Morality of Human Acts
Geraldine S. Canete, RN, MAN
Adapted from the lecture of:
Ms. Maria Teresita B. Dalusong, PTRP, MHP...
Objectives:
• Explain the nature of man & its dignity.
• Explain the concept of freedom of man and of
its human action
• D...
Nature of Man & its Dignity
• To “will” something, one has “to know” beforehand.
• Man cannot choose or act unless he know...
When is MAN FREE in his actions?
When is an act freely done?
1. Under the control of the WILL - It is the power tending
to...
Nature of Freedom
• Proceeds from the intellect and will
• Based on reason which the will followed
• When man makes decisi...
“You shall know the truth…”
Intellect Will
TRUTH GOOD= =BEING
LAW
FREEDOM
“...and the truth shallmake you free.”
Leo Lopez
Human Acts versus Act of Man
• Human acts
• Actions done Consciously and freely by the
agent/or by man
• ESSENTIAL QUALITI...
Human Acts versus Act of Man
• Acts of Man
• Actions beyond one’s consciousness; not
dependent on the intellect & the will...
ACTS not morally accountable
• Acts of persons asleep or under hypnosis.
• Reflex actions where the will has no time to
in...
EXERCISE: Human Act or Act of Man?
• Looking
• Seeing
• Dreaming
• Day dreaming
• Hearing
• Listening
• Walking
• Sleepwal...
Morality of Human Acts
What is Morality?
• From the Greek word MORES - behavior
• Refers to the sense of rightness or wrongness
of an act.
• Qual...
A moral act depends on
whether or not there is
consent by the will.
HUMAN ACTS
They include…
1) Thought
2) Speech
3) Action
What is the basis of Morality?
• Morality is based in part upon the
fundamental conviction that:
1. There is an objective ...
Basic Inclination of Man based on
Natural Law
prepared by: Ms. Teresita Dalusong, PTRP,
MHPHEd
1. Seek food including the ...
Which Action is subjected to morality?
• All Human act are subjected to morality.
• Human acts are different from animal a...
Morality and Human Acts
• Human acts are those that are freely
chosen in consequence of a judgment
of conscience.
• They a...
Moral Determinants of Human Acts
• HUMAN ACTS are neutral in themselves but
they acquire morality when we speak of:
1. OBJ...
Moral Determinants of Human Acts
1. OBJECT OF THE ACT
- Substance/nature of the action
- Good which the will deliberately ...
Moral Determinants of Human Acts
2. INTENTION/END IN VIEW
- Motive of the agent – factor which the agent acts; either
be m...
Moral Determinants of Human Acts
3. CIRCUMSTANCE
- Refers to the events, occasions or conditions that
make the act concret...
Moral Determinants of Human Acts
• HUMAN ACTS are neutral in themselves but
they acquire morality when we speak of:
1. OBJ...
What makes a morally act good or bad?
1. Goodness of object, end or intention &
circumstance all together as well as conse...
JUDGING THE MORALITY OF HUMAN ACTS
The moral object can either be
good (e.g. praying)
bad (e.g. stealing)
indifferent (e.g...
• There are some actions that are evil by
their very nature.
(e.g. murder, adultery).
• These are never morally allowable,...
Moral Determinants of Human Acts
• HUMAN ACTS are neutral in themselves but
they acquire morality when we speak of:
• OBJE...
Objectives:
• Explain the nature of man & its dignity.
• Explain the concept of freedom of man and of
its human action
• D...
Human Act as Freely Chosen
• Human Acts are not merely physical events
that come & go, like the falling of rain or the
tur...
Human Act as Freely Chosen
• They are, rather, the outward expression if a
person’s choices for at the core of a human act...
• Although many human acts have physical,
observable components, they are morally
significant because they embody and carr...
• But we are not free to make what we choose
to do to be good or evil, right or wrong.
• We know this from our own sad exp...
Human acts
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  • The nature of man. capacity.. We cannot learn to love something that we do not know. Given several choices, a person cannot choose unless he knows the thing if it is likeable or not
  • What is freedom? When do we say that man act with freedom
    -- we to things bec we want to not because something, person or power outside us compels us
    ** The responsibility presupposes that no one forces or determines a man to act accordingly. Outside forces only influence, they can never make a man become WHO they are now.
  • He may not be responsible for his abilities (mental & talents) bec, these are given. But he is responsible with his actions. There is no excuse because man is behaves due to a personal choice he makes given his situation & circumstance. – ex. In school set up.
    Not even people under torture can be made to act unless their intellect & will suppressed.
    ** The responsibility presupposes that no one forces or determines a man to act accordingly. Outside forces only influence, they can never make a man become WHO they are now.
  • * Take necessary steps for the action to happen
    Action need not to be obvious, it can be voluntary in thought
    Knowledge – resides in the intellect; mindfulness of what the moral agent is doing, thinking or willing; knows what he is doing, end & consequences
    Freedom – quality of the freewill by w/c 1 is able to choose bet 2 alt. *** lack of freedom – underpressure/forced, do not agree
    Voluntariness – quality of human act where whereby any commission or omission of the act is a result of the knowledge w/c an agent has of the end – requires full consciousness of the nature of act & coensqence
  • Unconscious (breath, heartbeat); involuntary (sneezing, stepping on something by mistake); semi-deliberate (done asleep/delirium); spontaneous (reflex)
    Acts becoming human acts: seeing billboard & hearing
  • How do we know whether human act is done morally/ when action done is good or bad?
    ** the goodness & the badness of the human act take into consideration the object of the act, the motive of the agent & circumstance of the act
  • “What was distinctly & specifically done.
    EX: obj of therapy – tx dse & relieve pain; abortion- kill an unborn;
  • Motive – moving element in the whole spectrum of the proposed action.
    EX:
  • Ex: theft, acting out of fear, EX: where, how, when, who, what,
    * Cannot change the nature: cannot make the food or right an action that is in itself evil
  • Always wrong: fornication, stealing, adultery
  • How do we know whether human act is done morally/ when action done is good or bad?
  • Human acts

    1. 1. Morality of Human Acts Geraldine S. Canete, RN, MAN Adapted from the lecture of: Ms. Maria Teresita B. Dalusong, PTRP, MHPEd
    2. 2. Objectives: • Explain the nature of man & its dignity. • Explain the concept of freedom of man and of its human action • Differentiate human acts & acts of man • Explain the morality of Human Acts • Determine the moral determinants of human acts
    3. 3. Nature of Man & its Dignity • To “will” something, one has “to know” beforehand. • Man cannot choose or act unless he knows which is a “better” good. • When a person chooses to act according to what he knows is right – He acts freely • Only man is capable of acting free – HUMAN ACTS • But the intellect does not always determine the will. Intellect Will Soul Body Thinking/ knowing the TRUTH Choosing the GOOD
    4. 4. When is MAN FREE in his actions? When is an act freely done? 1. Under the control of the WILL - It is the power tending toward, choosing, adhering to & taking pleasure in a GOOD KNOWN BY THE INTELLECT - voluntary 2. We do things because we want to, we own the decision or the action 3. We face the consequence of our actions/decisions – we face it with full responsibility Intellect Will Soul Body Thinking/ knowing the TRUTH Choosing the GOOD
    5. 5. Nature of Freedom • Proceeds from the intellect and will • Based on reason which the will followed • When man makes decisions, he is free. • Man is accountable for what he is doing because he is CONSCIOUS of what he is doing, why he is doing it & how he is doing it. Leo Lopez DECISION Results in ACTION CONSEQUENCES Faced with Sense of responsibility
    6. 6. “You shall know the truth…” Intellect Will TRUTH GOOD= =BEING LAW FREEDOM “...and the truth shallmake you free.” Leo Lopez
    7. 7. Human Acts versus Act of Man • Human acts • Actions done Consciously and freely by the agent/or by man • ESSENTIAL QUALITIES/ Constituent Elements of Human Acts 1. Knowledge of the act 2. Freedom 3. Voluntariness • Man takes into responsibility of these actions
    8. 8. Human Acts versus Act of Man • Acts of Man • Actions beyond one’s consciousness; not dependent on the intellect & the will • ESSENTIAL QUALITIES of Acts of Man – Done with out knowledge – Without consent – Involuntary • Ex: unconscious, involuntary, semi-deliberate, spontaneous actions • Acts of man can become human acts when he employs his intellect & will in performing the act.
    9. 9. ACTS not morally accountable • Acts of persons asleep or under hypnosis. • Reflex actions where the will has no time to intervene. • Acts of performed under serious physical violence • e.g. a hostage obliged to do an evil action. • Since the will is constrained, then it is not a moral act which could be evaluated.
    10. 10. EXERCISE: Human Act or Act of Man? • Looking • Seeing • Dreaming • Day dreaming • Hearing • Listening • Walking • Sleepwalking
    11. 11. Morality of Human Acts
    12. 12. What is Morality? • From the Greek word MORES - behavior • Refers to the sense of rightness or wrongness of an act. • Quality of the human act that is either good or bad, right or wrong based on some norms that are either inherent in the act or are observed due to some individual or social conventional acceptance • --- Manlangit
    13. 13. A moral act depends on whether or not there is consent by the will. HUMAN ACTS They include… 1) Thought 2) Speech 3) Action
    14. 14. What is the basis of Morality? • Morality is based in part upon the fundamental conviction that: 1. There is an objective moral law which can be known by the intellect – NATURAL MORAL LAW 2. Some actions are intrinsically evil – not justifiable regardless of the circumstance
    15. 15. Basic Inclination of Man based on Natural Law prepared by: Ms. Teresita Dalusong, PTRP, MHPHEd 1. Seek food including the highest good which is God. 2. Preserve himself in existence 3. To preserve the species 4. Live in community with other men 5. To use his intellect & will – to know the truth & make his own decisions
    16. 16. Which Action is subjected to morality? • All Human act are subjected to morality. • Human acts are different from animal act because man by nature acts towards an end. His life has a purpose. Human Acts? Acts of Man?
    17. 17. Morality and Human Acts • Human acts are those that are freely chosen in consequence of a judgment of conscience. • They are either good or evil. • Their morality depends on: the object chosen, the intention and the circumstances.
    18. 18. Moral Determinants of Human Acts • HUMAN ACTS are neutral in themselves but they acquire morality when we speak of: 1. OBJECT OF THE ACT 2. CIRCUMSTANCE 3. INTENTION
    19. 19. Moral Determinants of Human Acts 1. OBJECT OF THE ACT - Substance/nature of the action - Good which the will deliberately directs itself - OBJECT specifies the “act of the will” - Nature of what was done to its distinct species - “What was performed by the moral agent?” - “An object if the act is Good when it is in conformity with reason or when it fulfills or fits the demand of reason. Otherwise, the object of the act is evil.
    20. 20. Moral Determinants of Human Acts 2. INTENTION/END IN VIEW - Motive of the agent – factor which the agent acts; either be morally good or evil - Purpose for which a human agent performs the act - Concerned with the goal of the activity - It aims at the good anticipated from the action undertaken - “What specifically does the agent want to accomplish?” • Good intention doesn’t make an intrinsically disordered act right • The end does not justify the means.
    21. 21. Moral Determinants of Human Acts 3. CIRCUMSTANCE - Refers to the events, occasions or conditions that make the act concrete - Modify acts either by increasing or diminishing of the moral goodness or evilness of an act/ responsibility of the agent - Lighten or aggravate the weight of moral accountability of the performer * The circumstance do not change the specific nature of the human act.
    22. 22. Moral Determinants of Human Acts • HUMAN ACTS are neutral in themselves but they acquire morality when we speak of: 1. OBJECT OF THE ACT 2. CIRCUMSTANCE 3. INTENTION
    23. 23. What makes a morally act good or bad? 1. Goodness of object, end or intention & circumstance all together as well as consequence 2. Evil end or intention corrupts the action even if the object is good 3. Avoid concrete acts that are always wrong to choose – object of the act 4. The acts which in & of themselves independent of circumstance & intention are always gravely illicit by reason of their object. Error: to judge only the intention & circumstance
    24. 24. JUDGING THE MORALITY OF HUMAN ACTS The moral object can either be good (e.g. praying) bad (e.g. stealing) indifferent (e.g. eating) The intention can be either good or bad.
    25. 25. • There are some actions that are evil by their very nature. (e.g. murder, adultery). • These are never morally allowable, even if the intention and the circumstances are good. JUDGING THE MORALITY OF HUMAN ACTS
    26. 26. Moral Determinants of Human Acts • HUMAN ACTS are neutral in themselves but they acquire morality when we speak of: • OBJECT • CIRCUMSTANCE • INTENTION • CONSEQUENCES
    27. 27. Objectives: • Explain the nature of man & its dignity. • Explain the concept of freedom of man and of its human action • Differentiate human acts & acts of man • Explain the morality of Human Acts • Determine the moral determinants of human acts
    28. 28. Human Act as Freely Chosen • Human Acts are not merely physical events that come & go, like the falling of rain or the turning of the leaves, nor do they as Karol Wojtyla emphasized in THE ACTING PERSON, “happen” to a person.
    29. 29. Human Act as Freely Chosen • They are, rather, the outward expression if a person’s choices for at the core of a human act is free, self determining choice, an act of the will, which as such is something spiritual that abides within the person, giving him his identity as a moral being.
    30. 30. • Although many human acts have physical, observable components, they are morally significant because they embody and carry out free human choices. • We are free to choose what we are to do and, by so choosing, to make ourselves the kind of person we are. Human Act as Freely Chosen
    31. 31. • But we are not free to make what we choose to do to be good or evil, right or wrong. • We know this from our own sad experience, for at time we have freely chosen to do things that we knew, at the very moment we choose to do them, were morally wrong. We can, in short, choose badly or well. Human Act as Freely Chosen
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