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# Presentación sobre electricidad 1ºESO (inglés)

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Breve presentación sobre electricidad para 1º de ESO

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### Presentación sobre electricidad 1ºESO (inglés)

1. 1. ELECTRICITY <ul><li>Electricity starts with electrons , a particle that carries negative charge </li></ul><ul><li>An atom consists of a dense nucleus of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons , surrounded by a much larger electron cloud consisting of negatively charged electrons . </li></ul>
2. 2. ELECTRICITY: Current and voltage <ul><li>Using a pump we can push water through a pipe around a closed circuit (top drawing). The rate at which it flows depends on the pressure difference between the entrance to the pipe (left) and the exit from the pipe (right). </li></ul><ul><li>    The greater the pressure difference, the greater the flow. In addition, given a certain pressure difference, a fatter pipe will carry more water, and a longer one will resist the flow and carry less. </li></ul><ul><li>All this mirrors the behavior of the electric fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>    In our homes and appliances electricity usually flows in metal wires , most often of copper. Electrons in a metal can jump from atom to atom, and that way carry negative charge around the circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>    Like a fluid, they are driven by a kind of electric pressure, known as voltage, because it is measured in units known as volts . An electric battery produces (by a chemical process) a voltage difference V between its two ends, and therefore acts like a pump (bottom drawing). </li></ul><ul><li>    The electric current I flows from high voltage to low voltage and is measured in units known as Amperes </li></ul>
3. 3. ELECTRICITY: Resistance <ul><li>Anything tha t opposes the flow of current in a circuit is said to offer resistance . We measure resistance in ohms ( Ω ). </li></ul><ul><li>All electrical components offer some resistance to the flow of electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistors are components specially made to resist the flow of electricity. </li></ul>
4. 4. ELECTRICITY: Resistors in series <ul><li>In series circuits, resistors are joined together end to end in a single line. </li></ul><ul><li>The resistors do not have to be in a straight line. </li></ul><ul><li>The same current flows through all the resistors. </li></ul><ul><li>The equivalent resistance of resistors connected in series is the sum of their resistances. </li></ul>
5. 5. ELECTRICITY: Resistors in parallel <ul><li>In parallel circuits, both ends of all resistors are joined together . </li></ul><ul><li>Resistors can be connected such that they branch out from a single point (known as a node ), and join up again somewhere else in the ciruit. This is known as a parallel connection </li></ul>Figure 1. Example of a circuit containing three resistors connected in parallel Circuit containing resistors in parallel, equivalent to Figure 1