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How to Write Form a Research Proposal and Form a Budget
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How to Write Form a Research Proposal and Form a Budget


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  • 2. What is research?
    • Research refers to search for knowledge.
    • A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge
  • 3. Types of research
    • Exploratory studies- to understand a phenomenon or to get insights into it.
    • Descriptive studies- description of characteristics of a particular individual, situation or group.
    • Explanation studies- determine the frequency with something occurs or its association with something .
  • 4. Quantitative vs Qualitative
    • Quantitative research measures quantity and amount, applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity.
    • Qualitative research applicable to phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind. It helps to understand and analyse various factors that motivate people to behave in a particular manner.
  • 5.
    • What is the study about?
    • Why are you doing this study?
    • Where will it be carried out?
    • What type of data will be required?
    • Where will the data be found?
    • What will be the sample design?
    • What techniques of data collection will be used?
    • How will the data be analysed?
    • In what style will the report be written?
  • 6. Variables and attributes
    • Attributes are characteristics or qualities that describe an object or a person
    • Variables are logical groupings of attributes.
    • Male and female are attributes and sex or gender are variables.
  • 7. Understanding key constructs
    • Reality- objectivity and subjectivity
    • Observation- information gathering –seeing and hearing
    • Fact- Phenomenon that is observed
    • Law- should be universally applicable
  • 8. Theory- concepts, variables and statements
    • Theory- systematic explanation for the observed facts and laws that relate to a particular subject
    • Elements of theory:
    • Concept: basic building blocks of theory, abstract elements representing classes of phenomenon within the field of study.
  • 9. Units of analysis:
    • Individuals
    • Groups
    • Organizations
    • Social artifacts
  • 10. Four moral principles that constitute the basis of ethics in research:
    • Principle of non maleficense- Research must not cause harm to the participants in particular and to people in general
    • Principles of beneficense- Research should also make a positive contribution towards the welfare of people.
    • Principles of autonomy- Research must respect and protect the rights and dignity of participants
    • Principle of justice- the benefits and risks of research
  • 11. A research proposal:
    • Introduction
    • Review of literature
    • Research objectives
    • Research questions
    • Methodology
    • Sampling
    • Tools for data collection
    • Plan of analysis
  • 12. BUDGET
    • Period of project
    • Human resources- core staff and others, research assistance –field and technical support.
    • Research expenses: printing of tools, Field expenses
    • Meetings/consultations for dissemination
    • Printing of the report
    • Capital- computers/setting up office/software for data analysis
    • Overheads – electricity, rent, and so on