A SOCIOLINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF GRAFFITI IN SECONDARYSCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN NYANDARUADISTRICT         ...
ABSTRACT         Graffiti assume the form of written language or drawings on surfaces in publicplaces. Their authorship is...
TABLE OF CONTENT                                                             PAGETitle page                               ...
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 Introduction                                              42.1   General Views on Graffi...
3.1.2 Tools For Data Collection                            24             3.1.2.1 Unstructured Interviews                 ...
4 2.3 Graphological Analysis of Graffiti          39            4.2.3.1 Scribbles and Drawings               39           ...
5 2.2 Messages on School Authority                       63            5.2.2.1 Attitudes Towards Teachers                 ...
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A sociolinguistic analysis of graffiti in secondary

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Graffiti: Μελέτη περίπτωσης. Βιβλιογραφία για την εργασία:Ο τοίχος έχει την δική του ιστορία

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A sociolinguistic analysis of graffiti in secondary

  1. 1. A SOCIOLINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF GRAFFITI IN SECONDARYSCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN NYANDARUADISTRICT KAN JUKI AGNES W. AM13/1121/04A project submitted to the Graduate School in Partial Fulfillment of theRequirement for the Degree of Master of Arts in English Language andLinguistics of Egerton University
  2. 2. ABSTRACT Graffiti assume the form of written language or drawings on surfaces in publicplaces. Their authorship is private and the writers are anonymous. They are oftenviewed as illegal, and are interpreted as a challenge and threat to existing authority in acontext where one group exerts influence over another. Graffiti are however a form ofpublic communication. Their authors who are usually denied other channels ofcommunication use them as avenues for self-expression and to pass across messages onreal-life issues affecting them. Students in secondary schools in Kenya are one suchgroup that use graffiti to express their opinions. Since they do not always enjoy theprivilege of making decisions or taking part in discussions on matters affecting them,they fall back on graffiti as an alternative medium of communication. The current studyset out to investigate and identify graffiti, describe their stylistic features, find out themessages they put across and establish different attitudes towards graffiti. The studywas based on the hypotheses that graffiti use specific stylistic features of language, areused to communicate messages on social issues and that students and teachers havedifferent attitudes towards their writing. Texts were collected in ten secondary schoolsin Nyandarua District. Out of these two hundred texts; twenty from each school, werepurposively sampled for analysis. Two teachers and five students from each schoolwere interviewed using different interview schedules. The data elicited from thisexercise was later analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to arrive at inferences andconclusions. The research was limited to a socio-linguistic approach to the study ofgraffiti in secondary schools. The study was guided by Leechs Model of StylisticAnalysis and Critical Discourse Analysis. The findings were that graffiti used uniquestylistic devices such as capitalization, short word forms, figurative language andsymbolism among others. Graffiti also communicate messages on various topics toinclude love and sex, school authority, student welfare, religion and politics. Thefindings of this research contribute to the study of linguistics in general, andparticularly to the fields of Stylistics, Discourse Studies and Sociolinguistics by givingan analysis of language use in society. It is also relevant and useful to secondary schoolpolicy-makers, administrators and teachers who will gain knowledge on the meaning ofgraffiti which they will use to understand the students. « vii
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENT PAGETitle page (i)Declaration and Approval . (ii)Copyright (iii)Dedication (iv)Acknowledgement (v)Abstract (vii)Table of Contents (viii)Definition of Terms . (xiii)List of Tables and Figures (xiv)CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.1 Background to the Study 11.2 Statement of the Problem 21.3 Objectives of the Study 21.4 Hypothesis of the Study 21.5 Significance of the Study 31.6 Scope of the Study 31.7 Limitations of the Study 3 •f i vm
  4. 4. CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 Introduction 42.1 General Views on Graffiti 4 2.1.1 History and Scope of Graffiti 4 2.1.2 Different Attitudes Towards Graffiti 5 2.1.2.1 Negative Attitudes 6 2.1.2.2 Positive Attitudes 7 2.1.2.3 Implications of the Definitions 9 2.1.3 Types of Graffiti 11 2.1.3.1 Political Graffiti 11 2.1.3.2 Existential Graffiti 12 2.1.3.3 Gang Graffiti 12 2.1.3.4 Summary on Types of Graffiti 13 2.1.4 Different Approaches to the Study of Graffiti 132.2 Theoretical Framework 16 2.2.1 Critical Discourse Analysis 16 2.2.2 Leechs Model of Stylistic Analysis 19CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY3.0 Introduction 213.1 Data Collection Techniques 21 3.1.1 Sampling Procedures 21 3.1.1.1 Sampling Schools 21 3.1.1.2 Sampling Graffiti Texts 22 3.1.1.3 S ampling Respondents 22 3.1.1.4 Accessing the Schools 23 x
  5. 5. 3.1.2 Tools For Data Collection 24 3.1.2.1 Unstructured Interviews 24 3.1.2.2 Field Notes 243.2 Data Recording 25 3.2.1 Types of Data 25 3.2.2 Written Records 25 3.2.3 Audio Recording 25 3.2.4 Photography 26 3.2.5 Limitations 26 3.2.6 Ethical Issues 263.3 Techniques used in Analysis 27 3.3.1 Transcription, Presentation and Analysis of Data 27CHAPTER FOUR: THE LANGUAGE OF GRAFFITI4.0 Introduction 294.1 Attitudes Towards Graffiti 29 4.1.1 Students Attitudes Towards Graffiti 29 4.1.2 Teachers Attitudes Towards Graffiti 30 4.1.3 Summary on Attitudes Towards Graffiti 314.2 Linguistic Analysis of Graffiti 32 4.2.1 Sample Analysis of a Graffito 32 4.2.2 Language Choices in Graffiti 34 4.2.2.1 Sheng 34 4.2.2.2 English 36 4.2.2.3 Kiswahili 37 4.2.2.4 Vernacular 38 4.2.2.5 Summary on Language Choices in Graffiti 39
  6. 6. 4 2.3 Graphological Analysis of Graffiti 39 4.2.3.1 Scribbles and Drawings 39 4.2.3.2 Use of Punctuation 42 4.2.4 Syntactic Analysis of Graffiti Texts 44 4.2.5 Stylistic Features in Graffiti Texts 46 4.2.5.1 Repetition 46 4.2.5.2 Short Word forms 47 4.2.5.3 Use of Nicknames 48 4.2.5.4 Slogans 49 4.2.5.5 Humour 50 4.2.5.6 Figurative Language 50 4.2.5.7 Symbolism 51 4.2.5.8 Taboo Language 524.3 Summary of Linguistic Analysis of Graffiti 53CHAPTER FIVE: THE SOCIAL MESSAGES EXPRESSED IN GRAFFITI5.0 Introduction 545.1 Sources of Graffiti 54 5.1.1 Classroom 54 5.1.2 Laboratory 55 5.1.3 Dormitory 55 5.1.4 Ablution 55 5.1.5 Dining Hall 56 5.1.6 Library 565.2 Social Messages in Graffiti 57 5.2.1 Messages on Love and Sex 58 5.2.1.1 Messages on Sex 58 5.2.1.2 Love Declarations 61 5.2.1.3 Summary of Messages on Love and Sex 63
  7. 7. 5 2.2 Messages on School Authority 63 5.2.2.1 Attitudes Towards Teachers 63 5.2.2.2 Attitudes Towards Prefects 67 5.2.2.3 Summary of Messages on School Authority 68 5.2.3 Messages on Student Welfare 68 5.2.4 Messages on Drugs 71 5.2.5 Messages on Religion 73 5.2.6 Messages on Celebrities 73 5.2.7 Messages on Politics 74 5.2.8 Summary of Social Messages 75CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS6.0 Introduction 776.1 Summary 776.2 Conclusions 78 6.2.1 The Language of Graffiti 78 6.2.1.1 Stylistic Features in Graffiti 78 6.2.1.2 Social Messages in Graffiti 79 6.2.1.3 Attitudes Towards Graffiti 806.3 Contributions of the Study 806.4 Problems in Research 816.5 Recommendations for Further Study 81BIBLIOGRAPHY 82APPENDIX I Interview Schedule for Teachers 85APPENDIX II Interview Schedule for Students 86APPENDIX in Provided List of Graffiti Texts 87APPENDIX IV List of Graffiti Texts 88APPENDIX V Research Permit xii

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