Diabetes Presentation


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Diabetes Presentation

  1. 1. Type I Diabetes and Kidney Disease Robyn Eady Eng/215 Strayer University
  2. 2. Overviewo Research Proposal to compare Type 1 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease with Long-Term complications. What do they have in common? Can it be reversed? o What is Diabetes o What is Chronic Kidney Diseaseo Literature Review o Review some of the facts and information about Diabetes and its development of type 1 o Chronic Kidney Disease and Dieto Hypothesis
  3. 3. Overview Cont.o Method o Participants o Materials o Procedureso References
  4. 4. What is Diabetes?Diabetes is a disease in which the blood glucose levelsare above normal this happens when most of the food heor she eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodiesto use for energy.The pancreas, is an organ that lies near the stomach, andmakes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get intothe cells of our bodies. When a person has diabetes, thebody either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use itsown insulin as well as it should. This will cause sugar tobuild up in your blood.Diabetes can cause serious health complications includingheart disease, blindness, kidney failure and lowerextremity amputations. www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumer/learn/htm 4
  5. 5. Literature Reviewo Development of Type 1 Diabetes o Types of Diabetes o Type 1 o Type 2 o Gestational Diabeteso Growing Epidemicso Symptoms of Diabetes o Treatment with Insulin and Medication o Long-Term Complications o Diabetes: Harm the Kidneys
  6. 6. Development of Type I Diabetes 6 http://emedicine.medsacpe.com
  7. 7. Types of Diabetes Type 1 – Insulin dependent, persons with Type 1 must have insulin delivered by injections or pump. Type 2 – Non-Insulin dependent or adult-onset diabetes.  Associated with older age  Obesity  Family history of diabetes  History of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity  Race/ethnicity o (African American and Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islanders are higher risk for Type 2 diabetes and complications. Gestational – occurs in women who are pregnant, late stage. www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/general07.htm 7
  8. 8. Diabetes: Growing EpidemicDid you know these facts about diabetes? Nearly 21 millions people in the United States (about 7% of the populations) have diabetes, and about a third do not even know they have the disease. Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease. Diabetes accounts for 45% of kidney failure. Worldwide, 171 million people have diabetes. At lease 20% of people older than 65 years have diabetes. www.kidney.org 8
  9. 9. Symptoms of Diabetes Frequent Urination Excessive Thirst Unexplained Weight Loss Extreme Hunger Sudden Vision Changes Tingling or Numbness in hands or feet Feeling very tired much of the time Very dry skin Sores that are slow to heal More infections than usual Nausea, vomiting, or stomach pains are some of the symptoms in an insulin-dependent diabetic, which is called Type 1 Diabetes. 9 www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumer/learn.htm
  10. 10. Risk Factors & White Foods to Avoid Risk Factors White Foods to AvoidBelly Fat Bread “White”Family History Flour “White”Smoking Sugar “White”Sanitary Life Style Fried Foods Pasta “White” Soda
  11. 11. Treatment with Insulin & Oral Medication Insulin 14% No Medication 16% Oral Only 57% Insulin & Oral Medication 13% www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/general07.htm 11
  12. 12. Long-Term Complications Heart Failure Angina Stroke Heart, Brain, Skin Legs, Eyes, Leg Breakdown Kidney Cramps Nerves, Skin s Damage to Poor Vision the Nerves Kidney Failure www.merck.com/mmhe 12
  13. 13. Diabetes and the KidneysDiabetes can harm the kidneys by causing damage to thefollowing:  Blood vessels in the kidneys  Poor intake of fluid  Nerves in your body  Medication – diuretic “water pills”  Urinary tract www.kidney.org 13
  14. 14. Functions of the KidneyPair of OrgansKeep the Blood CleanProcess 200 quarts ofBlood daily. Removes Waste www.niddk.org 14
  15. 15. Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease Frequent Urination Blood and or Protein in the Urine Burning during Urination Puffiness & Swelling (edema) in the face, hands & feet High Blood Pressure Skin Itching Nausea & Vomiting Weakness www.brighthub.com/health/diabetes/articles/2749/aspx 15
  16. 16. Primary Causes of Kidney Failure Glomerulonep Kidney Failure hritis Cystics 8% Disease 2% Urologic Disease 2% High Blood Pressure 27% Other 17% Diabetes 44% kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudisease/pubs/kdd 16
  17. 17. Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease Glomerular Filtration Stage Description Rate (GFR) Kidney damage (e.g., protein in the urine) 1 w/normal GFR 90 or above Kidney damage w/mild 2 decrease in GFR 60 to 89 3 Moderate decrease in GFR 30 to 59 4 Severe reduction in GFR 15 to 29 Dialysis 5 Kidney Failure Less than 15 17 www.kidney.org
  18. 18. Prevent Kidney DiseaseWays that diabetics can prevent themselves fromacquiring kidney disease:  Control your blood sugar level  Keep blood pressure under control  Check your blood pressure often  Test for kidney disease once a year Take medicine to control blood glucose cholesterol, & blood pressure.  Follow your diet for diabetes  Get regular exercise 18 www.kidney.org
  19. 19. Chronic Kidney Disease Changing the DietProtein  Limit the amount of protein that you eat: instead of 8 oz. more like 3 or 4oz.Cholesterol  Limit the amount of High Cholesterol foods: cookies, pastries and muffins.Sodium  No canned or processed foods like: frozen dinners and hot dogs.Potassium  Oranges, potatoes, bananas, dried fruits, dried beans, and peas, nuts and snack foods.Not Smoking  Two leading cause of Kidney Disease is Diabetes and High blood pressure 19 www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov
  20. 20. Sample Meal Plan Diabetes and Kidney DiseaseBreakfast o Peanut Butter Oatmeal o Fresh Sliced Pears o Very Berry SmoothieLunch o Baked Salmon on a Toasted Hamburger Bun o Roasted Asparagus Spears w/Spicy Tofu Hollandaise o Sliced Pineapple w/Strawberry Lemon thyme SorbetSnack o Cucumbers w/Horseradish & Dill Dip o Mixed NutsDinner o Grilled Vegetables on Bulgur Pilaf o Sliced Avocado o Rum-Baked Apples The potassium contents of this meal may be to high for some people with Chronic Kidney Disease stages 3 or 4 www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov 20
  21. 21. HypothesisIt is hypothesized individuals with stages 3 or 4 chronickidney disease who consume a Renal Failure Diet over a 6month period will be significantly more likely to have theirchronic kidney disease enter remission than individuals withstage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease who do not modify theirdiets.It is further hypothesized that individuals with stage 3 or 4chronic kidney disease who consume an renal failure diet overa 6 month period will be significantly less likely to requiredialysis treatment than individuals with stage 3 or 4 chronickidney disease who do not modify their diets. 21
  22. 22. Method
  23. 23. Participants www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov 23
  24. 24. Materialswww.kidney.niddk.nih.gov 24
  25. 25. Materials Renal Blood – 10 OutpatientAssessment Failure Testing Medical Dialysis Materials Diet Foods Equipment Doctors Facility
  26. 26. Procedures Diagnosis of Type I Diabetes and participants with stage 3 or 4 Chronic Kidney Disease.Experimental participants receive a week’s worth of Renal Failure Diet frozen meals from the Outpatient Dialysis Center weekly. Control participants will maintain their regular diet; which will consist of all food being:  Broiled  Grilled  Baked 26 www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov
  27. 27. Procedures Cont. Participants will be asked to eat meals at a set times. 7 am Breakfast 11 am Lunch  2:30pm Snack 6 pm Dinner Time Frame 6 month period Assessments to determine the necessity of dialysis treatment
  28. 28. ReferencesAmerican Diabetes Association, (2007); Diabetes, Retrieved on August 12, 2010, from www.diabetes.orgBrighthub Health (2008); Health and Diabetes, Retrieved on August 25, 2010; from; www.brighthub.com/health/diabetes/articles/2749/apsxCenter for Disease Control, (2007); What is diabetes, Retrieved on August 12, 2010, from www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumers/learn.htmeMedicine for WebMD, (2009); Development of Type I Diabetes; Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com
  29. 29. ReferencesMerck Manuals, (2010); Online Medical Library, Long-Term Complications Diabetes; Retrieved on August 19, 2010, from www.merck.com/mmheNational Kidney and Urologic Disease Information Clearinghouse, (2010); Kidney Disease, Retrieved from, www.kidney.niddk.nih.govNational Kidney Foundation, (2008); Kidney Disease and Diabetes, Retrieved on August 19, 2010, from www.kidney.org