Tef Breeding: Challenges and
Opportunities
CONFERENCE: Improved Evidence Towards
Better Policies for the Tef Value Chain
B...
Outline
 Introduction
Significance of

tef crop
Relative merits of tef


Tef Breeding: Historical Perspectives

 Obje...
Introduction
Tef is the most important cereal of

Ethiopia
About 29% of the total acreage and 19% of

the gross grain pr...
Table 1. Area, production and yield of cereals for private holdings for
2011/12 (2004 E.C.) main (meher) season in Ethiopi...
Introduction (Cont’d)
Relative merits in husbandry
1) Versatile agro-ecological adaptation (0-

3000 m a.s.l.)
Center of ...
Fig. 1. Tef production areas

6
Introduction (Cont’d)
Relative merits in husbandry

3) Fitness for various cropping systems
4) Use as a catch and low-ris...
Introduction (Cont’d)
Relative merits in utilization

1) Best quality, consumer-preferred
“injera”: Good water holding ca...
Introduction (Cont’d)
Relative merits in utilization (Cont’d)

4) Minimal postharvest losses and
high storage
longevity (...
Introduction (Cont’d)
Relative merits in utilization (Cont’d)

5) Importance of the
straw mainly as
fodder for cattle
and...
Introduction (Cont’d)
Relative merits in utilization (Cont’d)

6) Cash crop value owing to the high
market prices of both...
Introduction (Cont’d)
7) Nutritive value
 Very nutritious cereal grain
 High mineral contents (Fe, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mg)
 Hea...
Nutritional content of tef grain
Table 2. Comparison of nutrition status of tef with some of the
major cereals
Item

Tef

...
Some consumer products of
tef

14
Tef Breeding: Historical Perspectives
Inception: Late 1950s (Jima)

Five inter-related phases
1) Phase I: 1956-1974
 Germ...
Tef Breeding: Historical …(Cont’d)
3) Phase III: 1995-1998
Initiation of molecular approaches (molecular
markers and gene...
Tef Breeding: Objectives
Increased productivity (Grain + Straw)
 Lodging Resistance
 Improved quality

- Tef (Grain col...
Tef Breeding: Methodology

18
Major Achievements
 33 varieties released (MoA, 2012)


19 DZARC (10 from crosses)

2

Holetta (Holetta Key & Ambo Toke...
Table 3. Varieties mid and high altitude areas with adequate
moisture (optimum environment) (11)
Variety
DZ-01-354
DZ-01-9...
Table 4. Varieties for terminal drought prone lowland areas (7)
Variety

DZ-Cr-37 (Tsedey)
DZ-01-1281 (Gerado)
DZ-01-1681 ...
Table 5. Varieties released for cool waterlogged highlands (3)
Variety

DZ-01-899
(Gimbichu)
DZ-01-2675
(Dega tef)

Year
r...
Institutional Set-up
DZARC/EIAR
National coordinator
Development and execution of countrywide tef research projects
Fe...
Collaborations
Local
 Various institutions
 NGOs
 Private sector
International
 McKnight

Foundation (MF-CCRP)

 OD...
Challenges
1) Lack of attention (both local and
international)
 Orphan/under-researched crop
 Little or no international...
Challenges
2) Institutional Problems
 DZARC as a center of excellence
 No adequate enhancement of
capacity both at the C...
Challenges
3) Resource limitations
Acute shortage of human resources
Lack of adequate infrastructure
and facilities
Challenges
4) Technical problems
 Limitations in basic knowledge on tef
 Lodging has persisted as major challenge

in te...
Opportunities
1) Improved attention
Government attention against the
previous belief that tef is not
amenable to improvem...
Table 6. Tef germplasm collections [udated
from Seyfu, (1997)]
Source /Institution

No. of samples/
accessionss
Ethiopia, ...
Table 7 . Ranges for some traits of tef
(Kebebew et al., 2001)
Trait

Minimum

Maximum

Days to panicle emergence

25

81
...
Table 7. Cont’d
Trait

Minimum

Maximum

Panicle length (cm)
Peduncle length (cm)

10
5.85

65
42.3

No. primary panicle b...
Table 7. Cont’d
Trait
Grain yield/plant (g)
Total phytomass/plant (g)
Hundred kernel mass (mg)
Grain yield (kg/ha)
Shoot p...
Opportunities (Cont’d)
3) New insights in breeding approaches

 Participatory approaches
 Germplasm Collection/acquisiti...
Opportunities (Cont’d)
3) New breeding approaches (Cont’d)
Ideo-type crossing for lodging resistance
Semi-dwarf compact ...
Opportunities (Cont’d)
3) New insights in breeding
approaches (Cont’d)
Biotechnological approaches
 In

vitro culture te...
Opportunities (Cont’d)
3) New insights in breeding
approaches (Cont’d)
Biotechnological approaches (cont’d)
TILLING

and...
Opportunities (Cont’d)
3) Brighter prospects (cont’d)
 Development and release of a value
chain strategy
 Initiation of ...
Summary: Less problem with good stuff
Conclusions
Commendable progress but yet

not sufficient
For Ethiopia, improvement of tef
is not an option but a dire ne...
Acknowledgements
Ethiopian Government

IFPRI/ATA
EIAR
MF-CCRP

donors

and

other
Tef in Europe

43
Quncho tef scaling-up
THANK YOU!!!
Tef breeding: Challenges & Opportunities
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Tef breeding: Challenges & Opportunities

  1. 1. Tef Breeding: Challenges and Opportunities CONFERENCE: Improved Evidence Towards Better Policies for the Tef Value Chain By Kebebew Assefa 10 October 2013 Hilton Hotel Addis Ababa Ethiopia
  2. 2. Outline  Introduction Significance of tef crop Relative merits of tef  Tef Breeding: Historical Perspectives  Objectives & Major Achievements  Challenges  Opportunities  Conclusions  Acknowledgements
  3. 3. Introduction Tef is the most important cereal of Ethiopia About 29% of the total acreage and 19% of the gross grain production of all cereals (CSA, 2012) (Table 1) It is grown by over 6 million farmers’ households  It is the major staple food grain for most Ethiopians (> 50 million people) (Important in the national food security)
  4. 4. Table 1. Area, production and yield of cereals for private holdings for 2011/12 (2004 E.C.) main (meher) season in Ethiopia (CSA, 2012) Crop Tef Maize Sorghum Wheat Barley Finger millet Oats/Emmer Rice CEREALS Area Production Million % of Million % of ha cereals t cereals 2.73 3.50 28.47 18.61 2.06 6.07 21.48 32.27 1.92 3.95 20.02 21.00 1.44 2.92 15.02 15.52 0.95 1.59 9.91 8.45 0.43 0.66 4.48 3.51 0.03 0.50 0.31 2.66 0.03 0.89 0.31 4.73 9.59 18.81 Av. No. of yield Farmers (t/ha) (million) 1.281 2.954 2.054 2.029 1.672 1.507 1.618 2.891 1.962 6.30 9.16 5.17 4.33 4.09 1.57 0.25 0.09 13.09
  5. 5. Introduction (Cont’d) Relative merits in husbandry 1) Versatile agro-ecological adaptation (0- 3000 m a.s.l.) Center of both origin and diversity  Wide genetic variability  2) Resilience to both drought and waterlogging
  6. 6. Fig. 1. Tef production areas 6
  7. 7. Introduction (Cont’d) Relative merits in husbandry 3) Fitness for various cropping systems 4) Use as a catch and low-risk reliable crop (at times of failures of long-season crops) 5) Little or no serious threats of disease and pest epidemics
  8. 8. Introduction (Cont’d) Relative merits in utilization 1) Best quality, consumer-preferred “injera”: Good water holding capacity, long shelf-life, unique flavor (slightly sour but pleasant), pliability, smooth and glossy texture 2) High returns in flour : 99% compared to 60-80% from wheat (Ebba, 1969) 3) High returns in “injera”
  9. 9. Introduction (Cont’d) Relative merits in utilization (Cont’d) 4) Minimal postharvest losses and high storage longevity (storability)
  10. 10. Introduction (Cont’d) Relative merits in utilization (Cont’d) 5) Importance of the straw mainly as fodder for cattle and as a binder of mud used for plastering walls of local houses
  11. 11. Introduction (Cont’d) Relative merits in utilization (Cont’d) 6) Cash crop value owing to the high market prices of both the grains and the straw
  12. 12. Introduction (Cont’d) 7) Nutritive value  Very nutritious cereal grain  High mineral contents (Fe, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mg)  Health and performance food    Gluten-free (Celiac disease) Slow release carbohydrates (diabetics) Anaemia
  13. 13. Nutritional content of tef grain Table 2. Comparison of nutrition status of tef with some of the major cereals Item Tef Wheat Rice Maize Sorghum Barley Protein 11.0 11.0 9.7 9.4 8.6 8.5 Fat 2.6 1.9 1.6 4.4 3.8 1.5 Fiber 3.5 1.9 5.8 2.2 1.9 4.5 Carbohydrate 73.0 69.3 64.7 69.2 71.3 67.4 Mineral ash 1.7 5.0 1.3 2.4 2.6 3.0 13
  14. 14. Some consumer products of tef 14
  15. 15. Tef Breeding: Historical Perspectives Inception: Late 1950s (Jima) Five inter-related phases 1) Phase I: 1956-1974  Germplasm enhancement  Mass and/or pure-line selection from germplasm  Initiation of induced mutagenesis 2) Phase II: 1975-1995  Discovery of artificial hybridization technique by Tareke Berhe in 1974  Incorporation of intra-specific hybridization 15
  16. 16. Tef Breeding: Historical …(Cont’d) 3) Phase III: 1995-1998 Initiation of molecular approaches (molecular markers and genetic linkage maps, analyses of molecular genetic diversity) 4) Phase IV: 1998-2003  Incorporation of in vitro culture techniques & Interspecific hybridization  Reappraisal of induced mutation techniques 5) Phase V: 2003- present  Introduction of participatory approaches (PVS and PPB)  Continued genomics 16
  17. 17. Tef Breeding: Objectives Increased productivity (Grain + Straw)  Lodging Resistance  Improved quality - Tef (Grain color) - Injera making quality Resistance/tolerance to biotic stresses Resistance /tolerance to abiotic stresses Generation of basic information  Promotion of improved varieties
  18. 18. Tef Breeding: Methodology 18
  19. 19. Major Achievements  33 varieties released (MoA, 2012)  19 DZARC (10 from crosses) 2 Holetta (Holetta Key & Ambo Toke)  1 Melkassa (Gemechis)  5 Sirinka (Gola, Genete, Zobel, Mechare & Laketch – RIL273 from DZARC)  1 Areka (Ajora)  3 Adet (Yilmana, Dima & Etsub)  2 Bako (Guduru & Kena)  Only 11 were from crosses (incl. Lakecth)
  20. 20. Table 3. Varieties mid and high altitude areas with adequate moisture (optimum environment) (11) Variety DZ-01-354 DZ-01-99 DZ-01-787 DZ-01-196 DZ-Cr-44 DZ-Cr-82 DZ-Cr-255 DZ-01-974 DZ-Cr-358 DZ-01-1285 (Koye) DZ-Cr-387 RIL 355 (Quncho) Year Seed color released Grain yield (t/ha) Research field Farmers' field 1970 1970 1978 1970 1982 1982 1993 1995 1995 2002 Pale White Brown Pale White Very white White White White White White White 2.4-3.2 2.4-3.0 2.4-3.0 1.8-2.2 2.4-3.0 2.4-2.8 2.0-3.0 2.4-3.4 2.1-3.6 2.4-3.6 1.7-2.2 1.7-2.2 1.7-2.2 1.4-1.6 1.7-2.2 1.7-2.2 1.4-1.8 2.0-2.5 2.0-2.5 1.8-2.5 2006 Very White 2.5-2.7 2.0-2.8 20
  21. 21. Table 4. Varieties for terminal drought prone lowland areas (7) Variety DZ-Cr-37 (Tsedey) DZ-01-1281 (Gerado) DZ-01-1681 (Key Tena) Ho-Cr-136 (Amarach) Gemechis Simada (Cr-285 RIL295) Boset Year released 1984 2002 2002 2006 2007 2009 Seed color Grain yield (t/ha) Research field Farmers' field White White White White White White 1.8-2.2 2.0-2.2 2.0-2.2 1.7-2.3 1.5-1.8 1.8-2.2 1.7-2.0 1.6-2.0 1.6-2.0 1.4-1.8 1.4-1.8 1.7-2.0 2012 Very white 1.9-2.8 1.6-2.0 Boset: DZ-01-196 X DZ- Cr-37) HT'01-409 (sel 50d) 21
  22. 22. Table 5. Varieties released for cool waterlogged highlands (3) Variety DZ-01-899 (Gimbichu) DZ-01-2675 (Dega tef) Year released Seed color Grain yield (t/ha) Research field Farmers' field 2005 White 1.8-2.0 1.6-1.8 2005 White 1.8-2.8 1.6-2.0 Two candidate varieties: under verification in 2013/14 main season 22
  23. 23. Institutional Set-up DZARC/EIAR National coordinator Development and execution of countrywide tef research projects Federal Research Centers RARIs HLIs On-farm trials
  24. 24. Collaborations Local  Various institutions  NGOs  Private sector International  McKnight Foundation (MF-CCRP)  ODA  IAEA  TTU and Cornell University  University of Bern
  25. 25. Challenges 1) Lack of attention (both local and international)  Orphan/under-researched crop  Little or no international focus (CGs, regional or other national institutions, donors, etc.)  Limited national focus:  Recognition as a national priority
  26. 26. Challenges 2) Institutional Problems  DZARC as a center of excellence  No adequate enhancement of capacity both at the CoE and national level at large  Lack of coordination
  27. 27. Challenges 3) Resource limitations Acute shortage of human resources Lack of adequate infrastructure and facilities
  28. 28. Challenges 4) Technical problems  Limitations in basic knowledge on tef  Lodging has persisted as major challenge in tef  Seed size  Shattering  Resistance to diseases such as leaf rust  Weak seed systems and technology dissemination systems
  29. 29. Opportunities 1) Improved attention Government attention against the previous belief that tef is not amenable to improvement Improved international attention especially by donors
  30. 30. Table 6. Tef germplasm collections [udated from Seyfu, (1997)] Source /Institution No. of samples/ accessionss Ethiopia, IIBC 5169 Germany, Inst. of Crop Science, Braunschwelg 30 Germany, Insti. for Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, (IPK) 5 Genebank, Gatersleben Japan, Dept. of Genetic Resources, I Nat. Inst. of Agrobio. Resources 30 Yemen, Agricultural Research and Extension Authority 2 Russia, N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Res. Insti. of Plant Industry, St. Petersburg, 14 Slovak Republic, Botanical Garden of the University of Agriculture 1 South Africa, Division of Plant and Seed Control. Dept. of Agric. Tech. Service, Private Bag X179, Pretoria UK, Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Inst. of Grassland and Environ. Res. USA, National Seed Storage Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado USA, Western Region Plant Introduction Station, USDA-ARS, Washington State University, Pullman Total 3 3 341 368 5966 31
  31. 31. Table 7 . Ranges for some traits of tef (Kebebew et al., 2001) Trait Minimum Maximum Days to panicle emergence 25 81 Days to mature 60 140 Grain filling period (days) 29 75 Plant height (cm) 20 156 Culm length (cm) 11 82 First culm internode length (cm) 2.68 8.05 Second culm internode length (cm) 4.15 11.45 First and second culm internode diameter (mm) 1.2 4.5
  32. 32. Table 7. Cont’d Trait Minimum Maximum Panicle length (cm) Peduncle length (cm) 10 5.85 65 42.3 No. primary panicle branches 10 40 No. spikelet/panicle 30 1070 No. florets/spikelet 3 17 Grain yield/panicle (g) 0.11 No. tillers/plant (total) 4 22 No. tillers/plant (fertile) 1 17 2.5
  33. 33. Table 7. Cont’d Trait Grain yield/plant (g) Total phytomass/plant (g) Hundred kernel mass (mg) Grain yield (kg/ha) Shoot phytomass yield (kg/ha) Diameter of grains (mm) Harvest index (%) Lodging index Minimum 0.54 4 18.97 1058 Maximum 21.9 105 33.88 4599 6355 19630 0.50 5 20 1.0 39 100
  34. 34. Opportunities (Cont’d) 3) New insights in breeding approaches  Participatory approaches  Germplasm Collection/acquisition  Hybridization  Increasing number of crosses  Intra-specific and inter-specific crossing  Harnessing potentials of wide crosses (Divergent Crossing)  Targeted Crossing
  35. 35. Opportunities (Cont’d) 3) New breeding approaches (Cont’d) Ideo-type crossing for lodging resistance Semi-dwarf compact panicle ideotypes with reduced peduncle length Semi-dwarf semi-compact (Gomadie-like) panicle types with short peduncles (i.e. inflorescence ideotype more or less similar to that of rice) Semi-dwarf loose panicle types with reduced length between panicle branches and short peduncles)
  36. 36. Opportunities (Cont’d) 3) New insights in breeding approaches (Cont’d) Biotechnological approaches  In vitro culture techniques (especially DH production)  Molecular markers and linkage map  QTL analysis  Comparative genomics (association mapping)
  37. 37. Opportunities (Cont’d) 3) New insights in breeding approaches (Cont’d) Biotechnological approaches (cont’d) TILLING and Eco-TILLING Genome sequence and annotation (functional genomics)  MAS  Genetic transformation  Harnessing important tef genes
  38. 38. Opportunities (Cont’d) 3) Brighter prospects (cont’d)  Development and release of a value chain strategy  Initiation of focus on enhancement of national tef research capability  Improvements in seed multiplication and technology dissemination
  39. 39. Summary: Less problem with good stuff
  40. 40. Conclusions Commendable progress but yet not sufficient For Ethiopia, improvement of tef is not an option but a dire need Strengthened efforts in all aspects Refinement & strict implementation of the strategy
  41. 41. Acknowledgements Ethiopian Government IFPRI/ATA EIAR MF-CCRP donors and other
  42. 42. Tef in Europe 43
  43. 43. Quncho tef scaling-up
  44. 44. THANK YOU!!!

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