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Human Capital Challenges In The 21st Century Rand Bfe Mena 2011

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  • School organizational change includes restructuring system (as in Oman) to charter schools (as in Qatar and experimentally in UAE).
  • Qatar’s efforts in this area very limited.
  • For Oman education, rates of school droppout and grade repetition have declined for males and females at all levels. For Banking Sector : CLMRI found that the sector increased the share of Emiratis from 14.1 percent to 26.4 percent of the workforce between 1999 and 2004; still 10 percentage points below the quota set by the government for 2004, but exceeds the percentage of Emiratis in other industries in the private sector. Banking has expanded in “free zones” where firms are not subject to quotas. Observational analyses; not causal.
  • Motivation for divestment in Lebanon is funds for debt relief. Targets: telecommunications, electricity, water, gas exploration, ports.
  • Reforms initiated in November 2002 with establishment of Qatar Supreme Education Council. Goals: promote autonomy of providers, offer parents choice among schooling options, enhance critical thinking and problem solving skills of students; hold all stakeholders accountable for student success. Curriculum standards : developed by new Education Institute. Annual assessments : Qatar Comprehensive Educational Assessments (QCEA) first administered in spring 2004 in K-12 and cover Arabic, English, mathematics and science. Results published in school report cards to promote parental choice. School evaluation and data management : Involves surveys administered to students in publicly-funded schools, as well as parents, teachers and administrators. Independent schools : publicly-funded but independently operated alongside MoE schools. By fall of 2006, about 20% of total public schools were indepdent. International assessments : 2007 TIMSS( Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study); 2006 PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study); 2006 PISA (Programmer for International Student Assessment)
  • Education reforms aim to improve critical thinking, problem solving, English knowledge, self-dependence, and the entrepreneurial spirit of youth. New “Basic” education system replaces “General Education” system Phased in starting in 1998-1999; first full cohort will graduate grade 12 in 2009. About 500 schools in new system as of 2005-2006. School day expanded from 4 to 5 hours, school year from 160 to 180 days Revised curriculum More time on subjects like English and introduce in earlier grade (1st instead of 4th). Other reforms Assessments include formative assessments to assess progress on ongoing basis Teacher education raised from 2-year to 4-year degree Beyond reforms in new Basic system, old General Education schools starting to use new textbooks, assessment tools. Also getting guidance counselors and ending tracking.
  • Accreditation is by U.S. institution (U.S. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools). School-to-work transition: Efforts by UAE University, HCT (Higher Colleges of Technology), and Zayed University
  • New higher education institutions From one college in 1995 to 22 colleges and universities 22 new colleges/universities now have 17,000 new entrants per year. Others established in “free zones”: Knowledge Oasis Muscat (KOM) houses two private technical colleges, Waljat College of Applied Sciences and the Middle East College of Information Technology, to promote practical experience for students and research connections across faculty and businesses
  • Qatar University reforms: Administrative reforms to decentralize administrative structures and strengthen governance and management New admissions process and requirements to raise student quality Higher academic standards for retention and graduation Program and departmental evaluations and changes to core curriculum in math and sciences Encouraging scholarship endeavors by faculty and students Improve student life Scholarship programs: Higher Education Institute established in 2005 targets essential fields of study and qualifying institutions in Qatar and abroad. Target fields include medicine, engineering, and finance and economics. Five new scholarship programs open to Qatari citizens. Required to work in area of importance to Qatar upon graduation.
  • KV: . Has programs in human resources, customer relations, accountancy, tourism, marketing, budgeting, cost control, IT, biotechnology, and design arts are offered, typically for two years. The National Institute for Vocational Education based out of KV is one such recently established institution to meet demand for vocational and workforce skills training
  • Ministry of Civil Service Examples of specialized programs: Diplomatic Institute for the Oman Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Agricultural and Fishing Training Center for the Oman Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing, and the Training Center for the Ministry of Municipalities, Environment, and Water Resources Ministry of Manpower operates 4 vocational training centers and 5 technical colleges (nationals only. Former are for semi-skilled and skilled jobs; latter for highly-skilled technical jobs. Receive Oman Vocational Qualification. Coordination with private sector through councils specific to economic sectors (oil and gas sector council exists)
  • The vocational schools include College of North Atlantic-Qatar (2002), Canadian-based technical college, with degrees in business studies, engineering technology, IT, health sciences. 2-year degrees. CHN University of the Netherlands, undergraduate programs in hospitality and tourism management. Training Center program 1.5 to 2 year program As of November 2005, had trained about 600 Qatari females and 430 Qatari males. 90% of class was females. Some companies sponsor trainees in terms of stipends, mentoring, work experience and then choose whether or not to hire upon graduation. Supreme Council’s Higher Education Institute involved in introducing independent certification of 100 or so existing smaller-scale training institutes
  • Sectors targeted for Emirtization: banking; insurance and trade. Responsibility with Ministry of Labour 1998: banking required to increase national staff by 4 percent per year 2003 added 5% annual increase for insurance sector 2004 added 2% yearly growth for trade sector Other labor restrictions : minimum wage requirements, taxes on businesses importing labor, taxes on salaries of imported labor, and higher visa and residency processing requirements have all been employed 1999 Law: pension plan included accrued retirement benefits, disability benefits, life insurance, and end-of-service bonuses. Tanmia (1999): Part of Ministry of Labour charged with career counseling and training and matching workers to jobs to place new entrants, reentrants, and job changers in private sector. Job banks include Public Authority for National Development and Employment which has database of individuals searching for jobs. Labor Market Information System will forecast job opportunities for nationals to help target job seekers.
  • Omanization goals: Banking--90 (achieved this goal)%, industry--50%, construction--35%, government--95%, private--75% Previous wage law had two tiers: skilled and unskilled. Support for business start up: Sanad program managed by Ministry of Manpower. Small subsidized loans and grants administered throgh Oman Development Bank. . Targeted sectors include grocery shops (sale of food stuffs), vegetables and fruit shops, sale of ready-made garments, car washes, Internet cafés, butchery shops, and carpentry shops.
  • 1962 law required private and mixed sector firms to fill vacancy with Qatari national first and, if no qualified individual, then a non-Qatari Arab followed by non-Arab foreigner. Early 1970s goal was to Qatarize top administrative posts in government. Starting in 1997, Emiri decree required private sector businesses to have at least 20% Qataris. Current plan with 50% in energy and industry sectors. Current incidence is about 28%.
  • Tax free zone: Knoweldge Oasis Muscat focuses on technology-oriented businesses; provides infrastructure. KOM incentives include 100 percent foreign ownership, no personal income tax and no foreign exchange controls, tax and import duty exemptions for eligible companies for five years (with option to renew for another five years), and duty-free access of products from Oman and GCC countries.
  • QTSP is “free zone” allowing tenants to independently own and operate a local entity that is not subject to tax, duty or capital controls.

Transcript

  • 1. Human Capital Challenges in the 21st Century Lynn A. Karoly RAND 26 October 2011 BFE MENA Conference “Modernising Education to Create Tomorrow’s Workforce” Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
  • 2. Growing Importance of Human Capital In World’s Economies
    • Education plays a critical role throughout the life course
      • Preparing new labor market entrants
      • Providing skill upgrading over time
    • Countries increasingly recognize the importance of policies that affect human resources
      • Education, training, and other workforce development systems
      • Labor market policies
    • Policymaking requires understanding of the role of education in the labor market
  • 3. Objectives for Today’s Presentation
    • Review human capital outcomes in GCC countries
    • Identify human capital challenges facing countries in the region
    • Highlight education and labor market reforms underway in several MENA countries
  • 4. Presentation Draws on Several RAND Studies RAND Reports, Summaries, and Research Briefs available at www.rand.org Papers by Karoly and Gonzalez in volume published by Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research (ECSSR) (www.ecssr.ac.ae)
  • 5. Objectives for Today’s Presentation
    • Review human capital outcomes in GCC countries
      • Quantity and quality of human capital produced via formal education system
      • Relationship of education to labor market outcomes
        • Labor force participation
        • Unemployment
        • Earnings
    • Identify human capital challenges facing countries in the region
    • Highlight education and labor market reforms underway in several MENA countries
    Rely on internationally comparable data where possible and country-specific data otherwise
  • 6. Promising Patterns for GCC Countries
    • With the exception of Oman, primary education is universal with no gender gap in enrollment
    • Young women are participating at high rates in post-secondary education
  • 7. Promising Patterns for GCC Countries
    • With the exception of Oman, primary education is universal with no gender gap in enrollment
    • Young women are participating at high rates in post-secondary education
    • Based on data for Qatar and Saudi Arabia:
    • There has been educational upgrading across cohorts
  • 8. There Has Been Educational Upgrading Across Cohorts: Qatari Nationals SOURCE: : Qatar 2008 Labor Force Survey.
  • 9. There Has Been Educational Upgrading Across Cohorts: Saudi Nationals SOURCE: : Saudi Arabia 2004 Census.
  • 10. Promising Patterns for GCC Countries
    • With the exception of Oman, primary education is universal with no gender gap in enrollment
    • Young women are participating at high rates in post-secondary education
    • Based on data for Qatar and Saudi Arabia:
    • There has been educational upgrading across cohorts
    • There is evidence of positive returns to higher education
  • 11. Areas of Concern for GCC Countries (1)
    • Shortfalls in enrollment for secondary education, especially for boys
  • 12. SOURCE: : World Bank World Development Indicators (2008). NOTE: Figures are as of 2007. Shortfalls in Secondary Enrollment, Especially for Boys
  • 13. Areas of Concern for GCC Countries (1)
    • Shortfalls in enrollment for secondary education, especially for boys
    • Elementary and secondary students are far from attaining the knowledge of math, science, and reading consistent with international standards
  • 14. Gaps in Knowledge of Key Subjects, Especially for Boys: 4th Grade Science SOURCE: : 2007 TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study).
  • 15. SOURCE: : 2007 TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). Gaps in Knowledge of Key Subjects, Especially for Boys: 8th Grade Science
  • 16. Gender Gaps Less Pronounced in Other MENA Countries: 8th Grade Science SOURCE: : 2007 TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study).
  • 17. Areas of Concern for GCC Countries (1)
    • Shortfalls in enrollment for secondary education, especially for boys
    • Elementary and secondary students are far from attaining the knowledge of math, science, and reading consistent with international standards
    • Men are less likely to participate in higher education than women
  • 18. Men Are Less Likely to Participate in Higher Education Than Women SOURCE: : World Bank World Development Indicators (2008). NOTE: Figures are as of 2007.
  • 19. Areas of Concern for GCC Countries (1)
    • Shortfalls in enrollment for secondary education, especially for boys
    • Elementary and secondary students are far from attaining the knowledge of math, science, and reading consistent with international standards
    • Men are less likely to participate in higher education than women
    • Girls have higher performance in science assessments, yet women are less likely to major in S&E fields
  • 20. GCC Female University Graduates Are Less Likely to Major in S&T Fields SOURCE: : U.S. National Science Foundation (2008). NOTE: Figures are as of 2004.
  • 21. … But Number of Female S&T Graduates Often Exceeds Number of Male Graduates SOURCE: : U.S. National Science Foundation (2008). NOTE: Figures are as of 2004.
  • 22.
    • Based on data for Qatar and Saudi Arabia:
    • Women are underrepresented in the labor force, with the exception of Qataris with a university degree
    Areas of Concern for GCC Countries (2)
  • 23. Within Education Groups, GCC Women Are Generally Underrepresented in the Labor Force SOURCE: : Qatar 2008 Labor Force Survey and Saudi Arabia 2008 Labour Force Survey.
  • 24. Areas of Concern for GCC Countries (2)
    • Based on data for Qatar and Saudi Arabia:
    • Women are underrepresented in the labor force, with the exception of Qataris with a university degree
    • Women have higher unemployment rates
    • Unemployment rates are typically higher for both women and men with more education
  • 25. Unemployment Rates Are Higher for Women and Usually for More Educated LF Participants SOURCE: : Qatar 2008 Labor Force Survey and Saudi Arabia 2008 Labour Force Survey.
  • 26. Areas of Concern for GCC Countries (2)
    • Based on data for Qatar and Saudi Arabia:
    • Women are underrepresented in the labor force, with the exception of Qataris with a university degree
    • Women have higher unemployment rates
    • Unemployment rates are typically higher for both women and men with more education
    • Returns to education are lower for women and for nationals
  • 27. Returns to Schooling Are Lower for GCC Women and Nonnationals SOURCE: : Qatar 2008 Labor Force Survey and Saudi Arabia 2000 Employment and Wages Survey.
  • 28. Objectives for Today’s Presentation
    • Review human capital outcomes in GCC countries
    • Identify human capital challenges facing countries in the region
    • Highlight education and labor market reforms underway in several MENA countries
  • 29. Four Key Challenges Lie Ahead
    • Continuing the growth in educational attainment
    • Improving the quality of education
    • Addressing labor market imbalances
    • Providing information to assess education system performance and labor market outcomes
  • 30. Education Attainment and Quality (1)
    • Need to push toward universal secondary education and close the gender gap
      • Oman should also target primary education
      • Address delays in school entry and grade repetition
    • Raising quality at all levels of education is essential
      • Broad based and focused reforms to address curriculum, pedagogy, dosage
      • Consider strategies to improve performance of boys
  • 31. Education Attainment and Quality (2)
    • At post-secondary level, closing gender gaps in enrollment and degree choice should be a priority
      • Examine role of economic incentives such as costs of and returns to higher education overall and in degree choice
      • Address other barriers such as constraints on degree choice by gender or other social norms and expectations
    • Address quality issues with job training programs for those not pursuing post-secondary education
  • 32. Labor Market Imbalances
    • Need better understanding of incentives and other factors that lead to underutilization of nationals in the labor market
    • Reforms to labor market structures and institutions should be considered
      • Role of public sector employment
      • Role of skill mismatch with private employers
    • Raising education quantity and quality will have spillover benefits for labor market imbalances
  • 33. Information Needs
    • Need information on performance of current systems and ability to evaluate initiatives and reforms
      • Studies using individual-level data from large-scale surveys
      • More qualitative studies based on smaller samples
    • Much of the needed information is already being collected through census, labor force surveys, etc.
      • Need to make results more widely available
      • Need to support use for research purposes
    • Opportunities to learn from variation in reforms under-way in GCC and to fine tune efforts for greater impact
  • 34. Objectives for Today’s Presentation
    • Review human capital outcomes in GCC countries
    • Identify human capital challenges facing countries in the region
    • Highlight education and labor market reforms underway in several MENA countries
  • 35. 2008 RAND Study Considered Several Types of Reforms for Four MENA Countries Education and Training Labor Market and Economy K–12 education Post-secondary education Training Labor market reforms Economic privatization Economic diversification
  • 36. Broad-Based K–12 Reforms Were Under Way in Two of the Study Countries  Lebanon  Standards-based accountability  Participation in international assessments   Establishment of coordinating bodies   Integration of information technology   Training for teachers and administrators  National assessment and evaluation   Restructured curriculum    School organizational change U.A.E. Qatar Oman Reform Element
  • 37. Higher Education Reforms Focused on Quality, Access, and Links to Labor Market  Establishment of coordinating bodies    Establishment of private higher education institutions (as part of theme cities)   Scholarship programs (for low-income students/in targeted fields and institutions)  University-based job placement program(s)   International accreditation of higher education programs  Administrative, curricular and academic standards reforms U.A.E Qatar Oman Reform Element
  • 38. Training Reforms Generally Complemented Higher Education Reforms  Establishment of coordinating bodies    Establishment of technical/vocational colleges  Independent certification of post-secondary training institutes   Public-private partnerships to train nationals U.A.E Qatar Oman Reform Element
  • 39. There Have Been Limited Efforts to Evaluate the Education and Labor Reforms
    • Time trends in student performance in Oman show improved outcomes
    • Early results from Qatar’s K-12 education reforms show stronger student performance in the Independent Schools
    • Evaluation found significant share of UAE-organized internships did not lead to work placement for graduates
    • Assessments of success of Emiratization show some progress but constrained by competing national priorities (e.g., market liberalization via “free zones”)
  • 40. Conclusions (1)
    • Human capital is an increasingly important determinant of a country’s economic competitiveness
    • GCC countries show both promising and problematic patterns in
      • Quantity and quality of human capital
      • Relationship between education and labor market
    • Future policymaking needs to address key challenges
      • Continuing the growth in educational attainment
      • Improving the quality of education
      • Addressing labor market imbalances
      • Providing information to assess education system performance and labor market outcomes
  • 41. Conclusions (2)
    • Reforms implemented or in process are beginning to address human resource challenges
      • Similarity in broad reform strategies
      • Diversity of specific reforms across countries
    • There is a lag in formal assessment of reform efforts and use of data in decisionmaking
      • Requires focused investment in data collection
      • Need to expand efforts to integrate evaluation into decisionmaking
      • Opportunities to learn from reform efforts implemented in other countries
  • 42. For Further Reading RAND Reports, Summaries, and Research Briefs available at www.rand.org Papers by Karoly and Gonzalez in volume published by Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research (ECSSR) (www.ecssr.ac.ae)
  • 43.  
  • 44. Labor Market Reforms Focus on Incentives to Increase Nationals in Private Sector    Quotas for employment of nationals in private sector  Rewards and sanctions for employment of nationals in targeted sectors    Equalization of worker rights or access to benefits in public and private sectors  Establishment of job placement/matching and training bureau  Elimination of automatic employment of nationals in public sector  Training and financial support to start new business U.A.E. Qatar Oman Reform Element
  • 45. Other Reforms Aim to Diversify Economy, Expand Private Sector, Raise Public-Sector Efficiency Training and other supports for more efficient public administration  Establishment of free trade zones    Establishment of “free zones” exempt from government requirements   Allow foreign ownership of companies in selected sectors  Divestment of government-owned companies   Incentives to expand peripheral industries U.A.E. Qatar Oman Reform Element
  • 46. Achievement Scores Advancing Over Time in Qatar: 15-Year-Olds SOURCE: : 2006 and 2009 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment).
  • 47. SOURCE: : 2006 and 2009 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment). Achievement Scores for 15-Year-Olds Are Rising Over Time in Qatar
  • 48. Gaps in Knowledge of Key Subjects, Especially for Boys: 4th Grade Science SOURCE: : 2007 TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study).
  • 49. Gaps in Knowledge of Key Subjects, Especially for Boys: 4th Grade Mathematics SOURCE: : 2007 TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study).
  • 50. Gaps in Knowledge of Key Subjects, Especially for Boys: 8th Grade Mathematics SOURCE: : 2007 TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study).
  • 51. Gaps in Knowledge of Key Subjects, Especially for Boys: 4th Grade Reading SOURCE: : 2006 PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study).
  • 52. Private and Social Returns from Human Capital Investments
    • Education can increase the productivity capacity of workers
      • Theoretical foundations in human capital model
      • Individuals tradeoff income today in return for higher earnings in the future
      • Empirical evidence of economic returns to more education
    • Human capital, as a factor of production, contributes to economic growth
      • Theoretical foundations in growth theory
      • Empirical evidence of education or high quality education’s contribution to growth
  • 53. Growing Demand for More Skilled Workers in Competitive Global Economy
    • Technological change and globalization have increased the demand for a more skilled workers
    • Premium on capacity for leadership, abstract reasoning, problem solving, collaboration, and communication in a wide array of economic sectors
    • Production processes and business organization have changed in response to new technologies
      • More decentralized organizations and decisionmaking
      • More participatory workplace practices giving workers more authority, flexibility, and teaming
    • But not all jobs of the future will require higher education
  • 54. Occupations Today Require More Nonroutine, Analytic, and Interactive Skills 1959 1969 1979 1989 1998 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Occupational Task Input Level Relative to 1959 (1959 = 0) Nonroutine cognitive/analytic Nonroutine cognitive/interactive Routine cognitive Routine manual Nonroutine manual Source: Autor, Levy, and Murnane (2002), Table 3.
  • 55. Analysis Limited by Available Data
    • Ideally would have comparable micro data for each GCC country
      • Education level and labor market outcomes
      • Demographics, I.e., citizenship status, age, gender
    • Available tabulations from GCC censuses and labor force surveys do not always stratify by citizenship and education level
    • Rely on following published data
      • Gross and net enrollment rates: World Bank (2007)
      • Educational attainment by cohort : Qatar Labor Force Survey (2008) and and Saudi Arabia Census (2004)
      • International academic assessments at 4th and 8th grades and age 15: TIMSS (2007), PIRLS (2006), PISA (2006, 2009)
      • Degree fields for university graduates: NSF (2004, 2006)
      • Educational attainment and labor market outcomes : Qatar and Saudi Arabia Labor Force Surveys (2008, 2000)
  • 56. Reforms Address Some but Not All Human Resource Challenges Disparities in living standards affect human capital development Brain drain diminished benefit of strong higher education sector + + + + + + + + Education and training system not preparing students well for workforce + + + Unemployment rates high among young, first-time workers + + + + + + Employment of nationals focused in government sector; private sector employment less attractive to nationals + + + Labor force made up mostly of non-nationals UAE Qatar Oman Lebanon Challenge
  • 57. UAE Is in Early Stages of Planning for K-12 Reforms
    • Abu Dhabi and Dubai Education Councils are considering K-12 reforms
    • Trial efforts at school organizational change
      • External management companies operating some schools in pilot effort in Abu Dhabi
  • 58. Qatar Has Embarked on Comprehensive Set of K-12 Reforms
    • Qatar Supreme Education Council established in 2002
    • Key features of reform
      • Curriculum standards based on international benchmarks in Arabic, English, mathematics, and science
      • Standards-based assessment system in grades 1-12
      • School evaluation and data management system
      • Establishment of independent “charter” schools with administrative autonomy
    • Other reform elements
      • Professional development for teachers and administrators
      • Integration of IT in teaching and learning
      • Participation in international assessments
  • 59. K-12 Reforms in Oman Focus on Raising Quality
    • Phasing in new “Basic” system restructured from 6-3-3 cycle to 4-6-2 cycle
      • 10 years of “basic education” for non-college bound
      • 2 additional “post-basic” years for college bound
      • Expanded school day and school year
    • Revised curriculum puts more emphasis on English and Arabic languages, math and science
      • Student-centered learning stresses applications, experiential learning not just theory
      • More resources to support learning including integration of IT
    • Other reform elements
      • Assessments focus on higher thinking skills
      • Raised teacher education requirement and classroom supports
      • Addition of guidance counselors in grades 5-10
  • 60. UAE Is Targeting Higher Education Quality and Expanded Access for All
    • UAE University’s focus on quality includes:
      • Expanding accreditation from selected programs to entire university
      • Promoting research by faculty to benefit public / private sectors
    • Incentives to establish higher education, vocational training, and research institutions in “knowledge cities,” open to all nationalities
      • Dubai Knowledge Village and eventually Dubai Academic City
      • Abu Dhabi Education and Research City
    • Various universities aim to improve school-to-work transition
      • Specialized instruction relevant for private sector (e.g., English language, technical skills demanded in oil sector)
      • Internships and job placement programs
  • 61. Oman Reforms Aim to Expand Access to Higher Education and Raise Quality
    • Private higher education institutions added in last decade
      • Incentives include free land, exemption from taxes and duties, and matching grants
      • Expanded access to fields such as engineering, IT, communications, design, and business administration
      • Scholarships target students from low-income families
    • Other strategies focus on raising quality
      • New Council for Higher Education accredits institutions
      • Requirements for Quality Assurance established
  • 62. Qatar Is Reforming and Expanding Its Higher Education System
    • Focus of Qatar University reforms
      • Decentralize administrative structures
      • Raise academic standards and quality of curriculum
    • Education City established in 1998 to expand higher education opportunities and private sector role
      • Branch campuses of overseas universities
      • Cover fields of engineering, computer science and business, fashion design, international relations and diplomacy, and medicine
    • New scholarship programs support studies in essential fields in Qatar and abroad
  • 63. Training Efforts in UAE Build on Higher Education Expansion
    • Expansion of vocational/technical schools and training programs included in vision for “knowledge cities”
    • Establishment of Abu Dhabi and Dubai Education Councils aims to coordinate public- and private-sector training efforts
  • 64. Oman Training Focuses on Both Public and Private Sectors
    • Training for government through Ministry of Civil Service
      • General and specialized training programs to meet needs of government entities
      • Other training programs operated by ministries
      • Option to use private training centers
    • Private-sector training coordinated by Ministry of Manpower
      • Non-college bound Omanis access vocational training centers and technical colleges; receive certification
      • Programs coordinated with private employers and receive feedback on graduates
  • 65. Training Initiatives in Qatar Extend Higher Education Reforms
    • Higher ed expansions includes two new vocational schools
    • Ministry of Civil Service Affairs and Housing has programs for public and private-sector training
      • Institute of Administration Development trains Qatari’s for government ministries
      • Training Center prepares Qatari high school graduates with low qualifications for entry-level private sector jobs
    • Efforts to raise quality of smaller-scale post-secondary training institutes
      • Introduce independent certification
    • Some private-sector training
      • Company-specific training programs
      • Some companies sponsor trainees at Training Center
  • 66. Emiratization of Workforce Is Key Goal of Labor Market Reforms in UAE
    • Give employers incentives to hire Emiratis
      • First law had explicit quotas for banking sector (1998)
      • Subsequent quotas established for insurance and trade sectors (2003, 2004)
      • Fees for not achieving targets; repeated failure may lead to suspension of government contracts
      • Other restrictions provide additional disincentives to hire expatriates
    • Make private sector more attractive to Emiratis
      • Established (1999) national pension for workers in private sector, with transfer of accrued benefits in public sector
    • Match public-sector workers to private-sector jobs through job banks, career counseling, and training programs
  • 67. Oman Labor Market Reforms Aim to Expand Private-Sector Employment of Nationals
    • Make employment of Omanis more attractive to employers
      • Five-year plans set targets for share of nationals in specific sectors
    • Make private sector more attractive to Omanis
      • 2003 law increased rights of workers in private sector (including uniform minimum wage)
      • Grants and loans available to school leavers and unemployed to start small businesses in targeted sectors
      • Training available for Omani entrepreneurs
  • 68. Qatar Labor Market Reforms Aim to Expand Private Sector Employment of Nationals
    • Ended policy of automatic employment of Qatari secondary and post-secondary graduates in public sector in 2002
    • 2004 Labor Law expanded workers’ rights with respect to contracts, financial rights, and provisions for unions
    • “ Qatarization” has focused since 1997 on private sector
      • Private firms required to have at least 20% Qataris among employees
      • 2000-2005 Plan has target of 50% Qataris for energy and industry sector jobs
  • 69. Oman’s Economic Reforms Provide Incentives for Diversification and Expanded Private Sector
    • Targeted strategies to expand manufacturing and industrial sectors
      • Opened two ports and associated industrial zones
      • Government helps companies locate sites, develop buildings, access incentives, and market products
    • Other policies aim to expand private sector
      • Privatization of public utilities and petroleum companies
      • Permit 100 percent foreign ownership in selected industries
      • Tax-free zones and technology parks attract entrepreneurs, researchers and multi-national firms
      • Free trade zones promote foreign direct investment
  • 70. Qatar Aims to Promote Private Sector and R&D
    • 100 percent foreign ownership allowed in agriculture, industry, health, education and tourism
    • Incentives for research and development and high technology through Qatar Science and Technology Park
      • “ Free zone” not subject to tax, duties, or capital controls
      • Infrastructure and services support provided to tenants
      • Affiliated with Education City
  • 71. Living Standards Disparities Have Implications for Human Capital Investments
    • Oman has lower per-capita income than Qatar and UAE and greater disparities in living conditions
    • Living standards vary across key subgroups
      • Urban versus rural households
      • Households by head’s level of education
    • Data from living standards surveys suggest investments in educating children tied to living standards
      • Lower-quality schools for children in lower-income households
      • Educational outcomes worse for lower-income children
  • 72. There Is Lack of Evaluation Process and High-Quality Data
    • Establishment of government entities to oversee data collection efforts bodes well . . .
      • Lebanon Central Administration for Statistics
      • Oman Ministry of National Economy
      • Qatar Planning Council
      • U.A.E. Ministry of Economy and Planning and National Human Resource and Employment Authority (Tanmia)
    • . . . but progress has been limited
      • Comprehensive and systematic data collection has only recently been put into place
      • Gaps in data collection efforts remain
      • Analysis of data and use for policymaking not an entrenched activity
  • 73. … And Patterns May Be Changing in Some GCC Countries SOURCE: : U.S. National Science Foundation (2010). NOTE: Figures are as of 2006.