Bioethics defined

2,138 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Technology
1 Comment
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,138
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
178
Comments
1
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • *At pnt in your life, questions with moral dimension? Goodness or badness of an action? If we will offend others?
    *We tend to judge the external action of others – constantly evaluate the real world. We can say that a person is what his behavior manifest..good actions or bad actions? -- Purpose ..
    ** this is where ethics comes in.. It helps us establish norms and criteria for judging actions..
    * Judge – our judgement has foundations or basis..
  • Human behavior – that is inherent to human beings; NOT etiquettes, social manner, convention or fashions – culture
  • **Mental-set, disposition or set of values & conviction to which is attributed a sense of right & wrong fr which human actions proceeds
    ** points to way to moral living & compels man to practice in it in his life & in the society.
  • How real event & stories shaped bioethics today
    Understand the present
    Learn from the past
  • Health care has been imbued with moral & religious significance
    Grk philosphers – ponder issues related to personhood, virtous behavior by physicians & rules of med practice
    Ancient Greece – Hippocratic Oath – 1st do no harm
    ---
  • Jewish physician & philosopers – Moses
  • AMA – adopted in philadelphia (1847) – duties & obligation of physicians to their ps & society & pt towards MD
  • NUREMBERG code – not legal but continues to influence the direction of research ethics policy & practice as it essentially captures historical events
    -- informed consent, ensure objective protection
  • Study the developmental spread of tumors—
    -- MR children – admittance into the home was contingent upon parents
  • Commission was a multidiciplinary grp – scientist, moral theologian, ethicist – philosophers, policy experts
    “identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical & behavioral research involving human subjects & to develop guidelines w/c should be followed to assure that such research is conducted with those principles.
  • Commission promulgated the BELMONT REPORT
  • Risks:
  • God squad – who to live & who to die
  • Control of life
  • Control of the begginning of life; change in definition of conception of embryo in OB gyne Book
  • Control of the begginning of life; change in definition of conception of embryo in OB gyne Book
  • Control of the begginning of life; change in definition of conception of embryo in OB gyne Book
  • Antropology – study of the mystery of man.
  • Bioethics defined

    1. 1. Introduction to Bioethicss
    2. 2. Objectives: • Define ETHICS & Bioethics • Trace the birth and development of Bioethics
    3. 3. Outline •Definition of Ethics •Definition of Bioethics •Rationale in the study of Bioethics •Birth of Bioethics
    4. 4. What is Ethics? • Greek word “ethos” – behavior or custom that is permanent – ”ethics” • Latin’s “mos” or “moris” – “morals” • Basic human behaviors that are specific & inherent to human beings • Natural to human which confers and develops goodness in them
    5. 5. What is Ethics? • A sense of right & wrong from which human actions proceeds • Study of the morality of the human act (Moral philosophy) • Guides both speculative & practical intellect in the acquisition of ethical principles in concrete human conduct
    6. 6. What is Ethics? • ETHICS is the rational inquiry into what constitutes human happiness in the light of human nature as reflected in human conduct empirically and emphatically observed.
    7. 7. What is Ethics? •Ethics- study of the end of man and of human acts insofar as they are related to that end.
    8. 8. Outline •Definition of Ethics •Definition of Bioethics •Rationale in the study of Bioethics •Birth of Bioethics
    9. 9. What is BIOETHICS? • “ethics of life” or of life science • Health care ethics, medical ethics or life ethics • Application of the basic principles of ethics to the new possibilities opened by modern biology & biotechnology with regard to human life • Professional ethics in allied health » Manlangit
    10. 10. What is BIOETHICS? • Study of human actions of allied health professionals with regards to human life and towards the patient
    11. 11. Rationale in the study of Bioethics • To address the perennial ethical problems, issues, dilemmas confronting health workers • To address legal problems in health care with ethical concerns • To address the challenge of the modern technology • To address & enhance professional development & ethical values of the health professionals
    12. 12. Outline •Definition of Ethics •Definition of Bioethics •Rationale in the study of Bioethics •Birth of Bioethics
    13. 13. BIRTH OF BIOETHICS
    14. 14. History of Bioethics •Historical Code •Research Ethics •Clinical Ethics •Emerging technology
    15. 15. Historical Codes –Greek Philosophers • personhood & virtues behavior – Hippocrates (5th cent. B.C.) • Hippocratic Oath – “first do no harm”
    16. 16. Historical Codes • Oath of Maimonides (1200) – Look upon the sick with empathy & respect – Accept teaching of elders with med skills – Work for the benefit of the mankind
    17. 17. Historical Codes •Percival’s Code 1794 – 1st code of medical ethics adopted by group of professional physicians •American Medical Association Code – Duties & obligations of physician to pts & to the society & the field of medicine
    18. 18. Hippocratic Oath (400 BC) “DO NO HARM” •“and abstain from whatever in deleterious & mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; & in like manner I will not give to woman a pessary to produce abortion.”
    19. 19. THE TURNING POINT: •The medical profession had confront new questions, raised directly as a result of extraordinary progress being made in biomedical sciences.
    20. 20. Research Ethics: • Nazi Experiments. 1940s • Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (1930 – 1970) • Jewish Chronic Disease Study (1963) • Willobrook Hepatitis Study (1963 – 1966) – New York
    21. 21. Research Ethics: Nazi Experimentation 1940’s • Nazi Doctors’ horrific experimentation on death camp prisoners • THE NUREMBERG CODE – Recognizes the subject
    22. 22. Research Ethics: Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (1930 – 1970’s) • 400 Syphilitic black men in Alabama (1947) • Denied of tx even after penicillin was introduced in 1947
    23. 23. Research Ethics: • Jewish Chronic Disease Study (1963) – Tumor cells were injected into elderly patients w/o permission • Willobrook Hepatitis Study (1963 – 1966) – New York – Mentally disable children were intentionally infected with hepatitis.
    24. 24. Research Ethics • NATIONAL RESEACH ACT 1974 • National Commission for the Protection of Human Subject of Biomedical & Behavioral Research
    25. 25. BELMONT REPORT 1979 • 3 fundamental principles of biomedical research ethics • Respect for persons • Beneficence • Justice • Importance of INFORMED CONSENT
    26. 26. Ethical Concerns From Research • Artificial heart transplantation – (1960) Dr. Denton Cooley’s artificial heart -- w/o proper ethical & regulatory overview – 1980: Dr. Copeland – quality of life • Xenotransplantation – non human to human
    27. 27. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • 1960: Kidney Dialysis machine: “God Squad” – based from value – laden, social worth • New definition of Death by Ad Hoc Committee at Harvard University 1968
    28. 28. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • Discussion of Demographic Explosion • Contraceptive pill by Gregory Pinkus • Human Vitae 1968
    29. 29. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • Dramatic Shift to civil liberties and individual rights (1960 & 1970s) • Women demanded greater Privacy in Reproductive Decisions • Patients demanded control over their treatment decisions
    30. 30. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • Dramatic Shift to civil liberties and individual rights (1960 & 1970s) • Women demanded greater Privacy in reproductive Decisions • Patients demanded control over their treatment decisions • Artificial Reproductive technology
    31. 31. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • End of Life Issues: • Patient Self Determination Act of 1991 • Advance directives & living will • Right to Die Movement • Oregon Death Dignity
    32. 32. History of Bioethics •Historical Code •Research Ethics •Clinical Ethics •Emerging technology
    33. 33. QUESTION: •Which moral criteria must be applied in order to clarify the problems posed today in the field of biomedicine?
    34. 34. IS IT?
    35. 35. QUESTION: •Which moral criteria must be applied in order to clarify the problems posed today in the field of biomedicine?
    36. 36. ANSWER: Anthropological Vision •The answer to this question presupposes a proper idea of the nature of the human person in his bodily dimension.
    37. 37. Criteria to Judge Our Ethical Choices • Need to be founded in an anthropology that contains the objective truth about man… nature of the person… of his or her truth…. • WHAT AND WHO IS THE PERSON!
    38. 38. Outline •Definition of Ethics •Definition of Bioethics •Rationale in the study of Bioethics •Birth of Bioethics

    ×