rice Agriculture (Commercial) Wet Rice Agriculture (Traditional) Shifting Agriculture
  • 71. V ARIETY Organic & healthier vegetables, Orchids farm, Fish farm Monoculture, Cash crops, Raw materials eg Oil palm/rubber Only Rice Mainly Rice, with some variety of vegetables & fruits Rice, vegetables, sugar cane, bananas, maize, sweet potatoes High-Technology farming Plantation Agriculture Wet Rice Agriculture (Commercial) Wet Rice Agriculture (Traditional) Shifting Agriculture
  • 72. O UTPUT
    • Very high quality yield
    • Organic
    • (A lot of capital put in for R&D)
    High quality & quantity yield (major export) Large - Double to triple cropping
    • Small
    • 1 crop/year
    • Vegetable & fruits to supplement
    • Very small
    • enough to feed family only
    High-Technology farming Plantation Agriculture Wet Rice Agriculture (Commercial) Wet Rice Agriculture (Traditional) Shifting Agriculture
  • 73. Shifting cultivation Plantation Agriculture High Tech Farming Wet Rice (Commercial) Wet Rice (Traditional) Quiz time: Name the agriculture type that produces this crop
  • 74. Shifting cultivation Plantation Agriculture High Tech Farming Wet Rice (Commercial) Wet Rice (Traditional) Quiz time: Name the agriculture type that uses this technology
  • 75. T ECHNOLOGY High Tech -Computers -R&D Intermediate -Fertilisers/ Pesticides -HYVs - Machinery Intermediate -Irrigation, dams, drainage canals, -HYVs -Fertilisers/ pesticides Basic -Wooden plough drawn by buffalo, sickle, animal manure Traditional -Simple tools Eg Dribbling sticks, machetes, sickles High-Technology farming Plantation Agriculture Wet Rice Agriculture (Commercial) Wet Rice Agriculture (Traditional) Shifting Agriculture
  • 76. Lets think further
    • What are some of the advantages of each type of farming?
    • Do you think farmers might change their type of farming?
    • What can they do in their farms to improve the outputs?
    • Brainstorm for questions that might come out in the CA.
  • 77. Class activity You are tour guides that will be bringing a group of Xinmin students on a tour around the farm.Prepare as much information about the farm using your textbook and general knowledge on the materials provided. :(One guide to answer one question) Your presentation should include 1. What is the farming process ? Describe it briefly. 2. What is the purpose of this type of farming? Why? Hint: Subsistence or Commercial 3. What type of resources (input) are needed in the farm? 4. What crops are produced (variety/output)? 5. What tools (technology) are being used?
  • 78. Revision for Agriculture What are some of the differences between the 3 types of farming? What are the examples of OUTPUTS for this type of farming? What are some of the similarities between the 3 types of farming? Explain the PROCESS for this farm type What are the INPUTS for this type of farming? High tech farming Wet rice (Commercial) Wet rice (traditional) Shifting Cultivation