5 fluctuations


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  • 5 fluctuations

    1. 1. Fluctuations in Tourism Why has tourism become a global phenomenon?
    2. 2. By the end of this lesson You should be able to: 1. Explain why tourism is subject to regional fluctuations using authentic examples 2. Examples includes disasters, recessions, politics, diseases
    3. 3. News flash! Singapore has been hit by 4 major crisis! Reporters from 307 will update what the crisis is about, and how it has affected our tourism industry. • • • • Disaster: Tsunamis hits East Coast Park Diseases: SARS outbreak in Gleneagles hospital Politics: Riot attacks in Little India Recessions: Stock market crash in ST holdings 3
    4. 4. Based on the figure, has tourism increased constantly over the years? International Tourist Arrivals Source: STB, 2011
    5. 5. Questions to Ponder… • Are factors (both demand and destination) affecting tourism a never changing statistic? • What would halt the growth of tourism?
    6. 6. Can you compare the tourism figures across the years 2010 and 2011? How has tourism fluctuated?
    7. 7. What can you infer from this line-graph on tourist arrivals? What has been affected? Demand or destination factors?
    8. 8. Do you know what this event is?
    9. 9. The aftermath of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami
    10. 10. Is Japan trying to promote the increase of demand or destination factors by offering free flights to save the tourism industry?
    11. 11. Can you think of any other events that will affect demand or destination factors?
    12. 12. Hong Kong (2003) SARS Epidemic 299 Dead Widespread Hysteria
    13. 13. Hong Kong (2003) SARS Epidemic • Tourist arrivals fell 63% (850,000) from March to April 2003 • Outbound bookings for the Easter holiday period fell by 80%.
    14. 14. Iceland (2010) Eyjafjallajökull eruption Halted air travel in Europe and Trans-Atlantic for a week Affected tourism during the Easter holiday
    15. 15. Iceland (2010) Eyjafjallajökull eruption • 107,000 flights cancelled during 8 day period- 48% of total air traffic (10 million passengers) • Airlines collectively losing £130m per day in lost revenues • Tourism industry will lose money from tourists unable to make the trip
    16. 16. Global Financial Crisis(2007-2008) • Caused by the bubble burst in the property market of the US • Banks and financial institutions declared bankrupt due to massive debts
    17. 17. Global Financial Crisis(2007-2008) • Consumer spending lowered due to rising unemployment (5.4 million jobs lost in USA in 2008) • Assets have lowered due to the collapse of the stock and property markets • There is less disposable income that can be used to finance holidays
    18. 18. Tourist arrivals in 2008/2009 could be the consequence of the financial crisis International Tourist Arrivals Source: STB, 2011
    19. 19. Thailand (2008) Political Crisis Began with coup d'état in 2006 which ousted then PM Thaksin Shinawatra Two factions: United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (Pro-Thaksin) and People's Alliance for Democracy (AntiThaksin)
    20. 20. Thailand (2008) Political Crisis Series of political incidents which have affected tourism: 30 August -PAD Supporters laid siege to airports in Phuket, Krabi and Hatyai (15,000 visitors trapped) 2 September- Violent clashes leaving 1 dead and 43 injured, state of emergency is declared in Bangkok until 14 September.
    21. 21. Thailand (2008) Political Crisis 6 October- Violent clashes day-long leave 2 dead and over 300 injured, including 20 policemen 25 November- PAD blocks Suvarnabhumi International Airports, leaving thousands of tourists stranded and cutting off most of Thailand's international air connections. Several explosions and clashes occur in the following day.
    22. 22. Thailand (2008) Political Crisis
    23. 23. Factors affecting tourism are constantly changing due to these unforeseen events!
    24. 24. Learning Points • The tourism industry is not stable and regional/international events may affect its growth • Tourism is fuelled by a combination of demand and destination factors, that fluctuates across space, time and scale
    25. 25. Homework text page 51 question 1a, 1c, and 4 26