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Scholarly publishing and Linked Data: describing roles, statuses, temporal and contextual extents
 

Scholarly publishing and Linked Data: describing roles, statuses, temporal and contextual extents

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  • Good stuff, thanks for sharing it! However, it might be interesting to consider the (upcoming) Named Graph standardisation effort in this context. In our vision (dm2e.eu) these should help with provenance, versioning and other issues requiring an extension of the strict RDF triple model.
    Cheers -- Stefan
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Scholarly publishing and Linked Data: describing roles, statuses, temporal and contextual extents Scholarly publishing and Linked Data: describing roles, statuses, temporal and contextual extents Presentation Transcript

  • Scholarly publishing and Linked Data: describing roles, statuses, temporal and contextual extents Silvio Peroni - essepuntato@cs.unibo.it David Shotton - david.shotton@zoo.ox.ac.uk Fabio Vitali - fabio@cs.unibo.it I-Semantics 2012, September 5-7, 2012, Graz, Austriahttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0
  • Outline• Modelling time and context: current ontologies and drawbacks• Requirements for a time- and context-aware Linked Data model• Our solution: the Time-indexed Value in Context ontology pattern• PRO and PSO: two Semantic Publishing ontologies to handle personal roles and statuses of documents• Conclusions and future directions
  • Modelling time and context
  • Semantic Publishing• Semantic Publishing characterises the current phase of the publishing revolution, which involves Web and Semantic Web standards for publishing purposes• Semantic Publishing concerns: ✦ enriching the article with appropriate metadata ✦ enhancing the representation of the meaning of a published document ✦ facilitating its automated discovery ✦ enabling its linking to semantically related articles ✦ providing access to data within the article in actionable form ✦ facilitating integration of data between papers ✴ Shotton, D. (2009). Semantic Publishing: the coming revolution in scientific journal publishing. Learned Publishing, 22 (2): 85-94. DOI: 10.1087/2009202
  • Publishing- and scholarly-aware ontologies• Important research area: the development of ontologies that enable the publication of related semantic data into the Linked Data according to appropriate vocabularies and requirements of scholarly authoring and publishing• We developed the Semantic Publishing and Referencing (SPAR) Ontologies, which aim at describing all the aspects of the scholarly publishing domain as comprehensive machine-readable RDF metadata ✦ SPAR homepage: http://purl.org/spar ✦ They imports well-known models: DC, PRISM, FRBR, SKOS, CO, FOAF ✴ Peroni, S., Shotton, D. (2012). FaBiO and CiTO: ontologies for describing bibliographic resources and citations. In Journal of Web Semantics. DOI: 10.1016/j.websem.2012.08.001
  • Time and context• Issue we had to address during the development of SPAR: how to handle formally, through ontologies, the contextual and time- dependent aspects of publishing entities, in particular: ✦ personal roles (author, student, affiliation, etc.) ✦ statuses of documents (under-review, accepted for publication, in- print, etc.)• Basically, we need a mechanism to describe scenario in which an entity has a value only within a specific temporal interval and/or contextual (e.g. social, cultural, physical) environment• Techniques used in existing (Linked Data) ontologies to represent the value so as to handle the above modelling scenario: subsumptions, property links and inter-linked classes
  • Subsumptions: values as classes• This technique is a simplification usually adopted when one wants to describe a value, e.g. being a student, as a sub-specification of a closely-related entity, e.g. a person, that holds that value Person rdfs:subClassOf Student• Pros: easy modelling; straightforward inference (e.g. if an entity has been a student, now or in the past, then it is also a person)• Cons: anti-rigid entities cannot be satisfactorily achieved (e.g. when an entity is described as student in the model it keeps this characteristic forever)• Adopted by: Portal Ontology (http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal)
  • Subsumptions: values as classes• This technique is a simplification usually adopted when one wants to describe a value, e.g. being a student, as a sub-specification of a closely-related entity, e.g. a person, that holds that value Entity Person rdfs:subClassOf Value Student• Pros: easy modelling; straightforward inference (e.g. if an entity has been a student, now or in the past, then it is also a person)• Cons: anti-rigid entities cannot be satisfactorily achieved (e.g. when an entity is described as student in the model it keeps this characteristic forever)• Adopted by: Portal Ontology (http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal)
  • Subsumptions: values as classes• This technique is a simplification usually adopted when one wants to describe a value, e.g. being a student, as a sub-specification of a closely-related entity, e.g. a person, that holds that value Entity Being a person is time-independent – Silvio Peroni is a Person living person while Kurt Vonnegut is a dead person, but we still describe both as persons rdfs:subClassOf Value Student• Pros: easy modelling; straightforward inference (e.g. if an entity has been a student, now or in the past, then it is also a person)• Cons: anti-rigid entities cannot be satisfactorily achieved (e.g. when an entity is described as student in the model it keeps this characteristic forever)• Adopted by: Portal Ontology (http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal)
  • Subsumptions: values as classes• This technique is a simplification usually adopted when one wants to describe a value, e.g. being a student, as a sub-specification of a closely-related entity, e.g. a person, that holds that value OntoClean Entity classification Being a person is time-independent – Silvio Peroni is a Person living person while Kurt Vonnegut is a dead person, rigid class but we still describe both as persons rdfs:subClassOf Value Student• Pros: easy modelling; straightforward inference (e.g. if an entity has been a student, now or in the past, then it is also a person)• Cons: anti-rigid entities cannot be satisfactorily achieved (e.g. when an entity is described as student in the model it keeps this characteristic forever)• Adopted by: Portal Ontology (http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal)
  • Subsumptions: values as classes• This technique is a simplification usually adopted when one wants to describe a value, e.g. being a student, as a sub-specification of a closely-related entity, e.g. a person, that holds that value OntoClean Entity classification Being a person is time-independent – Silvio Peroni is a Person living person while Kurt Vonnegut is a dead person, rigid class but we still describe both as persons rdfs:subClassOf Value Being a student is time-dependent – Silvio Peroni was Student recently a graduate student, but it is no longer• Pros: easy modelling; straightforward inference (e.g. if an entity has been a student, now or in the past, then it is also a person)• Cons: anti-rigid entities cannot be satisfactorily achieved (e.g. when an entity is described as student in the model it keeps this characteristic forever)• Adopted by: Portal Ontology (http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal)
  • Subsumptions: values as classes• This technique is a simplification usually adopted when one wants to describe a value, e.g. being a student, as a sub-specification of a closely-related entity, e.g. a person, that holds that value OntoClean Entity classification Being a person is time-independent – Silvio Peroni is a Person living person while Kurt Vonnegut is a dead person, rigid class but we still describe both as persons rdfs:subClassOf Value Being a student is time-dependent – Silvio Peroni was Student recently a graduate student, but it is no longer anti-rigid class• Pros: easy modelling; straightforward inference (e.g. if an entity has been a student, now or in the past, then it is also a person)• Cons: anti-rigid entities cannot be satisfactorily achieved (e.g. when an entity is described as student in the model it keeps this characteristic forever)• Adopted by: Portal Ontology (http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal)
  • Property links: values as properties• This technique takes into account anti-rigid characteristics by using a specific property for defining each time- and context-dependent values (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation, being the author of a document) that an entity (e.g. a person) have, while continuing to express the context to which values refer to as individuals of a particular class (e.g. Organization, Document) Person hasAffiliation Organization made Document• Pros: straightforward specification; very common in Linked Data vocabularies• Cons: any time we need an additional value (e.g. being publisher of) we must define a new property [bad practice]; it is not possible to understand which is the context (e.g. the document) in which a value (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation) is held by an agent (e.g. a person) when multiple instances (at different times and/or contexts) are possible• Adopted by: SW Conference Ontology (http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/ontology)
  • Property links: values as properties • This technique takes into account anti-rigid characteristics by using a specific property for defining each time- and context-dependent values (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation, being the author of a document) that an entity (e.g. a person) have, while continuing to express the context to which values refer to as individuals of a particular class (e.g. Organization, Document)Entity Context Value Person hasAffiliation Organization Value made Document Context • Pros: straightforward specification; very common in Linked Data vocabularies • Cons: any time we need an additional value (e.g. being publisher of) we must define a new property [bad practice]; it is not possible to understand which is the context (e.g. the document) in which a value (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation) is held by an agent (e.g. a person) when multiple instances (at different times and/or contexts) are possible • Adopted by: SW Conference Ontology (http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/ontology)
  • Property links: values as properties • This technique takes into account anti-rigid characteristics by using a specific property for defining each time- and context-dependent values (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation, being the author of a document) that an entity (e.g. a person) have, while continuing to express the context to which values refer to as individuals of a particular class (e.g. Organization, Document)Entity Context Value Person hasAffiliation Organization :person # Affiliation for paper 1 Value swrc:affiliation :uni-of-bologna ; made foaf:made :paper1 . Document Context • Pros: straightforward specification; very common in Linked Data vocabularies • Cons: any time we need an additional value (e.g. being publisher of) we must define a new } property [bad practice]; it is not possible to understand which is the context (e.g. the document) in which a value (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation) is held by an agent (e.g. a person) when multiple instances (at different times and/or contexts) are possible • Adopted by: SW Conference Ontology (http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/ontology)
  • Property links: values as properties • This technique takes into account anti-rigid characteristics by using a specific property for defining each time- and context-dependent values (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation, being the author of a document) that an entity (e.g. a person) have, while continuing to express the context to which values refer to as individuals of a particular class (e.g. Organization, Document)Entity Context Value Person hasAffiliation Organization :person # Affiliation for paper 1 Value swrc:affiliation :uni-of-bologna ; made foaf:made :paper1 . :person # Affiliation for paper 2 Document swrc:affiliation :uni-of-oxford ; foaf:made :paper2 . Context • Pros: straightforward specification; very common in Linked Data vocabularies • Cons: any time we need an additional value (e.g. being publisher of) we must define a new } property [bad practice]; it is not possible to understand which is the context (e.g. the document) in which a value (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation) is held by an agent (e.g. a person) when multiple instances (at different times and/or contexts) are possible • Adopted by: SW Conference Ontology (http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/ontology)
  • Property links: values as properties • This technique takes into account anti-rigid characteristics by using a specific property for defining each time- and context-dependent values (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation, being the author of a document) that an entity (e.g. a person) have, while continuing to express the context to which values refer to as individuals of a particular class (e.g. Organization, Document)Entity Context Value Person hasAffiliation Organization :person # Affiliation for paper 1 Value Those are the same swrc:affiliation :uni-of-bologna ; made resource foaf:made :paper1 . :person # Affiliation for paper 2 Document swrc:affiliation :uni-of-oxford ; foaf:made :paper2 . Context • Pros: straightforward specification; very common in Linked Data vocabularies • Cons: any time we need an additional value (e.g. being publisher of) we must define a new } property [bad practice]; it is not possible to understand which is the context (e.g. the document) in which a value (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation) is held by an agent (e.g. a person) when multiple instances (at different times and/or contexts) are possible • Adopted by: SW Conference Ontology (http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/ontology)
  • Property links: values as properties • This technique takes into account anti-rigid characteristics by using a specific property for defining each time- and context-dependent values (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation, being the author of a document) that an entity (e.g. a person) have, while continuing to express the context to which values refer to as individuals of a particular class (e.g. Organization, Document)Entity Context Value Person hasAffiliation Organization :person # Affiliation for paper 1 Value Those are the same swrc:affiliation :uni-of-bologna ; made resource foaf:made :paper1 . :person # Affiliation for paper 2 Document What is the author’s swrc:affiliation :uni-of-oxford ; affiliation for a specific foaf:made :paper2 . Context article? • Pros: straightforward specification; very common in Linked Data vocabularies • Cons: any time we need an additional value (e.g. being publisher of) we must define a new } property [bad practice]; it is not possible to understand which is the context (e.g. the document) in which a value (e.g. being affiliated with an organisation) is held by an agent (e.g. a person) when multiple instances (at different times and/or contexts) are possible • Adopted by: SW Conference Ontology (http://data.semanticweb.org/ns/swc/ontology)
  • Inter-linked classes: values as individuals• This technique allows one to address the association of entities (e.g. people) to values (e.g. academic roles) considering both as separate class and linking them with an additional object property graduate-student Person hasRole Role rdf:type professor Entity Value intern undergraduate-student• Pros: easily extensible (adding new values means adding a new individuals)• Cons: temporal and contextual information can be associated only to individuals of those two classes (e.g. the role graduate-student can be associated with a temporal interval in which it holds; however, if two people share the same role, there is no way to associate the different intervals during which these people hold that role)• Adopted by: SW Conference Ontology
  • Requirements
  • Requirements of the model• The previous techniques are not enough expressive for describing the scenario that relates an entity to a particular value in a particular period and according to a particular context• ✦ Past works in ontology engineering giving fundamental bases in that area: Boella et al. (2007). Roles, an interdisciplinary perspective. Special Issue of the Journal of Applied Ontology, 2 (2): 81-207. ISSN: 1570-5838 ✦ Guarino et al. (2002). Evaluating ontological decisions with OntoClean. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (2): 61-65. DOI: 10.1145/503124.503150 ✦ Masolo et al. (2004). Social Roles and their Descriptions. In Proceedings of KR 2004• ✦ Requirements for a (Linked Data) model: expressible, to handle the above scenario entirely ✦ compact, easy to write and understand ✦ flexible, to allow the definition of new values without compromising the consistency of the model, even according to multiple triplestores made available by different agent
  • Towards a solution: time-indexed situation• The time-indexed situation http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl is an ontological pattern that allows one to link a subject to a time-dependent description of a situation ✦ In this context, a situation is defined as a view on a set of entities (e.g. a relational context)• It is able to handle our scenario, but it is still too abstract both as a model and in terms of its terminology
  • Towards a solution: time-indexed situation • The time-indexed situation http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl is an ontological pattern that allows one to link a subject to a time-dependent description of a situation ✦ In this context, a situation is defined as a view on a set of entities (e.g. a relational context) • It is able to handle our scenario, but it is still too abstract both as a model and in terms of its terminology:peroni a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Silvio Peroni” .:uni-of-oxford a foaf:Organization ; foaf:name “University of Oxford” .:intern a swc:Role .
  • Towards a solution: time-indexed situation • The time-indexed situation http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl is an ontological pattern that allows one to link a subject to a time-dependent description of a situation ✦ In this context, a situation is defined as a view on a set of entities (e.g. a relational context) • It is able to handle our scenario, but it is still too abstract both as a model and in terms of its terminology:peroni a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Silvio Peroni” .:uni-of-oxford a foaf:Organization ; foaf:name “University of Oxford” .:intern a swc:Role .:peroni tisit:hasTimeIndexedSetting [ a tisit:TimeIndexedSituation ; tisit:forEntity :intern,:uni-of-oxford ; tisit:atTime [ a ti:TimeInterval ; ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2012-06” ; ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2012-12” ] ] .
  • Towards a solution: time-indexed situation • The time-indexed situation http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl is an ontological pattern that allows one to link a subject to a time-dependent description of a situation ✦ In this context, a situation is defined as a view on a set of entities (e.g. a relational context) • It is able to handle our scenario, but it is still too abstract both as a model and in terms of its terminology:peroni a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Silvio Peroni” .:uni-of-oxford a foaf:Organization ; foaf:name “University of Oxford” .:intern a swc:Role .Entity:peroni tisit:hasTimeIndexedSetting [ a tisit:TimeIndexedSituation ; tisit:forEntity :intern,:uni-of-oxford ; tisit:atTime [ Value Context a ti:TimeInterval ; Time ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2012-06” ; ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2012-12” ] ] .
  • Towards a solution: time-indexed situation • The time-indexed situation http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl is an ontological pattern that allows one to link a subject to a time-dependent description of a situation ✦ In this context, a situation is defined as a view on a set of entities (e.g. a relational context) • It is able to handle our scenario, but it is still too abstract both as a model and in terms of its terminology:peroni a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Silvio Peroni” .:uni-of-oxford a foaf:Organization ; foaf:name “University of Oxford” .:intern a swc:Role . Different interpretations:Entity:peroni tisit:hasTimeIndexedSetting [ 1. :peroni related at a particular period to :uni-of- a tisit:TimeIndexedSituation ; oxford that has role :intern tisit:forEntity :intern,:uni-of-oxford ; 2. :peroni worked at a particular period with tisit:atTime [ Value Context somebody having the role of :intern within :uni-of- a ti:TimeInterval ; oxford Time ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2012-06” ; 3. :peroni was an :intern within :uni-of-oxford during ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2012-12” ] ] . a particular period
  • Towards a solution: time-indexed situation • The time-indexed situation http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl is an ontological pattern that allows one to link a subject to a time-dependent description of a situation ✦ In this context, a situation is defined as a view on a set of entities (e.g. a relational context) • It is able to handle our scenario, but it is still too abstract both as a model and in terms of its terminology:peroni a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Silvio Peroni” .:uni-of-oxford a foaf:Organization ; foaf:name “University of Oxford” .:intern a swc:Role . Different interpretations:Entity:peroni tisit:hasTimeIndexedSetting [ 1. :peroni related at a particular period to :uni-of- a tisit:TimeIndexedSituation ; oxford that has role :intern tisit:forEntity :intern,:uni-of-oxford ; 2. :peroni worked at a particular period with tisit:atTime [ Value Context somebody having the role of :intern within :uni-of- a ti:TimeInterval ; oxford Time ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2012-06” ; 3. :peroni was an :intern within :uni-of-oxford during ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2012-12” ] ] . a particular period
  • Towards a solution: time-indexed situation • The time-indexed situation http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl is an ontological pattern that allows one to link a subject to a time-dependent description of a situation ✦ In this context, a situation is defined as a view on a set of entities (e.g. a relational context) • It is able to handle our scenario, but it is still too abstract both as a model and in terms of its terminology:peroni a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Silvio Peroni” .:uni-of-oxford a foaf:Organization ; foaf:name “University of Oxford” .:intern a swc:Role . Different interpretations:Entity:peroni tisit:hasTimeIndexedSetting [ 1. :peroni related at a particular period to :uni-of- a tisit:TimeIndexedSituation ; oxford that has role :intern tisit:forEntity :intern,:uni-of-oxford ; 2. :peroni worked at a particular period with tisit:atTime [ Value Context somebody having the role of :intern within :uni-of- a ti:TimeInterval ; oxford Time ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2012-06” ; 3. :peroni was an :intern within :uni-of-oxford during ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2012-12” ] ] . a particular period
  • Towards a solution: time-indexed situation • The time-indexed situation http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/timeindexedsituation.owl is an ontological pattern that allows one to link a subject to a time-dependent description of a situation ✦ In this context, a situation is defined as a view on a set of entities (e.g. a relational context) • It is able to handle our scenario, but it is still too abstract both as a model and in terms of its terminology:peroni a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Silvio Peroni” .:uni-of-oxford a foaf:Organization ; foaf:name “University of Oxford” .:intern a swc:Role . Different interpretations:Entity:peroni tisit:hasTimeIndexedSetting [ 1. :peroni related at a particular period to :uni-of- a tisit:TimeIndexedSituation ; oxford that has role :intern tisit:forEntity :intern,:uni-of-oxford ; 2. :peroni worked at a particular period with tisit:atTime [ Value Context somebody having the role of :intern within :uni-of- a ti:TimeInterval ; oxford Time ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2012-06” ; 3. :peroni was an :intern within :uni-of-oxford during ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2012-12” ] ] . a particular period that’s fine, but how to understand that?
  • Our solution
  • Time-indexed value in context• Our time-indexed value in context (TVC) http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc extends the time-indexed situation pattern so as to fully describe the four different entities involved in these kinds of scenarios: ✦ the entity having some value ✦ the value had by someone ✦ the time period during which the entity has that value ✦ the particular context that characterises the act of having that value
  • Time-indexed value in context• Our time-indexed value in context (TVC) http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc extends the time-indexed situation pattern so as to fully describe the four different entities involved in these kinds of scenarios: ✦ the entity having some value ✦ the value had by someone ✦ the time period during which the entity has that value this class is a particular kind of time- ✦ the particular context that characterises the act of indexed situation (i.e. a subclass of having that value tisit:TimeIndexedSituation) that represents an hub linking the entity having a particular value (hasValue), the value itself (withValue) and the temporal (atTime) and contextual (withinContext) extents on which the entity-value relationship depends
  • Time-indexed value in context• Our time-indexed value in context (TVC) http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc extends the time-indexed situation pattern so as to fully describe the four different entities involved in these kinds of scenarios: ✦ the entity having some value ✦ the value had by someone ✦ the time period during which the entity has that value this class is a particular kind of time- ✦ the particular context that characterises the act of indexed situation (i.e. a subclass of having that value tisit:TimeIndexedSituation) that :peroni tvc:hasValue [ represents an hub linking the entity a tvc:ValueInTime ; having a particular value (hasValue), tvc:withValue :intern ; the value itself (withValue) and the tvc:withinContext :uni-of-oxford ; temporal (atTime) and contextual tvc:atTime [ (withinContext) extents on which the a ti:TimeInterval ; ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2012-06” ; entity-value relationship depends ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2012-12” ] ] .
  • Time-indexed value in context • Our time-indexed value in context (TVC) http://www.essepuntato.it/2012/04/tvc extends the time-indexed situation pattern so as to fully describe the four different entities involved in these kinds of scenarios: ✦ the entity having some value ✦ the value had by someone ✦ the time period during which the entity has that value this class is a particular kind of time- ✦ the particular context that characterises the act of indexed situation (i.e. a subclass of having that value tisit:TimeIndexedSituation) thatEntity :peroni tvc:hasValue [ represents an hub linking the entity a tvc:ValueInTime ; having a particular value (hasValue), tvc:withValue :intern ; Value the value itself (withValue) and the tvc:withinContext :uni-of-oxford ; Context temporal (atTime) and contextual tvc:atTime [ (withinContext) extents on which the a ti:TimeInterval ; Time ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2012-06” ; entity-value relationship depends ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2012-12” ] ] .
  • Querying a TVC-based model via SPARQL
  • Querying a TVC-based model via SPARQL• Give me all the values had by :peroni SELECT DISTINCT ?value WHERE { :peroni tvc:hasValue/tvc:withValue ?value }
  • Querying a TVC-based model via SPARQL• Give me all the values had by :peroni SELECT DISTINCT ?value WHERE { :peroni tvc:hasValue/tvc:withValue ?value }• Give me all the roles had by :peroni at 24 August 2010 (i.e. aquired before and lost after that date) in the context of :uni-of-bologna SELECT DISTINCT ?value WHERE { ?value a swc:Role . :peroni tvc:hasValue [ a tvc:ValueInTime ; tvc:withValue ?value ; tvc:withinContext :uni-of-bologna ; tvc:atTime [ a ti:TimeInterval ; ti:hasIntervalStartDate ?start ; ti:hasIntervalEndDate ?end ] ] FILTER( xsd:dateTime(?start) <= “2010-08-24T00:00:00Z” && xsd:dateTime(?end) > “2010-08-25T00:00:00Z” ) }
  • Reusing external classes as values
  • Reusing external classes as values• The Portal Ontology defines a hierarchy of roles in form of classes, which can be used with TVC :person1 tvc:hasValue [ a tvc:ValueInTime ; tvc:withValue portal:Affiliated-Person ] . :person2 tvc:hasValue [ a tvc:ValueInTime ; tvc:withValue portal:Student ] . :person3 tvc:hasValue [ a tvc:ValueInTime ; tvc:withValue portal:PhD-Student ] . Statements defined in the Portal Ontology portal:Student rdfs:subClassOf portal:Affiliated-Person . portal:PhD-Student rdfs:subClassOf portal:Student .
  • Reusing external classes as values• The Portal Ontology defines a hierarchy of roles in form of classes, which can be used with TVC :person1 tvc:hasValue [ a tvc:ValueInTime ; tvc:withValue portal:Affiliated-Person ] . :person2 tvc:hasValue [ a tvc:ValueInTime ; tvc:withValue portal:Student ] . :person3 tvc:hasValue [ a tvc:ValueInTime ; tvc:withValue portal:PhD-Student ] . Statements defined in the Portal Ontology portal:Student rdfs:subClassOf portal:Affiliated-Person . portal:PhD-Student rdfs:subClassOf portal:Student .• Give me of any person affiliated with :uni-of-bologna SELECT DISTINCT ?person WHERE { ?person tvc:hasValue [ a tvc:ValueInTime ; tvc:withValue ?aff ; tvc:withinContext :uni-of-bologna ] . { SELECT ?aff WHERE { { ?aff a owl:Class . FILTER(?aff = portal:Affiliated-Person) } UNION { ?aff rdfs:subClassOf+ portal:Affiliated-Person } } } }
  • Constructing second-order inferences
  • Constructing second-order inferences• It is sometimes desirable to reuse ontologies that specify categories (e.g. roles) through properties rather than classes
  • Constructing second-order inferences• It is sometimes desirable to reuse ontologies that specify categories (e.g. roles) through properties rather than classes ✦ E.g. BIBO, available at http://http://bibliontology.com dcterms:contributor a owl:ObjectProperty . bibo:translator rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor . bibo:editor rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor . bibo:director rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor .
  • Constructing second-order inferences• It is sometimes desirable to reuse ontologies that specify categories (e.g. roles) through properties rather than classes ✦ E.g. BIBO, available at http://http://bibliontology.com dcterms:contributor a owl:ObjectProperty . bibo:translator rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor . bibo:editor rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor . bibo:director rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor .• These properties can be used as objects of tvc:withValue statements (by means of OWL 2 punning) _:person a foaf:Person ; tvc:hasValue [ tvc:withValue bibo:translator ; tvc:withinContext _:document ; ... ] .
  • Constructing second-order inferences• It is sometimes desirable to reuse ontologies that specify categories (e.g. roles) through properties rather than classes ✦ E.g. BIBO, available at http://http://bibliontology.com dcterms:contributor a owl:ObjectProperty . bibo:translator rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor . bibo:editor rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor . bibo:director rdfs:subPropertyOf dcterms:contributor .• These properties can be used as objects of tvc:withValue statements (by means of OWL 2 punning) _:person a foaf:Person ; tvc:hasValue [ tvc:withValue bibo:translator ; tvc:withinContext _:document ; ... ] .• Moreover, it is possible to construct second-order inferences starting from TVC descriptions CONSTRUCT { ?doc ?property ?person } WHERE { ?doc a foaf:Document . ?person a foaf:Person ; tvc:hasValue [ tvc:withValue ?property ; tvc:withinContext ?doc ] { SELECT ?property WHERE { { ?property a owl:ObjectProperty . FILTER(?property = dcterms:contributor) } UNION { ?property rdfs:subPropertyOf+ dcterms:contributor } } }
  • Applying TVC tothe Semantic Publishing domain
  • PRO and PSO: ontologies for agent’s roles and document statuses EntityValue Context Time
  • PRO and PSO: ontologies for agent’s roles and document statusesEntity ContextValue Time
  • PRO and PSO: ontologies for agent’s roles and document statusesEntity Entity Value Context ContextValue Time Time
  • PRO and PSO: ontologies for agent’s roles and document statusesEntity Context Entity ContextValue Value Time Time
  • Examples:person pro:holdsRoleInTime
  • Examples:person pro:holdsRoleInTime [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as author of two different papers pro:withRole pro:author ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 , :paper2 ] ,
  • Examples:person pro:holdsRoleInTime [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as author of two different papers pro:withRole pro:author ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 , :paper2 ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Bologna for the first paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-bologna ] ,
  • Examples:person pro:holdsRoleInTime [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as author of two different papers pro:withRole pro:author ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 , :paper2 ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Bologna for the first paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-bologna ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Oxford for the second paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper2 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-oxford ] .
  • Examples:person pro:holdsRoleInTime [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as author of two different papers pro:withRole pro:author ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 , :paper2 ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Bologna for the first paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-bologna ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Oxford for the second paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper2 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-oxford ] .:paper1 pso:holdsStatusInTime
  • Examples:person pro:holdsRoleInTime [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as author of two different papers pro:withRole pro:author ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 , :paper2 ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Bologna for the first paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-bologna ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Oxford for the second paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper2 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-oxford ] .:paper1 pso:holdsStatusInTime [ a pso:StatusInTime ; paper submitted for publication pso:withStatus pso:submitted ; tvc:atTime [ ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2009-04-24T13:18:21Z”^^xsd:dateTime ] ; pso:isAquiredAsConsequenceOf :author-submission-event ] ,
  • Examples:person pro:holdsRoleInTime [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as author of two different papers pro:withRole pro:author ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 , :paper2 ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Bologna for the first paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper1 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-bologna ] , [ a pro:RoleInTime ; as affiliate of the University of Oxford for the second paper pro:withRole pro:affiliate ; pro:relatesToDocument :paper2 ; pro:relatesToOrganization :uni-of-oxford ] .:paper1 pso:holdsStatusInTime [ a pso:StatusInTime ; paper submitted for publication pso:withStatus pso:submitted ; tvc:atTime [ ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2009-04-24T13:18:21Z”^^xsd:dateTime ] ; pso:isAquiredAsConsequenceOf :author-submission-event ] , [ a pso:StatusInTime ; paper is under review pso:withStatus pso:under-review ; tvc:atTime [ ti:hasIntervalStartDate “2009-04-26T12:00:00Z”^^xsd:dateTime ; ti:hasIntervalEndDate “2009-05-27T17:38:01Z”^^xsd:dateTime ] ; pso:isAquiredAsConsequenceOf :editors-send-paper-to-reviewers-event ] ; pso:isLostAsConsequenceOf :reviewers-complete-the-reviews-event ] .
  • Conclusions and future directions• Time and context change the way of modelling domains through OWL ✦ humans acting in specific roles ✦ things processed in phases• Linked data models should be improved when needed by using time- and context- based specifications for roles and statuses• In the domain of scholarly publishing, we proposed the Publishing Roles Ontology (PRO) and the Publishing Status Ontology (PSO) – both part of SPAR – and we illustrated how they provide lightweight and easy integration of time- and context-related features• They implement the Time-indexed Value in Context (TVC), i.e. the ontological pattern we proposed to deal with temporal and contextual issues• Future directions: ✦ to study integration paths between other well-known ontologies through TVC ✦ development of APIs so as to use the pattern within Java and Python applications
  • Thanks for your attention