Teff Production and Market Access
Mekamu Kedir, Emily Schmidt, Helina Tilahun
Ethiopian Economics Association (EEA) and the Econometric Society
19th Annual Conference of the African Region Chapter of the Econometric Society
12th International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy
July 16-19, 2014
• Understand spatial and temporal teff production
• Explore how market access spatially overlaps with :
o Teff production,
o Teff cultivated area and,
o Chemical fertilizer use over time.
• This study links EASE, AgSS and GIS data.
• Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration (2001/02) ;
• AgSS (1997/98, 2006/07 and 2010/11 );
• GIS data: elevation and slope grid, city, and road networks, landuse,
• We categorize woredas into top, middle, and low terciles
based on teff production. Within these categories we
o Share of producers using fertilizer and;
o Share of fertilized teff area;
• The study uses measurements of travel time to examine
differences in agricultural production and input use.
Data and Method
• Ethiopia’s road investment claims three percent of GDP,
one of the highest in Africa (Foster and Morella, 2011).
• In SSA countries:
o Higher crop production in areas of better connectivity to markets.
o Lower input technology adoption rate in areas with higher travel
time to large cities (Dorosh et al.,2010).
• We tried to explore market access, teff production and
fertilizer application on teff
o Cereals have the highest area share of grain crops & among
cereals teff has the highest share of area coverage (CSA, 2011).
Teff : Production & Cultivated Area
• Oromia and Amhara
regions in 2010/11 :
o 85 percent of the national
o 84 percent of area
cultivated by teff
• S.N.N.P’s contribution to
national teff production
and area coverage in the
same year was 8.5 and
9.6 percent, respectively.
Teff : Producer and Fertilizer Use by Terciles
• The percent of
fertilizer on teff fields
and share of fertilized
teff area increased
• Top production
category has the
Teff : Production, Cultivated Area, and
• In non-remote areas,
there is an increase in
o Teff production:
from 10 percent to
o Teff area: from 8
percent to 44
Teff : Yield, Fertilized Area, and Accessibility
• In areas with in 3 hours of
access to large cities, there
is an increase in:
o Teff yield: from 9 q/ha to
o The percent of fertilized
teff area: 9 to 55 percent
1997/98 2006/07 2010/11
Under 3 hours
• The percent of producers applying fertilizer on teff fields
• Increasingly larger share of teff area is being fertilized.
• An increase in teff production, area, and yield is noted
within 3 hours travel time to a city of at least 50,000
• Increase in market access and fertilizer use on teff fields
over the study years.