Policy Making and Evidence

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Policy Making and Evidence

  1. 1. Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa Policy Making and EvidencePolicy Making and Evidence David HowlettDavid Howlett Executive Director, Africa CollegeExecutive Director, Africa College A transformationA transformation project working on food security and human healthproject working on food security and human health
  2. 2. Questions •• How does a policy get made in the BritishHow does a policy get made in the British Government?Government? •• What are the main entry points to provideWhat are the main entry points to provide evidence into policy?evidence into policy? Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  3. 3. Today •• Rapid look at the principles and actors inRapid look at the principles and actors in policy makingpolicy making •• ExampleExample •• Lessons for academicsLessons for academics •• My perspective as a natural scientist when atMy perspective as a natural scientist when at the Department for Internationalthe Department for International Development (DFID)Development (DFID) Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  4. 4. Principles for Policy Making IPrinciples for Policy Making I •• Forward lookingForward looking –– takes a long view, based ontakes a long view, based on trends and predictions, of the likely impacttrends and predictions, of the likely impact •• Outward lookingOutward looking –– takes account of the national,takes account of the national, European and international situationEuropean and international situation •• Innovative and creativeInnovative and creative –– questions establishedquestions established ways of doing things and encourages new ideasways of doing things and encourages new ideas •• Using evidenceUsing evidence –– uses evidence from a wide rangeuses evidence from a wide range of sources and involves stakeholders at early stageof sources and involves stakeholders at early stage •• InclusiveInclusive –– takes account of the impact on thetakes account of the impact on the needs of those directly or indirectly affectedneeds of those directly or indirectly affected Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  5. 5. Principles for Policy Making IIPrinciples for Policy Making II •• Joined upJoined up –– looks beyond institutional boundarieslooks beyond institutional boundaries to the Government’s strategic objectivesto the Government’s strategic objectives •• EvaluatesEvaluates –– builds systematic evaluation ofbuilds systematic evaluation of outcomes into the policy processoutcomes into the policy process •• ReviewsReviews –– keeps policy under review to ensure itkeeps policy under review to ensure it deals with the problems it was designed to tackledeals with the problems it was designed to tackle •• Learns lessonsLearns lessons –– learns from experience of whatlearns from experience of what works and what doesn’t to improve policyworks and what doesn’t to improve policy •• NowNow –– Value for MoneyValue for Money Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  6. 6. The Many ActorsThe Many Actors •• MinistersMinisters •• ParliamentParliament •• Devolved administrationsDevolved administrations •• Departments and NDPB (Departments and NDPB (quangosquangos)) •• Civil servantsCivil servants •• Public consultationPublic consultation •• Civil society and advocacy groupsCivil society and advocacy groups •• Private sectorPrivate sector •• Think tanksThink tanks •• Academics and learned societiesAcademics and learned societies Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  7. 7. Sources of evidenceSources of evidence • Departments have their own civil servants who provide advice and/or help find information, • Department Chief Scientific Advisers • Parliament - Select committees and all party groups with MPs with particular interests • Learned societies • NDPB (quangos) e.g. Environment Agency • Civil society and lobby groups • Researchers and academics • Public consultations Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  8. 8. The Starting pointThe Starting point •• What problem or challenge is the policyWhat problem or challenge is the policy addressing?addressing? •• What outcomes do you want to achieve?What outcomes do you want to achieve? •• What indicators will you use to determine theseWhat indicators will you use to determine these outcomes?outcomes? •• What are the range of actions (options) that areWhat are the range of actions (options) that are needed to get to these outcomes?needed to get to these outcomes? •• Example of international development .........Example of international development ......... Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  9. 9. Millennium Development Goals 1. Halve the no of people living in poverty and reduce hunger 2. All children to receive primary education 3. Sexual equality & stronger voice for women 4. Reduce child death rates 5. Improve the health of mothers 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Protect the environment 8. Global partnership for development Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  10. 10. HungerHunger –– MDG 1MDG 1 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1969- 1971 1979- 1981 1990- 1992 1995- 1997 2001-03 2002-04 2007 2008 2009 Target Data: FAO 2006, 2008, 2009. >1 billion HungryPeople(million)
  11. 11. MaizeMaize Source: Wiggins, ODI Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  12. 12. Impact on ChildrenImpact on Children Country 2003 - 2008 < 5yr under weight (%) 2008 < 5yr mortality rate (%) Global Hunger Index 2009 2010 Egypt 6.8 2.3 <5 <5 Algeria 3.0 4.1 6 <5 South Africa 10.1 6.7 6.9 7.3 Botswana 8.4 3.1 17.9 12.5 Namibia 17.5 4.2 14.3 13.6 Uganda 16.4 13.5 17.1 15.0 Malawi 15.5 10.0 21.8 18.2 Mali 27.9 19.4 26.9 19.1 Ethiopia 34.6 10.9 31 29.8 DRC 28.2 19.9 39.1 41.0 <5 Low hunger 5-10 Moderate 10-20 Serious 20-30 Alarming >30 Extremely alarming The Global Hunger Index is based on three dimensions: insufficient availability of calories, shortfalls in the nutritional status of children, and child mortality. www.ifpri.org/publication/2010-global-hunger-index Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  13. 13. Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa •• 20062006 White Paper said they should be one .......White Paper said they should be one ....... •• Civil servants tasked to produce one .......Civil servants tasked to produce one ....... •• Internal discussion on outcomes and internal work startedInternal discussion on outcomes and internal work started •• Awareness with other Departments with an interestAwareness with other Departments with an interest •• Outline for consultation produced with invitations to makeOutline for consultation produced with invitations to make submissions and to answer set of questionssubmissions and to answer set of questions •• More consultation that statutory required to help get asMore consultation that statutory required to help get as many stakeholders involvedmany stakeholders involved •• Consultation analysed and working papers produced andConsultation analysed and working papers produced and used to draft strategyused to draft strategy •• Consultation across Whitehall, review by MinistersConsultation across Whitehall, review by Ministers •• Final strategy drafted and launched by SoS in April 2008Final strategy drafted and launched by SoS in April 2008
  14. 14. How were academics involved?How were academics involved? •• Subject close to their hearts (research funds)Subject close to their hearts (research funds) •• So a lot of interest but a lot of special pleadingSo a lot of interest but a lot of special pleading •• What worked was evidence on research gapsWhat worked was evidence on research gaps and the impact from filling theseand the impact from filling these •• Well written submissions that answered theWell written submissions that answered the questions backed up with evidence workedquestions backed up with evidence worked (not the same as academic papers or articles)(not the same as academic papers or articles) Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  15. 15. Good evidence from researchGood evidence from research •• Sets out the key facts and figuresSets out the key facts and figures •• Sets out options to achieve policy outcomesSets out options to achieve policy outcomes •• Sets out the pros and cons of different options,Sets out the pros and cons of different options, any contested areas and uncertaintiesany contested areas and uncertainties •• Sets out the risks and feasibility of optionsSets out the risks and feasibility of options •• Takes evidence from a range of sources that areTakes evidence from a range of sources that are referencedreferenced •• Uses plain English without jargonUses plain English without jargon Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  16. 16. LessonsLessons •• Understand the policy you want to inform andUnderstand the policy you want to inform and the problem it is addressingthe problem it is addressing •• Consider what information and data is neededConsider what information and data is needed and who will use itand who will use it •• Put it into the format that will be most usefulPut it into the format that will be most useful •• Be both proactive and reactiveBe both proactive and reactive •• Be prepared to respond quickly and understandBe prepared to respond quickly and understand the time framethe time frame –– tomorrow maybe too latetomorrow maybe too late Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa
  17. 17. Thank YouThank You Africa CollegeAfrica College -- A research partnership on foodA research partnership on food security and human health between Leedssecurity and human health between Leeds University IITA, ICIPE and national researchUniversity IITA, ICIPE and national research organisations in suborganisations in sub--Saharan AfricaSaharan Africa For more details see www.africacollege.leeds.ac.ukFor more details see www.africacollege.leeds.ac.uk Finding sustainable answers to hunger and malnutrition in Africa

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