How do Shifting Cultivators carry out their cycle of activities?
What are the characteristics of Shifting Cultivation?
SHIFTING CULTIVATION A type of farming in which basic tools and burning are used to clear a small area of land for growing crops. When the soil is no longer fertile, the farmers move on to another plot of land to start the process again. Eg Rice, maize, tapioca http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-pQng2qZbqQ
Select site Slash and Burn forests (fertilize) Plant crops Move to new site Eg Indonesia Fig 7.4 pg 48 Infertile soil
CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (a) A small plot of land approximately 1 to 2 hectares is selected. (b) The trees are felled at the beginning of the DRY season using very simple tools. (c) After 1 to 2 months, when the felled trees have dried out, they are set on fire and the resulting ashes add nutrients (fertilizer) to the soil.
CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (d) Planting takes place at the beginning of the rainy period, when the soil is cool and moist. Long, pointed sticks are used to make holes in the ground and seeds are dropped into the holes. Once the seeds are sown, the shifting cultivators do not spend much time tending their crops.
CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (e) Harvesting takes place when the crops are ready. Some of the best seeds from the harvest are kept for the next planting season.
Select area and slash Harvest Planting crops Burn
CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (f) The soil may become infertile after 2 to 3 years of planting. The shifting cultivators will look for another plot of land to carry out the slash-and-burn method again. The original plot of land is left to fallow . They may return to the same spot after 7 to 10 years when the land has regained its fertility .
Lets look at text page 49. 1. What do you see in the first picture? 2. What does the second picture tell you about the level of technology?
Inputs for Shifting cultivation Flat land for easier farming Relief Traditional eg Dibble Tools Burnt vegetation from trees Fertiliser Infertile after few years Soil No (cannot afford to) Pesticides / Herbicides From previous harvests Seeds Little or no (poor farmers) Capital Family members Labour High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity Sunlight/ Rainfall
How do Wet Rice Farmers carry out their cycle of activities?
What are the characteristics of Wet Rice Cultivation?
Inputs (Wet rice) Traditional Commercial Relief Tools Fertiliser Soil Pesticides / Herbicides Seeds Capital Labour High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity Sunlight/ Rainfall Hired workers Family/Some workers Yes Little or none Purchased (may be HYVs) Previous harvests High Low Intermediate Basic Chemical fertiliser Animal manure Clayey soil, Flooded rice fields, Fertile alluvial soil Cut terraces onto slopes to create flat land
Main farming activity in Southeast Asia, East Asia and South Asia
Availability of clayey alluvial or volcanic soil = Fertile/rich in minerals
Abundant rainfall and suitable temperature of more than 25 ° C
CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (a) Before the rainy season, farmers build and repair bunds to separate and retain water in rice fields. At the same time, sowing of rice seeds in the nursery begins. (b) Rainy season arrives and ploughing is done with water buffaloes or tractors. (c) Transplanting the seedlings from the nursery to the main field in neat rows.
Bunds Close up of a bund Ploughing by tractors Ploughing by water buffaloes
CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES - Irrigation is practised in areas where rainfall is not adequate. - Fertilisers are added to increase nutrients for the rice plants. - Use of pesticides and herbicides to kill pests and weeds respectively. If left alone, the weeds would use up the soil nutrients. - Rice fields are kept flooded during the entire growing season.
Growing rice seeds into seedlings in the nursery Transplanting seedlings into the main field in neat rows
CYCLE OF ACTIVITIES (e) When dry season arrives, bunds are broken to let the water drain off. (f) Harvesting is carried out manually using a sickle or through use of machines such as combine harvesters (tools) . Beginning of Rainy season in Asia – October to December Rainy season in Asia– January to March Beginning of dry season in Asia – April to June
Lets look at text page 52 fig 7.10. Qn: What kind of settlement pattern do you think Udon Thani has?
What are the characteristics of High-tech Farming?
Inputs Relief Tools Fertiliser Soil Pesticides / Herbicides Seeds Capital Labour High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity Sunlight/ Rainfall Educated & skilled workers Yes & No (Organic) HYVs Highest High tech Organic fertiliser Soiless / Soil Flat land
HIGH-TECH FARMING Hydroponics – plants are grown in a trough filled with a nutrient solution instead of soil. Aeroponics – roots of the plants are suspended in the air and nutrient solution is sprayed onto the roots at preset intervals. The greenhouse is covered with a layer of netting to prevent pests. The temperature and moisture in the greenhouse is carefully controlled through computer s.
Commercial cultivation of cash crops (normally monocrop) on large estates of more than 40ha under favourable climatic conditions
High annual rainfall and high annual temperature
Found in the tropical regions in Asia, South America and Afric a
Inputs Relief Tools Fertiliser Soil Pesticides / Herbicides Seeds Capital Labour High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity Sunlight/ Rainfall A lot of hired labourers Yes HYVs Higher Intermediate Chemical fertiliser Fertile Flat land
Lets try to guess the order of a standard farming process… 1. Ploughing 2. Sowing 5. Harvesting 4. Fertilising 3. Irrigating
URPOSE.. Intention/reason NPUT… Resources put in ARIETY… Type produced UTPUT… What’s produced ECHNOLOGY… Machines/tools P I V O T
P URPOSE Large plot of land Small plot of land Land size Hired workers Family members Labour type High capital input Low capital input Capital cost Chemical fertilisers Natural fertilisers Types of fertilisers High technology tools/machines Traditional tools/machines Tools/machines For sale For own use Output High level Low level Level of technology Commercial Farming Subsistence Farming Factors
Flat land Flat land Cut terraces onto slopes to create flat land Flat land Relief High temperature , high rainfall, high humidity e.g. tropical countries like Thailand, Malaysia, India Sunlight/ Rainfall High tech Intermediate Intermediate Basic Traditional Tools Organic fertiliser Chemical fertiliser Chemical fertiliser Animal manure Burnt veg Fertiliser Soiless / Soil Fertile Clayey soil, Flooded rice fields, Fertile alluvial soil Infertile after few years Soil Yes & No (Organic) Yes Yes Little or none No Pesticides / Herbicides HYVs HYVs Purchased (may be HYVs) Previous harvests Previous harvests Seeds Highest Higher High Low Lowest Capital Educated & skilled workers A lot of hired labourers Hired workers Family/Some workers Family Labour Inputs/ Resources High-Technology farming Plantation Agriculture Wet Rice Agriculture (Commercial) Wet Rice Agriculture (Traditional) Shifting Agriculture
V ARIETY Organic & healthier vegetables, Orchids farm, Fish farm Monoculture, Cash crops, Raw materials eg Oil palm/rubber Only Rice Mainly Rice, with some variety of vegetables & fruits Rice, vegetables, sugar cane, bananas, maize, sweet potatoes High-Technology farming Plantation Agriculture Wet Rice Agriculture (Commercial) Wet Rice Agriculture (Traditional) Shifting Agriculture
What are some of the advantages of each type of farming?
Do you think farmers might change their type of farming?
What can they do in their farms to improve the outputs?
Brainstorm for questions that might come out in the CA.
Class activity You are tour guides that will be bringing a group of Xinmin students on a tour around the farm.Prepare as much information about the farm using your textbook and general knowledge on the materials provided. :(One guide to answer one question) Your presentation should include 1. What is the farming process ? Describe it briefly. 2. What is the purpose of this type of farming? Why? Hint: Subsistence or Commercial 3. What type of resources (input) are needed in the farm? 4. What crops are produced (variety/output)? 5. What tools (technology) are being used?
Revision for Agriculture What are some of the differences between the 3 types of farming? What are the examples of OUTPUTS for this type of farming? What are some of the similarities between the 3 types of farming? Explain the PROCESS for this farm type What are the INPUTS for this type of farming? High tech farming Wet rice (Commercial) Wet rice (traditional) Shifting Cultivation