South Africa occupies the southernmost part of theAfrican continent, stretching latitudinally from 22° to35° S and longitudinally from 17° to 33° E.Its surface area is 1 219 090 km2. The country hascommon boundaries with Namibia, Botswana andZimbabwe, while Mozambique and Swaziland lie tothe north-east. Completely enclosed by SouthAfrican territory in the south-east is the mountainkingdom of Lesotho.To the west, south and east, South Africa borders onthe Atlantic and Indian oceans. Isolated, some 1 920km south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie thePrince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by SouthAfrica in 1947.
South Africa: Basic Data• Official Country Name:• Region :• Population :• Language (s) :• Literacy Rate :• Number of Primary Schools :• Compulsory Schooling :• Public Expenditure on• Education :• Foreign Students in NationalUniversities :Republic of South AfricaAfrica43,421,021Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi,Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana,Venda, Xhosa, Zulu81.8 %20, 8639 years7.9 %12, 625
HISTORY BACKGROUND:Pre-colonial• Many African societies placed a strongemphasis on traditional forms of educationwell before the arrival of the Europeans.• In traditional African Societies the educationof children in close-nit family and tribalgroups was the vehicle through which thetransfer of military, agricultural and survivalskills as well as social, cultural and religiousvalues took place. Children were preparedfor life by participating actively in cultural andworking life of the tribe. They were taught theskills of farming , fishing , hunting, weaving ,pottery, smith, and carving while working sideby side with their parents and other membersof the tribe. Recreational activities consistedof dancing , wrestling, mock fighting( such asstick- fighting still practiced by black youthstoday), drumming and acrobatic display.
• In Southern Africa, in common with manyother parts of Africa, the education of theyoung culminated in initiation ceremonieswhen boys and girls reach puberty. Theseceremonies were among the mostimportant rituals in the cultural life of thetribe . In some tribes, boys underwent theinitiation ceremonies individually, but inmost cases they participated in groups.
The boys daub theirbodies with whitesandstoneThey wrap themselves in areed skirt and a reed coneheaddress with a fringe-likemask. They perform ritualdances.
Characteristics of traditional AfricanEducation• Education is giveneverywhere• Education is given atany time• Education is given byall members in thecommunity• Education is closelylinked to theenvironment• Parents play animportant part in theeducation of theirchildren• Knowledge istransmitted orally
Historic developments such ascolonialism led to the erosion ofmany of these traditionalprinciples. Colonialismundermined the value of ofindigenous knowledge andcustoms.
• The early colonial period• Portuguese seafarers, who pioneered the searoute to India in the late 15th century, were regularvisitors to the South African coast during the early1500s. Other Europeans followed from the late16th century.• In seventeeth century, earliest European schoolsSouth Africa were established in the Cape Colonycommitted to biblical instruction which wasnecessary for church confirmation. In rural areas, itinerant teachers taught basic and math skills.British mission schools proliferated.
Jan van Riebeeck (21April 1619 – 18 January1677) of the Dutch EastIndiaCompany, VOC, was aDutch colonialadministrator and thefounder of Cape Town.He was the 1stCommander of the CapeColony (Kaapkolonie)from 1652 until 1662.
• Afrikaners resisted government policiesaimed at the spread of the Englishlanguage and British values and manyeducated their children at home.• Following the British victory in the SouthAfrican war , the new representative of theCrown, brought thousands of teacher fromBritain, Canada, Australia, and NewZealand to instill the English language andBritish cultural values.
• Provincial Autonomy in education was strengthened and all provincialgovernments used government funds primarily to educate whites.• EDUCATION UNDER APARTHEID (Apartheid Government)• The Bantu Education Act (no.47) of 1953 widened the gapsin the educational opportunities for different racial groups.Two of the architect of Bantu Education, Dr. W.M. Eiselenand Dr. Dr. Hedrick F. Verwoerd, had studied in Germany andhad adopted many elements of National Socialist (Nazi)philosophy. The concept of Racial “purity” in particularprovided a rationalization for keeping black education inferior.Verwoerd said that „black Africans should be educated fortheir opportunities in life and that there was no place for themabove the level of certain forms of labour. The governmentalso tightened its control over religious high schools byeliminating almost all financial aid, forcing many churches tosell their schools to the government or close them entirely.l
• Black schools had inferior facilities, teachers, andtextbooks.• Black education was not supposed to drain governmentresources away from white education.• Education was compulsory for all racial groups but atdifferent ages and the law was enforced differently.• The discrepancies in education among racial groupswere glaring: pupil ratios in primary schools average1:18 in white schools, 1;24 in Asian schools and 1:39 inblack schools.• 96% of teachers in white schools had teachingcertificates, only 15% of teachers in black schools werecertified.
REORGANIZING/RESTRUCTURINGEDUCATIONPresident Frederick W. DeKlerk• Reorganizing education• Stressed the need for anon-racial schoolsystem, with enoughflexibility to allowcommunities to preservedtheir religious and culturalvalues.• Eliminate apartheideducation.• Formulate a policyframework for restructuringeducation.
NELSON MANDELANobel Peace Prize Winner• South Africanpolitician who servedas President of SouthAfrica from 1994 to1999, the first ever tobe elected in a fullyrepresentativedemocratic election
The Educational Systemof SOUTH AFRICAACADEMIC YEAR : January- DecemberPRIMARY SCHOOL: Reception to Grade 6SECONDARY SCHOOL: JuniorSecondary, Grades 7-9; Further Education andTraining (10-12)HIGHER EDUCATION• Certificates and Diplomas (generally 1-2years of study)•Bachelors‟ Degrees ( from 3yrs to 6 yrs ofstudy, depending on the course)•Honor‟s Degrees ( further years ofundergraduate study, requiring a thesis)•Master‟s Degree ( 2 year of post graduatestudy)
SECONDARY EDUCATION• Schooling is compulsory through grade 9, butunder the National qualifications Framework(NQF) students may opt at the successfulcompletion of grade 9 to obtain their GeneralEducation and training Certificate and to pursueemployment or technical training at FurtherEducation and Training (FET) institutions.• Those continuing into senior secondary schoolsfor grade 10-12 sit the nationally set andmoderated matriculation examinations, or anapproved alternative such as the IndependentExaminations Board (IEB) test series, to obtain thenational Senior Certificate (NSC) at the end ofgrade 12.
HIGHER EDUCATION• South Africa‟s higher education systemconsists of 23 publicly fundeduniversities, consolidated since 1994 downfrom 36 separate institutions. Some of theseare considered comprehensive and othersare universities of technology.• The Higher education Act of 1997, stipulatesthat all higher education institutions comeunder the authority of the nationalgovernment , while the FET colleges reportto the provincial government.