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Bioethics defined

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  • *At pnt in your life, questions with moral dimension? Goodness or badness of an action? If we will offend others?
    *We tend to judge the external action of others – constantly evaluate the real world. We can say that a person is what his behavior manifest..good actions or bad actions? -- Purpose ..
    ** this is where ethics comes in.. It helps us establish norms and criteria for judging actions..
    * Judge – our judgement has foundations or basis..
  • Human behavior – that is inherent to human beings; NOT etiquettes, social manner, convention or fashions – culture
  • **Mental-set, disposition or set of values & conviction to which is attributed a sense of right & wrong fr which human actions proceeds
    ** points to way to moral living & compels man to practice in it in his life & in the society.
  • How real event & stories shaped bioethics today
    Understand the present
    Learn from the past
  • Health care has been imbued with moral & religious significance
    Grk philosphers – ponder issues related to personhood, virtous behavior by physicians & rules of med practice
    Ancient Greece – Hippocratic Oath – 1st do no harm
    ---
  • Jewish physician & philosopers – Moses
  • AMA – adopted in philadelphia (1847) – duties & obligation of physicians to their ps & society & pt towards MD
  • NUREMBERG code – not legal but continues to influence the direction of research ethics policy & practice as it essentially captures historical events
    -- informed consent, ensure objective protection
  • Study the developmental spread of tumors—
    -- MR children – admittance into the home was contingent upon parents
  • Commission was a multidiciplinary grp – scientist, moral theologian, ethicist – philosophers, policy experts
    “identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical & behavioral research involving human subjects & to develop guidelines w/c should be followed to assure that such research is conducted with those principles.
  • Commission promulgated the BELMONT REPORT
  • Risks:
  • God squad – who to live & who to die
  • Control of life
  • Control of the begginning of life; change in definition of conception of embryo in OB gyne Book
  • Control of the begginning of life; change in definition of conception of embryo in OB gyne Book
  • Control of the begginning of life; change in definition of conception of embryo in OB gyne Book
  • Antropology – study of the mystery of man.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction to Bioethicss
    • 2. Objectives: • Define ETHICS & Bioethics • Trace the birth and development of Bioethics
    • 3. Outline •Definition of Ethics •Definition of Bioethics •Rationale in the study of Bioethics •Birth of Bioethics
    • 4. What is Ethics? • Greek word “ethos” – behavior or custom that is permanent – ”ethics” • Latin’s “mos” or “moris” – “morals” • Basic human behaviors that are specific & inherent to human beings • Natural to human which confers and develops goodness in them
    • 5. What is Ethics? • A sense of right & wrong from which human actions proceeds • Study of the morality of the human act (Moral philosophy) • Guides both speculative & practical intellect in the acquisition of ethical principles in concrete human conduct
    • 6. What is Ethics? • ETHICS is the rational inquiry into what constitutes human happiness in the light of human nature as reflected in human conduct empirically and emphatically observed.
    • 7. What is Ethics? •Ethics- study of the end of man and of human acts insofar as they are related to that end.
    • 8. Outline •Definition of Ethics •Definition of Bioethics •Rationale in the study of Bioethics •Birth of Bioethics
    • 9. What is BIOETHICS? • “ethics of life” or of life science • Health care ethics, medical ethics or life ethics • Application of the basic principles of ethics to the new possibilities opened by modern biology & biotechnology with regard to human life • Professional ethics in allied health » Manlangit
    • 10. What is BIOETHICS? • Study of human actions of allied health professionals with regards to human life and towards the patient
    • 11. Rationale in the study of Bioethics • To address the perennial ethical problems, issues, dilemmas confronting health workers • To address legal problems in health care with ethical concerns • To address the challenge of the modern technology • To address & enhance professional development & ethical values of the health professionals
    • 12. Outline •Definition of Ethics •Definition of Bioethics •Rationale in the study of Bioethics •Birth of Bioethics
    • 13. BIRTH OF BIOETHICS
    • 14. History of Bioethics •Historical Code •Research Ethics •Clinical Ethics •Emerging technology
    • 15. Historical Codes –Greek Philosophers • personhood & virtues behavior – Hippocrates (5th cent. B.C.) • Hippocratic Oath – “first do no harm”
    • 16. Historical Codes • Oath of Maimonides (1200) – Look upon the sick with empathy & respect – Accept teaching of elders with med skills – Work for the benefit of the mankind
    • 17. Historical Codes •Percival’s Code 1794 – 1st code of medical ethics adopted by group of professional physicians •American Medical Association Code – Duties & obligations of physician to pts & to the society & the field of medicine
    • 18. Hippocratic Oath (400 BC) “DO NO HARM” •“and abstain from whatever in deleterious & mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; & in like manner I will not give to woman a pessary to produce abortion.”
    • 19. THE TURNING POINT: •The medical profession had confront new questions, raised directly as a result of extraordinary progress being made in biomedical sciences.
    • 20. Research Ethics: • Nazi Experiments. 1940s • Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (1930 – 1970) • Jewish Chronic Disease Study (1963) • Willobrook Hepatitis Study (1963 – 1966) – New York
    • 21. Research Ethics: Nazi Experimentation 1940’s • Nazi Doctors’ horrific experimentation on death camp prisoners • THE NUREMBERG CODE – Recognizes the subject
    • 22. Research Ethics: Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (1930 – 1970’s) • 400 Syphilitic black men in Alabama (1947) • Denied of tx even after penicillin was introduced in 1947
    • 23. Research Ethics: • Jewish Chronic Disease Study (1963) – Tumor cells were injected into elderly patients w/o permission • Willobrook Hepatitis Study (1963 – 1966) – New York – Mentally disable children were intentionally infected with hepatitis.
    • 24. Research Ethics • NATIONAL RESEACH ACT 1974 • National Commission for the Protection of Human Subject of Biomedical & Behavioral Research
    • 25. BELMONT REPORT 1979 • 3 fundamental principles of biomedical research ethics • Respect for persons • Beneficence • Justice • Importance of INFORMED CONSENT
    • 26. Ethical Concerns From Research • Artificial heart transplantation – (1960) Dr. Denton Cooley’s artificial heart -- w/o proper ethical & regulatory overview – 1980: Dr. Copeland – quality of life • Xenotransplantation – non human to human
    • 27. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • 1960: Kidney Dialysis machine: “God Squad” – based from value – laden, social worth • New definition of Death by Ad Hoc Committee at Harvard University 1968
    • 28. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • Discussion of Demographic Explosion • Contraceptive pill by Gregory Pinkus • Human Vitae 1968
    • 29. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • Dramatic Shift to civil liberties and individual rights (1960 & 1970s) • Women demanded greater Privacy in Reproductive Decisions • Patients demanded control over their treatment decisions
    • 30. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • Dramatic Shift to civil liberties and individual rights (1960 & 1970s) • Women demanded greater Privacy in reproductive Decisions • Patients demanded control over their treatment decisions • Artificial Reproductive technology
    • 31. CLINICAL ETHICAL ISSUES • End of Life Issues: • Patient Self Determination Act of 1991 • Advance directives & living will • Right to Die Movement • Oregon Death Dignity
    • 32. History of Bioethics •Historical Code •Research Ethics •Clinical Ethics •Emerging technology
    • 33. QUESTION: •Which moral criteria must be applied in order to clarify the problems posed today in the field of biomedicine?
    • 34. IS IT?
    • 35. QUESTION: •Which moral criteria must be applied in order to clarify the problems posed today in the field of biomedicine?
    • 36. ANSWER: Anthropological Vision •The answer to this question presupposes a proper idea of the nature of the human person in his bodily dimension.
    • 37. Criteria to Judge Our Ethical Choices • Need to be founded in an anthropology that contains the objective truth about man… nature of the person… of his or her truth…. • WHAT AND WHO IS THE PERSON!
    • 38. Outline •Definition of Ethics •Definition of Bioethics •Rationale in the study of Bioethics •Birth of Bioethics