the prize should be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament.
Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. The statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize.
Nominations must usually be submitted to the Committee by February 1 of the year in question. Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline.
Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created. This short list is then considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, Advisers usually have some months to complete reports, which are then considered by the Committee to select the laureate. The Nobel Committee typically comes to a conclusion in mid-September, but occasionally the final decision has not been made until the last meeting before the official announcement at the beginning of October.
The Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on December 10 each year (the anniversary of Nobel's death). The Peace Prize is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. The Nobel laureate receives a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount. The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is held at the Oslo City Hall, followed the next day by the Nobel Peace Prize Concert, which is broadcast to more than 450 million households in over 150 countries around the world. The concert has received worldwide fame and the participation of top celebrity hosts and performers.
The Peace Prize Medal was designed by one of Norway's greatest artists, the sculptor Gustav Vigeland, assisted by the Swedish engraver Erik Lindberg. It was ready in time for the award in 1902. In its original form, the medal was in 23 carat gold and weighed 192 grams; from 1980 on this was changed to 18 carats and 196 grams. Its diameter has always remained the same: 6.6 cms.
The front of the medal shows a portrait of Alfred Nobel. His name and the years of his birth and death are engraved along the edge. The reverse shows three naked men embracing one another - a symbol of the international fraternization that Nobel wished to contribute to the Peace Prize. The inscription is in Latin: Pro pace et fraternitate gentium (For peace and fraternity among peoples). Around the edge, which is 5 mm. thick, are engraved the words Prix Nobel de la Paix, the year, and the name of the laureate .
The original diploma was drawn by Gerhard Munthe. The motif was inspired by the Norwegian lion, underlining the connection between the Nobel Committee and the Storting. The wording of the diploma also shows the link: "The Nobel Committee of the Norwegian Storting has, in accordance with the terms of the will set up by Alfred Nobel on the 27th of November 1895, awarded [name of laureate] the Nobel Peace Prize for [year]".
From 1970 up to and including 1990, the diploma was adorned with a woodcut. In 1991 it was decided that the diploma should be given a new appearance each year by means of an original work of art commissioned from a contemporary Norwegian artist.
Born: 26 August 1910, Uskup (now Republic of Macedonia).
Died: 5 September 1997, Calcutta, India.
Residence at the time of the award: India (1979).
Role: Leader of Missionaries of Charity, Calcutta.
Field: Humanitarian work.
She founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta, India in 1950. For over 45 years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries. Following her death she was beatified by Pope John Paul II and given the title Blessed Teresa of Calcutta.
He was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement. He is best known for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other nonviolent means, using nonviolent methods.
Liu Xiaobo is a human rights activist who has called on the Chinese government to be accountable for its actions. He has been detained, arrested and sentenced repeatedly for his peaceful political activities.
In 2007, Liu was detained and questioned about articles he wrote which were published online on websites hosted outside China . The following year, Liu was sentenced to eleven years in prison and two years' deprivation of political rights for “inciting subversion of state power". Liu has consistently maintained that the sentence violates both China's own constitution and fundamental human rights.