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Technology Innovation Management (TIM - http://www.carleton.ca/tim) Program at Carleton University, Gate 1 Presentation on...

Technology Innovation Management (TIM - http://www.carleton.ca/tim) Program at Carleton University, Gate 1 Presentation on

"The Defence and Security Simulation Ecosystem: Definining an Innovation Network"

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Esselaar TIM Gate 1 FINAL Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Defence and Security Simulation Ecosystem: Defining an Innovation Network Erik Esselaar Gate 1 Thesis Presentation Technology Innovation Management November 20, 2009 esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 1 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 2. Introduction • CF/DND mandated to transform to better interoperate with allies and partner organizations – Defence and Security (DaS) stakeholders traditionally innovate in “stovepipes”. Varying degrees of inter-organizational collaboration, dependent on problem set / focus. – Modelling & Simulation (M&S) technologies used in varying degrees - particularly applicable in Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E), and Training – Proposal made to establish expanded simulation and innovation capabilities (Near 2009, McComb 2009a) esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 2 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 3. Objective • This thesis will build an ecosystem map between Defence and Security Simulation partners today, will assess its health, will determine motivation and ability to expand collaboration through a future simulation capability, and assess that proposed ecosystem’s health. • Deliverables: – Current ecosystem map of Defence and Security Simulation stakeholders, and ecosystem health assessment – Based on Motivation and Ability, a future ecosystem map, given that a Defence and Security Simulation for Innovation network is built, and ecosystem health assessment. esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 3 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 4. Relevance Who cares Why Evidence that decision makers care about the issues addressed Canadian DND / CF • Domestic and international operations are in “The Chief of Defence Staff’s unifying vision for the CF is that of an a Joint, Interagency, Multi-national and effective integrated military force working in lock-step with allies, Public environment government departments and non-governmental organizations.” • Must train and develop capabilities in sync -McComb, 2009a with our partners Government of Canada / • Responsible for safety and security of “These shared exercises will help develop and validate capabilities Public Safety Canada Canadians - in partnership with DND and arising from the cooperative efforts of various agencies and (Includes RCMP, CSIS, other agencies government departments from all levels.” -Government of Canada, CBSA) • Must develop, plan and train before a 2009 scheduled event “Visualization support to modelling and simulation of all-hazards risk • Must be prepared for contingencies will communicate threats more tangibly to decision makers: to (Emergency Management - EM) properly represent the consequences of known risks coming to fruition modelling and simulation of all-hazards risk could have more • Pressured to better use limited resources impact.” - Hales & Miller, 2008 International Defence • Involved in past, present, and future in “VSIM is a separate $28-million project funded by the Canada Industry CD&E activities Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, and • Are simulation services users and providers industry partners.” - Constructing the Future - Carleton NOW http://www.now.carleton.ca/2005-10/934.htm Academia • Provide critical education and research in technology and innovation, enabled by advanced modelling and simulation US DoD and DHS • Key allies with Canada, already “Overall, the US [DoD] view distributed M&S capabilities as force collaborating in many separate simulation multipliers essential to maintaining force readiness.” events. -McComb, 2009a • Have invested significant funds in simulation; Have common issues with organizational stovepipes esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 4 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 5. Literature review Stream Key highlights of the stream Key references Military •Definition of DiSC; DASIC; US JFCOM transformation; Near, 2009; McComb, 2009a; Transformation Requirement to collaborate with diverse organizations. McComb, 2007; Coll, 2009. DND, •Critical for DND to partner with other organizations before it is 2008; DND, 2006a; required in actual operations. •Transformation required to meet current and future operational challenges. Organizational / •Network-centric / Network-enabled warfare emerging as the Alberts & Hayes 2003; Alberts & Command and nature of modern operations; Disruptive innovations required Hayes 2007; Hales & Miller 2008; Control Theory in defence command and control to remain adaptive; Rummler & Brache, 1990; Senge •Meta-organizations: exist and must adapt to real-world 1990; challenges; Much research in EMS response; not CD&E; Simulation / •GUIDEx - how to conduct collaborative experimentation McComb, 2001; TTCP, 2006; Wainer, CD&E •Measurable cost savings are “stunning” when able to 2009; Miller, 2008; DND 2005; DND effectively manage simulation resources 2006a, 2006b; •Simulation as a tool, enabler; Innovation •Business ecosystems theory; Planning business ecosystem Iansiti & Levien, 2004; Iansiti & Theory / Business strategies Levien, 2002; Moore, 2006; Dhanaraj Ecosystems •Factors for evaluating ecosystem health (productivity, & Parkhe, 2006. Abrahamson, 2004; robustness, niche creation); den Hartigh et al, 2004-2007; Salas, 2007; esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 5 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 6. Lessons learned • Plethora of intra-organizational literature on training simulation, command and control and military transformation – Little formal, rigorous and academic research on military aspects • Scarce resources on organizational / management of specific case of simulation services, and simulation itself as an enabler of CD&E / innovation. • Much work on business ecosystems & health thereof - little found on application to government-centric innovative endeavours, and partnerships with government esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 6 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 7. Contribution • This thesis, through formal maps of existing and potential future key simulation and innovation stakeholders in DaS will assist in determining what partnerships / linkages need to be cultivated for a successful future Defence and Security Simulation Ecosystem. esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 7 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 8. Theoretical framework • Business Ecosystems • Methodology Sources – Business Ecosystems • Iansiti & Levien, 2004; Moore, 2006; – Business Ecosystem Mapping and Health Assessment • Iansiti & Levien, 2002; den Hartigh, 2006; Salas, 2007 – Motivation Ability Framework (for potential future ecosystem) • Christensen, Anthony & Roth, 2004 – Case Studies in DaS simulation and innovation • Eisenhardt 1989, Eisenhardt & Graebner 2007, Foddy 1993, Yin 2003. • Organizations and projects of interest - not representative – Example: existing Carleton Center for Visualization and Simulation has many parallels to proposed DASIC esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 8 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 9. Research design • Research Method: Inductive Case Study • Unit of Analysis: organizations using / providing simulation services and/or mandated for DaS innovation • Time Period: CFEC lifespan (2000 to present) • Sample / Population: nested design – Focus on DND and sub-organizations as a Keystone – Detailed analysis of Carleton VSIM – Target key interesting partner organizations from list of existing partner organizations • Sampling Method: at least one key organization in each identified partner group (see backup slides) – Minimum: 8 organizations – Maximum: 20 organizations – Depends on availability of interviewees esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 9 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 10. Method (adapted from Eisenhardt, 1989) Step Describe the dominant activity undertaken to produce deliverables 1 - Getting Started • Definition of research question to be answered (Identification) • Identify key stakeholders, issues and areas for research • Literature review 2 - Selecting Cases • Specified population: DaS stakeholders (simulation or not) 3 - Crafting Instruments and • Refine measures of health, through preliminary meetings with stakeholders Protocols • Qualitative data (interviews) and quantitative data combination (number of projects / exercises engaged in past, dollars spent on innovation; dollars spent on simulation-based activities) • Define / plan data gathering (interviews) 4 - Entering the Field • Overlap data collection and analysis • Flexible and opportunistic data collection: allow for some additional interviews, some more focus on “interesting” organizations (nested/embedded) 5 - Analyzing Data • Within-case analysis (nested/embedded) • Cross-case pattern search between ecosystem members • Building current ecosystem map, assessing health • Based on Motivation-Ability framework, response in interviews, build future ecosystem map, assess health 6 - Shaping Hypotheses • Iterative tabulation of evidence for each ecosystem member, and various relationships / linkages’ health • Search evidence for “why” 7 - Enfolding Literature • Comparison with conflicting and similar literature (based on previous literature review) • Data validation 8 - Reaching Closure • Refined ecosystem maps of past/present and future • Thesis report generation esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 10 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 11. Data acquisition • Qualitative: Interviews with key Defence and Security Simulation for Innovation stakeholders and future potential stakeholders – Focused on key stakeholders - existing or potential simulation users / providers in Defence and Security. • When: Jan-Feb 2010 • How: in-person / phone interviews • Quantitative: – number of collaborative projects / exercises / activities – dollars spent on simulation and innovation projects – number of person-years spent on projects esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 11 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 12. Data analysis (based on Miles & Huberman, 1994) • Data Analysis: categorization of stakeholders’ past innovation and simulation activities, partnerships / collaboration, evaluation of stakeholders’ motivation and ability to form part of a future simulation for innovation network • Data Reduction: – into current ecosystem map – into future ecosystem map, based on motivation/ability to use future proposed capability – assessment of health of above ecosystem maps (individual, linkages, aggregate) - modified measures, based on Iansiti & Levien, 2002 • Data Validation: – through feedback loop on findings with key identified stakeholders esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 12 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 13. References Abrahamson, E. 2004. Change Without Pain. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www.amazon.ca/ Change-Without-Pain-Eric-Abrahamson/dp/157851827X/ref=sr_1_1? ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1256841778&sr=8-1 Accessed: Nov 1, 2009. Alberts, D.S. and Hayes, R.E. 2003. Power to the Edge - Command... Control... in the Information Age. US Department of Defense Command and Control Research Program, Washington, D.C. http://www.dodccrp.org/ files/Alberts_Power.pdf Accessed Nov 1, 2009 Alberts, D.S. and Hayes, R.E. 2007. Planning: Complex Endeavors. US Department of Defense Command and Control Research Program, Washington, D.C. http://www.dodccrp.org/files/Alberts_Planning.pdf Accessed Nov 1, 2009. Christensen, C. M., Anthony, S. D., & Roth, E. A. 2004. Seeing What's Next: Using the Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Coll, S. 2009. U.S. General Mattis Interview with New Yorker: The Future of Soldiering. http:// www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/stevecoll/2009/06/the-future-of-soldiering.html. Accessed: Nov 1, 2009. den Hartigh, E. 2006. The Health Measurement of a Business Ecosystem. Paper Presentation for ECCON 2006. Department of National Defence, 2005. Land Force Command Order 28-1: Land Force Simulation Policy. Internal DND Order. Department of National Defence, 2006a. Defence S&T Strategy: Science and Technology for a Secure Canada. http://www.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/sciences/strat/strat-eng.pdf Accessed Nov 1, 2009. esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 13 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 14. References (2) Department of National Defence, 2006b. Modelling and Simulation Management. DAOD 2010-1. http:// www.admfincs.forces.gc.ca/dao-doa/2000/2010-1-eng.asp Accessed Nov 1, 2009. Department of National Defence, 2006c. Modelling and Simulation. DAOD 2010-0. http:// www.admfincs.forces.gc.ca/dao-doa/2000/2010-0-eng.asp Accessed Nov 1, 2009. Department of National Defence, 2008. Canada First Defence Strategy. http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/focus/first- premier/June18_0910_CFDS_english_low-res.pdf Accessed Nov 1, 2009. Dhanaraj, C. and Parkhe, A. 2006. Orchestrating innovation networks. Academy of Management Review, Vol 31, No 3. pp659-669. Eisenhardt, K.M. 1989. Building theory from case study research. Academy of Management Journal, 14(4): 532-550. Eisenhardt, K.M. and Graebner, M.E. 2007. Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1): 25-32. Foddy, W. 1993. Constructing Questions for Interviews and Questionnaires: Theory and Practice in Social Research. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Hales, D. & Miller J. 2008. Meta-Analysis of Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned. Internal DND Report. esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 14 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 15. References (3) Iansiti M. and Levien, R. 2002. The New Operational Dynamics of Business Ecosystems: Implications for Policy, Operations and Technology Strategy. Working Paper. Iansiti M. and Levien, R. 2004. The Keystone Advantage: What the New Dynamics of Business Ecosystems Mean for Strategy, Innovation, and Sustainability. Harvard Business School Press. http://books.google.ca/books? id=T_2QFhjzGPAC&lpg=PP15&ots=Uey8L9rRp9&dq=iansiti%20levien %20ecosystem&lr=&pg=PP18#v=onepage&q=&f=false McComb, D., Lieutenant-Colonel. 2009a. Canadian Forces Warfare Centre Capability Definition Paper. Internal DND Concept Paper. Draft Version 0907. Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. 1994. An Expanded Sourcebook: Qualitative Data Analysis (Second ed.): Sage Publications. Miller, E. 2008. Leverage engineering simulation across the enterprise. Manufacturing Business Technology, Mar 2008, Vol 26 Issue 3, p17 Near, J.R., Major. 2009. A Canadian Defence And Security Innovation Centre: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. Canadian Military Journal, Vol 9, No 4. http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo9/no4/14-near-eng.asp. Accessed Oct 23, 2009, 1207hrs. esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 15 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 16. References (4) Salas, A.J. 2007. Health of Business Ecosystems, a Structural Approach. Master's Thesis. Delft, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology. The Technical Cooperation Program, 2006. Guide for Understanding and Implementing Defense Experimentation (GUIDEx). V1.1. http://www.dtic.mil/ttcp/GUIDExBookFeb2006.pdf Wainer, G.A. 2009. Discrete-Event Modeling and Simulation: A Practitioner’s Approach. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Yin, R. K. 2003. Case Study Research: Design and Methods (Third ed.): Sage Publications. esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 16 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 17. Questions? esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 17 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 18. Backup Slides esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 18 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 19. Thesis Planning - Schedule Esselaar Thesis Project Planner : Gantt Chart : Defence And Security Simulation for Innovation Ecosystem (DASSIE) 1st Quarter 2009 2nd Quarter 2009 3rd Quarter 2009 4th Quarter 2009 1st Quarter 2010 2nd Quarter 2010 3rd Quarter 2010 # Name Duration Start Finish Cost Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug 1 Project Management 280.0 d 09-06-01 10-06-25 $ 0.00 2 Thesis Re-Alignment 22.0 d 09-06-01 09-06-30 $ 0.00 3 Milestones 258.0 d 09-07-01 10-06-25 $ 0.00 4 Gate 0 09-07-01 $ 0.00 09-07-01 5 Gate 1 (TBC) 09-11-20 $ 0.00 09-11-20 6 Gate 2 (TBC) 10-03-26 $ 0.00 10-03-26 7 Gate 3 - Thesis Defence (TBC) 10-06-25 $ 0.00 10-06-25 8 Deliverables 104.0 d 09-06-30 09-11-20 $ 0.00 9 Gate 0 Presentation 1.0 d 09-06-30 09-06-30 $ 0.00 10 Gate 1 Presentation 24.0 d 09-10-20 09-11-20 $ 0.00 11 Gate 1 Presentation 1.0 d 09-11-20 09-11-20 $ 0.00 12 List of References 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 13 Ethics Committee Application 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 14 Application Document 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 15 Letter of Information 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 16 Letter of Sponsorship / Support (CO CFEC) 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 17 Gate 2 Presentation 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 18 Gate 2 Presentation 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 19 DRAFT Thesis Document 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 20 Gate 3 Thesis Defence 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 21 Thesis Presentation 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 22 Thesis Document 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 23 Budget 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 27 Phase I - Thesis Definition 123.0 d 09-05-01 09-10-20 $ 0.00 33 Phase II - Literature Review 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 77 Phase III - Research Method 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 86 Phase IV - Data Acquisition 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 87 Gate 2 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 88 Gate 3 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 89 Phase V - Data Reduction, Analysis, Validation 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 90 Phase VI - Thesis Document 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 112 Phase VII - Thesis Defence 1.0 d 09-10-20 09-10-20 $ 0.00 Phase Deadline Link esselaar@sce.carleton.ca Milestone Task November 20, 2009 Slide 19 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 20. Thesis Planning - Upcoming Tasks • Interservice / Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2009: Nov 30 - Dec 3, 2009 – Meetings, Research and Exhibition at Conference • Explore benefits of collaborating with Ecosystem Mapping Software of EventuSix from Lead To Win 2009 • Refine website to enable communications with ecosystem members: – http://sce.carleton.ca/~esselaar • Adapt Iansiti & Levien, 2002, ecosystem health measures to our specific case • Refine list of basic / broad capabilities of a future DASIC / DiSC, in preparation for interviews in 2010 • Carleton Ethics Committee Research Application: Jan 5, 2010 esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 20 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 21. Simulation Domains • Operations • Training • Concept Development and Experimentation • Research and Development • Acquisition • Engineering Design • Education • References: DND, 2005; Wainer, 2009. esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 21 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 22. Ecosystem Members • Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) – Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) • Centre for Security Science (CSS) – Chief of Force Development • Canadian Forces Experimentation Centre (CFEC) – Chief of Land Staff • Director Land Synthetic Environments – Chief of Air Staff – Chief of Maritime Staff • Public Safety Canada – Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) – Canadian Border Services Agency (CBSA) – Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 22 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 23. Ecosystem Members (2) • Canadian National Research Council (NRC) – Centre for Surface Transport Technology (CSTT) • US Department of Defence (DoD) – Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) • Joint Training and Experimentation Network (JTEN) – Modelling and Simulation Coordination Office (MSCO) • Academia – Carleton University – University of Ottawa – University of Alberta – University of New Brunswick – ... esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 23 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009
  • 24. Ecosystem Members (3) • Provincial and Municipal Governments • International Defence Industry – CAE – General Dynamics Canada – Thales – ... esselaar@sce.carleton.ca November 20, 2009 Slide 24 erik.esselaar@forces.gc.ca Friday, November 20, 2009