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Overview of European Research and Education Networking


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  • 1. Overview of European Research and Education Networking The Case for NRENs: What Benefits NRENs Offer, Why NRENs Are a Good Idea
    • Fourth International Conference
    • e-Society.Mk: ICT in Education
    • Skopje, Macedonia
    • 10 December 2008
    • Valentino CAVALLI
    • Acknowledgement: John DYER, TERENA
    • [email_address]
  • 2. What is TERENA? Slide
    • Collaborative Organisation
    • Driven by membership
    • Task Forces
    • Projects
      • GN2 – Compendium
      • Developing NRENs
    • Workshops
    • International Conference
    • Consensus Building & Lobbying
    • TERENA does not operate a network
    • GÉANT2 - DANTE
    37 NREN members 2 International 10 associate members
  • 3. The European NREN Model Slide One NREN per country
  • 4. History of NRENs in Europe
    • 1970 Monopoly Telcos, High Prices, Mainframes
            • nothing much in the way of networking
    • 1980 Some Projects
            • 9.6 kbps backbones
    • 1985 8 European “ NRENs ”
    • 1986 RARE - research organization founded by NRENs
    • 1990 15 European “ NRENs ”
            • IXI 64 kbps X.25 network – COSINE countries
    • 1993 DANTE established
    • 1994 TERENA formed by merger of RARE and EARN
    • 2008 - 37 NREN members of TERENA
  • 5. What have NRENs being doing
    • Taken what is available
      • Phone circuits, modems, X.25, leased lines, routers, switches, dark fibre . . . . . .
    • Integrated
      • Provided the glue to stick them together
      • Built overlay networks
    • Innovated
      • Added functionality
      • Development of new paradigms
      • New services
      • in doing so push the market and benefit society generally
        • Technically and in liberalising the telecommunications market
      • NRENs should be considered a NATIONAL ASSET for DEVELOPMENT
  • 6. MARNET the NREN of Macedonia (source: EARNEST Study 2007) Slide
  • 7. GÉANT2 operated by DANTE on behalf of Europe’s NRENs Slide
  • 8. GÉANT2 Facts and Figures
    • 7th generation of pan-European research network infrastructure – continuation of a success story
    • Provision of network connectivity and services
    • Project partners include the EC, 30 of Europe’s national research and education networks (NRENs), DANTE and TERENA
    • Connects 34 European countries and serves over 3500 research and education establishments across Europe
    • Over 30 million users
    • Funded jointly by NRENs and European Commission
    • Project timescale September 2004 - spring 2009
  • 9. Slide
  • 10. GÉANT3
    • Proposal for GN3 project submitted to the EC in September 2008, expected start April 2009
    • Three more NRENs will be connected: MARNET, AMRES (Serbia) and MREN (Montenegro)
    • Extend success of GN2 in supporting e-Science (LHC, e-VLBI, DEISA) end-to-end, to become a dependable service component of the European e-Infrastructure for a wide range of scientific disciplines
    • Infrastructure, Network Services, such as security, end-to-end performance monitoring, AAI, RTD activities and support activities
  • 11. Evolution of the Market Telecommunications Liberalisation Slide Relative Costs of Connectivity v Number of Suppliers Monopoly supply = High costs Markets open above 4 Evolution of Market Competitiveness GÉANT Offers 1996 – 2001 Note: LOGARITHMIC SCALE Changes are orders of magnitude Material from SERENATE Report, published TERENA 2003 – Acknowledgements to DANTE
  • 12. Example – Hybrid Networking
    • Hybrid Networking
    • Flexibility of IP core with any-to-any routing
    • Large Traffic flows (e.g. Grids, Astronomic Data . . .) by-passes router cloud. Has an End-to-End optical path
    • Uses same underlying fibre infrastructure
    Slide Traditional IP network Flexibility of IP core with any-to-any routing Large Traffic flows must traverse a path through all routers from end-to-end Costs of O-E-O conversion and bottlenecks
  • 13. Example – Federations Slide Federation University B University A Student Resource
  • 14. Federated Network Access - eduroam
    • eduroam = roaming for education
    • Federation of national eduroam federations
    • To provide network access between the institutions connected to eduroam
    • Using the same credentials they would use to get on-line at their home institution
    • First real test back in 2003
    • As part of a TF-Mobility test
    • Since 2005 eduroam is part of GÉANT2
  • 15. Other Examples of Benefits
    • NRENs undertake applied research in a way the commercial concerns would find difficult.
      • Leads to testbeds, pilot services which lead to new services.
    • NRENs stimulate innovation bring forward technological advances .
      • These find their way to commercial ISPs and benefit the public at large .
    • bring the benefits of collective buying power
      • provides savings for the community and the country as a whole
      • Internationally this is achieved by DANTE with GÉANT
  • 16. Most Importantly
    • The independence of NRENs is a valuable asset for advising in the development of national policy on education, research and IT
    • NRENs occupy a position of trust in this respect and are called on to provide guidance uninfluenced by the pressures and demands of commercial business
    • Many NRENs are recognised as being a pool of expertise that is an asset to its country
  • 17. Questions may be asked
    • Why is there a need for NRENs when commercial ISPs exist?
    • Need for central funding of the NREN, can’t the end users pay the bills themselves?
    • The existence of the NREN will distort the Internet market and take away market share?
    • Isn’t the NREN operating a public service and should it be regarded as a public operator conforming to the local legislation?
  • 18. Why is there a need for NRENs when commercial ISPs exist?
    • NRENs are usually not-for-profit organisations that seek to support their community in the best possible way, technically and economically
    • Commercial ISPs exist to make a profit
    • NRENs are motivated to provide the innovation and new services needed by education and research
  • 19. Why is there a need for NRENs to receive Government funding?
    • Government support essential to emerging NREN
    • Generally, a hybrid funding model may be beneficial
    • Government can take the longer term view funding start-up costs, innovation and upgrade.
    Slide User/Client Funding SHORT TERM horizon Non-User /Client Funding LONG TERM horizon
  • 20. The regulatory position of NRENs
    • NRENs offer their services to the well bounded and closed community of education and research users.
    • NRENs are not in the business of providing public services and hence should not be regarded as public network operators.
    • It makes good sense for NRENs to adopt best industry practice in the operation of their networks despite being a non-public network operator.
  • 21. EU Regulatory Requirements for Data Collection and Retention Directive
    • NRENs operate advanced networks with complex topologies
    • Any requirement to provide complete accounting for, or filtering of, traffic on the backbone would therefore be likely to require the re-introduction of single points of failure or congestion
    • Cost – who will pay?
  • 22. Possible Distortion of the Local Internet Market
    • The NRENs operate a network for a closed user group that have advanced requirements
    • These requirements are not generally satisfied by commercial offerings from ISP.
    • The NRENs do not compete with commercial ISPs, but offer a different level of service in parallel.
    • It is beneficial for both NRENs and ISP to develop collaborative links and work together
  • 23. Summary of Arguments
    • NRENs occupy a special position outside of the commercial Internet market.
    • They operate as not-for-profit organisations serving a closed user group consequently there is a case for them to be designated as non-public networks.
    • National governments should regard their NRENs as a national asset to be fostered and supported by central contributions to a hybrid funding model.
  • 24. The Case for NRENs
    • idea conceived in 2007
    • first version May 2008
    • presented at TF-MSP/PR May
      • Community feedback
    • presented TF-MSP/PR Sept 08
    • Second version October 2008
    • presented at I2 fall meeting
      • October 2008
      • Community feedback
    • Latest version 31 October 2008
  • 25. Further Information
    • TERENA Website
    • GÉANT2 Website
    • TERENA Compendium of European NRENs
      • /activities/compendium/
    • SERENATE Study (2002-2003)
      • – See summary and 5 sub reports
    • EARNEST Study (2006-2007)
      • - see summary and 7 sub reports
    • Email
      • [email_address]
  • 26. Thank You!