Nicolas Trabajo 2[1]
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    Nicolas Trabajo 2[1] Nicolas Trabajo 2[1] Presentation Transcript

    • Social Studies ProjectTo: Diego VillamizarFrom: Andres Hernandez, Nicolas Guerrero, Juan EstebanGrade: 5-bDate:19/02/10
    • Main Ideas
      1.Since declaring its independence from Spain in 1810, Colombia has had ten constitutions.
      2.These constitutions addressed three important issues; The division of powers, the strength of the chief executive, and the role of the roman catholic church.
      3. The issue of a strong central government versus a decentralized federal system was especially important in the nation's constitutional development.
      4. In settling the federal-unitary debate, the 1886 Constitution specifies that sovereignty resides in the nation, which provides guarantees of civil liberties.
      5. The Constitution, by noting that labor is a social obligation-- protected by the state--guarantees the right to strike, except in the public service.
      6. The Constitution, as amended, also gives all citizens a legal right to vote if they are at least eighteen years old, have a citizenship card, and are registered to vote.
    • 7. The Constitution prohibits members of the armed forces on active duty, members of the National Police, and individuals legally deprived of their political rights from participating in any political activities, including voting.
      8. A second constitutional issue has been the strength of the chief executive's office, especially the presidential use of emergency powers to deal with civil disorders.
      9. The 1830 constitution further strengthened executive powers by creating the Public Ministry, which enabled the president to supervise judicial affairs.
      10. The federal constitutions of 1853 and 1863, however, limited presidential control by granting many powers to the territorial departments, by allowing offices to be filled by election rather than appointment, and by depriving the president of authority to assume additional emergency powers.
      11.The 1886 Constitution establishes three branches of government--the executive, legislature, and judiciary--with separation of powers and checks and balances. Nonetheless, policy- making authority rests almost exclusively with the executive branch of government, specifically with a president who is both with chief executive and head of state.
      12. The 1886 Constitution restored strong executive powers primarily through the president's ability to invoke a state of siege under Article 121 and a state of emergency (estatuto de emergencia) under Article 122
    • 13. The president may declare a state of siege for all or part of the republic in the event of foreign war or domestic disturbance.
      14. A 1961 constitutional amendment also requires that Congress remain in permanent session during a state of siege, although it may not contravene the president's decrees.
      15. The relationship of the Roman Catholic Church to the state was a third constitutional issue. The 1832 and 1840 constitutions had affirmed the extraordinary position of the Roman Catholic Church.
      16. In contrast, the 1853 and 1863 constitutions, which guaranteed religious freedom and prohibited religious bodies from owning real estate, abolished the church's privileged status.
      17. The 1886 Constitution, as amended, guarantees freedom of religion and conscience but affords the Catholic faith preferential treatment.
      18. The preamble to the amendments adopted by a national plebiscite in 1957 also notes the privileged position of the Roman Catholic Church, stating that the "Roman, Catholic and Apostolic Religion is that of the nation" and as such is to be "protected" and "respected" by the public powers of the state.
      19. The Constitution has undergone extensive and frequent amendments, the most significant of which included legislative acts in 1910, 1936, 1945, 1959, and 1968; a national plebiscite and legislative decrees in 1957; and economic reform in 1979
    • Amendments adopted in December 1968 reaffirm a president's ability to declare a state of emergency and allow the executive to intervene selectively in specific areas of the economy to prevent crises or facilitate development plans.
      A president must obtain the consent of the ministers before making such a declaration and specify, in advance, a time period not to exceed ninety days.
      The most important constitutional amendments resulted from the Sitges Agreement and the subsequent San Carlos Agreement, drawn up by Liberal and Conservative leaders together at meetings in 1957.
      In May 1957, the two rival parties had united in the National Front coalition, which was envisioned as a bipartisan way to end la violencia and dictatorial rule.
      Although the military continued in power for a one-year transition period, the constitutional framework for a new governing system was institutionalized when the Colombian people overwhelmingly ratified the Sitges and San Carlos agreements in a national plebiscite in December 1957
      The 1957 amendments essentially changed the nature of the government from a competitive system characterized by intense party loyalties and political violence to a coalition government in which the two major parties shared power.
    • 26. By the mid-1960s, la violencia had been reduced largely to banditry and an incipient guerrilla movement.
      27. The old patterns of blind partisanship and interparty hostilities declined markedly and were replaced with dialogue among leaders of the two parties.
      28. Under the 1957 amendments, the National Front mandated three principles of government. First, it alternated the presidency between the two parties in regular elections held every four years (alternación). Second, it provided for parity (paridad) in elective and appointive positions at all levels of government, including cabinet and Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) positions not falling under the civil service, as well as the election of equal numbers of party members to local, departmental, and national assemblies. And third, it required that all legislation be passed by a two-thirds majority in Congress.
      29. The 1968 constitutional reforms provided for a carefully measured transition from the National Front to traditional two- party competition.
      30. They also provided some measure of recognition for minority parties that previously were prohibited from participating in the government.
      31. The 1968 amendments additionally allowed for the "dismantling" (desmonte) of the National Front coalition arrangement by increasing executive powers in economic, social, and development matters.
    • 32. The constitutional changes, particularly the abolition of the two-thirds majority requirement in both houses of Congress for the passage of major legislation, also affected the powers of Congress and its relationship with the president.
      33. Other congressional changes included the creation of a special committee to deal with economic and social development plans; the extension of a representative's term from two to four years; and the adoption of amendments dealing with matters such as the length of sessions, meeting times, and the size of quorums.
      34. The 1968 reforms also ended, beginning in 1970, the parity requirement for legislative seats at the municipal and departmental levels.
      35. Although the Sitges and San Carlos agreements' provisions for alternating the presidency and maintaining party parity in Congress ended in 1974 when both parties ran candidates for the presidency, parity in the bureaucracy continued for another four years.
      36. Beginning in 1978, presidents could select their cabinets and appoint other officials without consideration for party parity.
      37. Liberal president Julio César Turbay Ayala, who took office in 1978, and Conservative president BelisarioBetancurCuartas--elected in 1982--both gave half of their cabinet positions to rival party members.
    • 38. The 1968 amendments led to other important changes in the governmental system, such as widening the scope of governmental authority, particularly in the area of the economy.
      39. This amendment allows the government to intervene in the production, distribution, utilization, and consumption of goods and services in a manner responsive to economic planning for integral development.
      40. In 1988 the provisions of the 1886 Constitution, as amended, still governed Colombia.
      41. That February, however, President Barco responded to a wave of attacks by drug traffickers and guerrillas by launching an effort to rewrite the Constitution and make it a more effective weapon in the fight against violence.
      42. He also wanted to streamline the state to permit authorities to better deal with political and drug-related crimes.
      43. The leaders of various political parties and factions signed a political agreement, called the Nariño House Accord (Acuerdo Casa de Nariño), that signaled a consensus on the need to hold a national plebiscite on October 9, 1988, on the institutional reforms proposed by Barco.
      44. Municipal elections held in March 1988 determined the party composition of a fifty-member panel, called the Institutional Readjustment Commission, whose purpose was to ask voters to approve constitutional changes in the planned October plebiscite.
    • 45. The Nariño House Accord was suspended in April 1988, however, as a result of a decision by the Council of State (Consejo de Estado)-- the highest court on constitutional and administrative matters-- that the holding of a plebiscite would have raised a constitutional problem.
    • Concepts
    • constitucion
      Since declaring its independence from Spain in 1810, Colombia has had ten constitutions, the last of which--adopted in 1886-- established the present-day unitary republic.
      A constitution is a set of rules for government often codified as a written document that enumerates the powers and functions of a political entity.
    • Division of powers
      These constitutions addressed three important issues: the division of powers, the strength of the chief executive, and the role of the Roman Catholic Church.
      The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments: legislative, executive, and judicial.
    • Chief executive
      These constitutions addressed three important issues: the division of powers, the strength of the chief executive, and the role of the Roman Catholic Church.
      The chief executive officer is the most important role in the management of an organization.
    • Roman Catholic church
      These constitutions addressed three important issues: the division of powers, the strength of the chief executive, and the role of the Roman Catholic Church.
      The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church. It has more than a billion members, over half of all Christians and more than one-sixth of the world's population, although the number of lapsed Catholics is not reliably known.
    • Central government
      The issue of a strong central government versus a decentralized federal system was especially important in the nation's constitutional development.
      Central government or union government is the government at the level of the nation-state.
    • Federal system
      The issue of a strong central government versus a decentralized federal system was especially important in the nation's constitutional development.
      A federal system of government is one that divides the powers of government between the national (federal) government and state and local governments.
    • Civil liberties
      In settling the federal-unitary debate, the 1886 Constitution specifies that sovereignty resides in the nation, which provides guarantees of civil liberties.
      Civil liberties are rights and freedoms that protect an individual from the state.
    • Social obligations
      The Constitution, by noting that labor is a social obligation--protected by the state-- guarantees the right to strike, except in the public service.
      Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society at large.
    • Public services
      The Constitution, by noting that labor is a social obligation-- protected by the state--guarantees the right to strike, except in the public service.
      Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services.
    • Political rights
      The Constitution prohibits members of the armed forces on active duty, members of the National Police, and individuals legally deprived of their political rights from participating in any political activities, including voting.
      Political rights, along with civil rights, are primarily designed to protect the individual against state interference, and are immediately applicable
    • Political activities
      The Constitution prohibits members of the armed forces on active duty, members of the National Police, and individuals legally deprived of their political rights from participating in any political activities, including voting.
      A political activity is an activity in which you do something associated with politics.
    • Civil disorders
      A second constitutional issue has been the strength of the chief executive's office, especially the presidential use of emergency powers to deal with civil disorders.
      Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people.
    • Executive powers
      The 1830 constitution further strengthened executive powers by creating the Public Ministry, which enabled the president to supervise judicial affairs.
      The power of the President of the United States, delegated or implied by the Constitution, to implement and enforce laws.
    • State of siege
      The president may declare a state of siege for all or part of the republic in the event of foreign war or domestic disturbance.
      A state of siege is a situation in which a government or other authority puts restrictions on the movement of people into or out of a country, town, or building.
    • Religious freedom
      In contrast, the 1853 and 1863 constitutions, which guaranteed religious freedom and prohibited religious bodies from owning real estate, abolished the church's privileged status.
      Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.
    • Religious bodies
      In contrast, the 1853 and 1863 constitutions, which guaranteed religious freedom and prohibited religious bodies from owning real estate, abolished the church's privileged status.
      "Religious body" means any congregation, society or body in the Gilbert Islands consisting of or representing not less than 50 persons of the age of 21 years and upwards holding religious tenets in common and which has its own system of discipline and internal government.
    • Nationalfront
      In May 1957, the two rival parties had united in the National Front coalition, which was envisioned as a bipartisan way to end la violencia and dictatorial rule.
      The National Front is a far-right and whites-only British political party whose major political activities were during the 1970s and 1980s.
    • Civil Services
      Second, it provided for parity (paridad) in elective and appointive positions at all levels of government, including cabinet and Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) positions not falling under the civil service, as well as the election of equal numbers of party members to local, departmental, and national assemblies.
      The term civil service has two distinct meanings:
      A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations.
      The body of employees in any government agency other than the military
    • Executive Branch
      Henceforth, the executive could more easily attain adoption of its legislative programs, although Congress could approve, delay, or veto an executive branch initiative.
      The Executive Branch of the Government has the President, Vice President, and all the cabinet members. The President is allowed to pass or veto a bill that the legislature sends him.