5. global tourism impacts

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  • 1. Global Tourism Impacts of Tourism
  • 2. By the end of this lesson You should be able to: 1. Explain how tourism activities can lead to economic, social and environmental impacts 2. Identify and explain the roles of various stakeholders of tourism
  • 3. The interactions of the various stakeholders (human environment) with a tourism destination (physical environment) results in impacts (both positive and negative)
  • 4. Economic Impact (+) 1. Tourism is an important source of revenue for many countries • Accounts for 9.2% of global GDP • Many LDCs such as Thailand are reliant on their tourism industry
  • 5. Economic Impact (+)
  • 6. Economic Impact (+) 2. Tourism creates more employment opportunities for the locals • Accounts for 8.7% of global employment • The tourism industry, which is a service industry, is largely labour intensive
  • 7. Economic Impact (+) 2. Tourism creates more employment opportunities for the locals • The unskilled local population can also hone a skill in the service sector • E.g. 56.7% of Maldives’ population involved in tourism industry
  • 8. Economic Impact (+) 3. Propel development of Infrastructure • Tourists expect a certain level of infrastructural standards in a destination • Governments would invest in upgrading infrastructure to attract tourists • E.g. $42 billion invested for infrastructure prior to Beijing Olympics
  • 9. Economic Impact (+) Beijing Olympic Stadium (Bird Nest) Beijing Olympic Aquatic Centre (Water Cube)
  • 10. Economic Impact (-) 1. Leakage of Tourism Revenue • Main components of tourism are dominated by a few vertically-integrated players located mainly in developed countries
  • 11. Economic Impact (-) 1. Leakage of Tourism Revenue • Thailand -70% of all money spent by tourists ended up with foreign-owned tour operators, airlines, hotels, imported drinks and food, etc. • Estimates for other Third World countries range from 80% in the Caribbean to 40% in India. • Host country may be exploited for its natural/ human resources but getting marginally in return
  • 12. Economic Impact (-) 2. Price Inflation for Locals • Tourism can lead to an increase in the prices of goods and services, causing inflation in the host country • Local residents would then experience a higher cost of living and a decreasing real income
  • 13. Economic Impact (-) 3. Over-reliance on Tourism Revenue • Tourism suffers from both regional fluctuations and seasonal fluctuations • Seasonal fluctuation refers that there are peak and non-peak seasons within a year for tourism • Revenues may be affected due to such fluctuations leading to livelihood problems
  • 14. Socio-Cultural Impact (+) 1. Preservation and Promotion of Local Culture and Heritage • Tourists moving away from mass tourism and are increasingly interested in authentic local cultures and heritage • E.g. Tourism has revived Balinese interest in their own traditions and the admiration of foreign visitors for Balinese culture have reinforced the sense of cultural identity and pride of the people of Bali
  • 15. Socio-Cultural Impact (+) Cultural Tourism in Bali
  • 16. Socio-Cultural Impact (+) Temple Stay Experience, South Korea
  • 17. Socio-Cultural Impact (+) 1. Preservation and Promotion of Local Culture and Heritage • Important sites of heritage and culture are also preserved and restored to their former glory due to tourism • E.g. Korean palaces (e.g. Gyeongbokgung)
  • 18. Socio-Cultural Impact (+) Gyeongbokgung Palace and Secret Garden, Seoul, South Korea
  • 19. Socio-Cultural Impact (+) 2. Positive Exchanges and Interaction • Tourism increases the interaction between local residents and tourists • Increasing number of volunteer tourism where tourists help to improve infrastructure or social well-being of local residents
  • 20. Socio-Cultural Impact (+) Volunteering at Home for the Dying, Calcutta, India
  • 21. Socio-Cultural Impact (-) 1. Dilution/ False Representation of Local Culture • Tourism may dilute or misrepresent local culture through focusing on visual spectacles to attract tourists • Culture is being manipulated by tour operators to maximise economic benefits
  • 22. Socio-Cultural Impact (-) 1. Dilution/ False Representation of Local Culture • E.g. Criticism from aboriginal leaders in Taiwan on the failure to interpret cultural or historical background hidden in aboriginal activities or festivals • Instead, there is a focus on superficial elements such as dance, music and handicraft
  • 23. Socio-Cultural Impact (-) Aboriginal Culture, Taiwan
  • 24. Socio-Cultural Impact (-) 2. Disrespect of local cultures and customs • Tourists may be insensitive to local customs and practices and may offend the locals • E.g. Public intimacy/ drunkenness in Muslim countries (e.g. UAE, Saudi Arabia) • E.g. Blatant cultural invasion in Hawaii when sacred places (including burial grounds) are removed to make way for development
  • 25. Socio-Cultural Impact (-)
  • 26. Socio-Cultural Impact (-) 2. Disrespect of local cultures and customs • “Zooification” of local tribes where they are treated and looked upon as “savages” and “exhibits” • E.g. Padaung women of Burma and Mursi women of Ethiopia often objectified because of their unique accessories
  • 27. Socio-Cultural Impact (-) Padaung and Mursi Women
  • 28. Socio-Cultural Impact (-) 3. Increased Crime and Social Problems • The influx of wealthy travelers may increase instances of petty crime • Criminals often see tourists as an easy target because they: – typically carry large sums of money and other valuables – Are more likely to be relaxed and off guard while on vacation – Are less likely to report crimes or to testify against suspects, wishing to avoid problems
  • 29. Socio-Cultural Impact (-) 3. Increased Crime and Social Problems • Tourism may also bring about some social problems that may affect both tourist and local population • E.g. Street prostitution in Thailand and rising trend of STDs • E.g. Gambling related problems in Singapore such as broken families, incurrence of huge debts
  • 30. Socio-Cultural Impact (-)
  • 31. Socio-Cultural Impact (-)
  • 32. Environmental Impact (+) 1. Increased Awareness on Environmental Protection • More emphasis has been put into conserving natural areas and lowering carbon footprint • Carbon footprint refers to the total Greenhouse Gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person
  • 33. Environmental Impact (+) 1. Increased Awareness on Environmental Protection • E.g. Lake District Tourism and Conservation Partnership has raised over £300,000 from tourists to support local conservation and visitor management schemes • Increasing trend of Eco-tourism where tourists are educated about the importance of conservation
  • 34. Environmental Impact (+) Scenic Lake District, Midlands, UK
  • 35. Environmental Impact (-) 1. Destruction of Natural Habitat • Pristine environments are destroyed by human development to build tourism facilities • E.g. Tourists visiting the Galapagos Islands have unknowingly brought with them invasive species which threaten to destroy native species
  • 36. Environmental Impact (-) Galapagos Land Iguana- Flattened by Vehicles Waved Albatross- Caught in Fishing Nets Pinta Island Tortoise- Now Extinct
  • 37. Environmental Impact (-) 2. Pollution • All forms of pollution, water, air, land, visual and noise, are intensified when there is an influx of tourists into an area • Air pollution as a result of fossil fuel burning to provide electricity and vehicle emissions due to increased tourist transportation
  • 38. Environmental Impact (-) 2. Pollution • Water pollution when resorts dump untreated waste into water bodies • Land pollution when tourists dispose their litter in pristine environments • E.g. Trekkers in Himalayas leave behind their gas cylinders and plastic bottles during their trek, polluting the environment
  • 39. Environmental Impact (-) Water Pollution in Bali Land Pollution in the Himalayas Air Pollution in Beijing
  • 40. What are Stakeholders? • Individuals or groups with multiple stakes or interests in an organisation or decision • Any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of an organisation’s objectives
  • 41. Stakeholders in Tourism Everyone wants a share of the tourism pie.
  • 42. Stakeholders in Tourism
  • 43. Role-Play Activity • Your group will randomly select one of the various tourism stakeholders • You are to imagine that you are the particular stakeholder • You have 20 minutes to discuss and pen down your thoughts with regards to the questions on the A3 paper • Appoint 2 spokespersons to present your discussion
  • 44. Role-Play Activity
  • 45. Learning Points • Each stakeholder has a/ a set of specific interest(s) that they want to derive from tourism • Tourism activities has resulted in economic, social and environmental impacts for people and communities at different scales