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The impact of scalling up row planting on farmer's teff yield

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International Food Policy Research Institute/ Ethiopia Strategy Support Program (IFPRI/ ESSP)and Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) Coordinated a conference with Agriculutral …

International Food Policy Research Institute/ Ethiopia Strategy Support Program (IFPRI/ ESSP)and Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) Coordinated a conference with Agriculutral Transformation Agency (ATA) and Ministry of Agriculutrue (MoA) on Teff Value Chain at Hilton Hotel Addis Ababa on October 10, 2013.

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  • 1. ETHIOPIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE The impact of scaling up row planting on farmers’ teff yield Joachim Vandercasteelen, LICOS, University of Leuven Mekdim Dereje, Bart Minten, Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse, IFPRI ESSP-II / EDRI Conference on “Improved evidence towards better policies for the teff value chain” 10 October 2013 Addis Ababa 1
  • 2. 2 Why? • Teff is important – Produced by 6 million farmers – 2 out of 3 Ethiopians consume teff daily • Low agricultural productivity – 1.4 ton/ha • Sowing technology – Row planting – Promising on-station results – Widespread promotion campaigns
  • 3. 3 Program evaluation • Row planting package was promoted to farmers – Row planting technique – Reduced seed rate – Quncho variety – Fertilizer • Effect of promotion campaign on teff production • Measured direct effect of row planting on farmers yield Row planting has a positive effect on teff yield
  • 4. ETHIOPIA AND TEFF 4
  • 5. 5 Teff in Ethiopia • Agricultural sector – 46% of GDP (World Bank, 2011) – Growing 6% • Teff: major staple food – 22 % of grain area – 11-15 % of all calories consumed • Low agricultural productivity – Limited research – Low input use – Lodging, reduced fertility, post-harvesting losses
  • 6. 6 Sowing technology • Low yield related to sowing practice – Broadcasting at high seed rate – Uneven distribution • New technologies increase yield – Planting seeds in rows – Lower seed rate – Reduced competition
  • 7. Reduced seed rate technologies 7 • Reduced seed rate technologies – Promising on-station results – High expectations by farmers – Nation wide roll-out at large scale • Program evaluation – Provide objective data at farm level – Provide evidence on the impact of campaign on teff yield
  • 8. RANDOM EXPERIMENT 8
  • 9. Design 9 • Roll-out in line with government program – Pre-scale-up phase in 2012 – Both broadcasters and row planters are included – Selection and extension done by DA (Development Agent) – Free improved seed and fertilizer to all farmers • Experimental plot of 300 m² • Quncho: 150 gr (row planters) vs. 900 gr (controls) • 3kg of urea and DAP • Randomization • Control group – Same package but traditional broadcasting
  • 10. 10 Randomization • Randomization – 2 stage randomization approach • 4 Farmer Training Centers (FTC) in 10 Woreda’s of Oromia • 10 farmers row planting/ traditional broadcasting • Model farmers – Farmers are balanced in characteristics • Similar in terms of – Education – Age – Distance to FTC – Asset value – Non-farm income
  • 11. 11 Overview of Woreda’s
  • 12. 12 Balancedness of farmers Variable Controls treatment Mean se Coeff. t value Household head characteristics Age (years) 43.6 (0.94) -0.44 -0.37 Gender (male=1) 99.4 (1.23) -2.90** -1.85 Literacy (yes=1) 69.9 (3.56) 4.93 -1.09 Primary education (yes=1) 66.7 (3.68) 4.99 1.07 Household characteristics Distance to FTC (minutes) 33.7 (2.04) 0.13 -0.05 Total household assets value (ln of Birr) 7.2 (0.16) 0.15 0.73 Total agricultural assets value (ln of Birr) 6.8 (0.08) -0.07 -0.72 Income from other activities (yes=1) 79.5 (6.98) -11.0 -1.24 Area (m²) 572.5 (28.5) -199.8*** - 3.70 Experimental plot Red colored soil (yes=1) 31.4 (3.69) -1.88 -0.40 Brown colored soil (yes=1) 9.6 (2.24) -1.74 -0.61 Black colored soil (yes=1) 57.7 (3.96) 0.18 0.04 Tan colored soil (yes=1) 1.3 (1.45) 3.44** 1.87 Sloped plot (yes=1) 16.7 (2.81) -3.67 -1.03 Improved Quncho seed used (yes=1) 99.4 (0.68) -0.15 -0.17 Distance to plot from house (minutes) 10.8 (0.80) -0.25 -0.24 Number of tilling (number) 4.9 (0.13) 0.09 0.60 Organic input used (yes=1) 12.8 (2.56) -2.19 -0.68 Inorganic fertilizer used (yes=1) 99.4 (0.40) 0.64 1.28 Number of weedings (number) 2.0 (8.14) 0.12 1.19 Amount of UREA used (g/m²) 9.1 (0.34) 1.22*** 2.43 Amount of DAP used (g/m²) 11.4 (0.51) 0.4 0.57 Value of herbicide used (birr/ha) 196 (17.7) 17.3 0.51
  • 13. Surveys 13 • Quantitative: 3 surveys – Baseline before harvest – Crop-cut at harvest – Impact after harvest • Qualitative – Focus groups – Community questionnaires – Farmers’ opinion, perceptions, planning
  • 14. Data collected 14 • Area measure – By compass and rope (crop-cut) • Output measures – At harvest – After harvest • 3 yield measures – Assessed yield before harvest – Measured yield at harvest (crop-cut) – Reported yield after harvest
  • 15. Methodology 15 • Farm level – Randomized control trial – 410 farmers – Mean difference in yield is due to sowing only – Direct row planting effect • Village level – 10 trials at each FTC (331 plots)
  • 16. Effect of row planting 16 Farm: 2-22% FTC: 26% 22% before harvest 2% measured at harvest 16% after harvest
  • 17. CONCLUSION 17
  • 18. 18 Conclusions • Low teff yield asks for adoption of new technologies • Promising on-station results of row planting • Large scale promotion campaign • On-farm effect of the promotion campaign • Look at direct effect of row planting – Teff yield increased by 2-22% at farm level – Teff yield increased by 26% at village level • Yield increase of more than 20% is already strong – Value of several million $
  • 19. 19 Implications • Effect is likely to be even higher – On- farm constraints – First year of adoption – Farmers need to learn – Implementation issues of promotion program • Row planting is offered as a package – Effect of whole package is stronger • Assess on-farm constraints to adoption • Research on different components of technology package and their interactions
  • 20. THANK YOU 20