Making Meaningful Connections Writing LA Curriculum Using CCCS - Strategies for ELLs
Making Meaningful ConnectionsWriting LAL Curriculum Using CCCS Strategies for English language learners Monica Schnee River Edge Public Schools email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
ELA CCCS- How do they affect ELLs?There is greater stress on content rich informational texts not just fiction. Literature is now 50% and informational text is 50%. This is beneficial for ELLs who are stronger at informational text.Students are exposed to high level texts before reading and writing. This is a great opportunity for ELLs and all students to work on oral language development. Expose ELLs to variety of texts on the same topic to build background knowledge.Standard 9: Reading, writing, and speaking based on evidence from text, no longer are writing and speaking non-text dependent or subjective. This is beneficial for ELLs because they can look for evidence in visuals, captions, headings, etc.
Implications for ELLs Choice of appropriate text is crucial so they may find the support needed to engage in the discourse required in the standards: to persuade or argue,to critique, to explain and to convey experience. However, some ELLs may come from cultures where these forms of communication are not practiced. So make sure that they are familiar with these forms of discourse.
Research on ELLs shows that Second language literacy is complex : ELLs need to relate what they are reading and writing about to their lives so background knowledge is key, it makes learning and reading meaningful Second and first language literacy development are similar in: letter/sound correspondence & concepts of print, older ELLs generally come with these skills unless they are pre-literate or have interrupted schooling
Research (cont.) Phonological awareness is important in both languages Older literate ELLs have it, younger ELLs develop it in school, same with pre-literate ELLs Some ELLs have complex language skills in their native language Beginner ELLs develop second language literacy drawing on their first language skills and experiences so they have these to transfer and build upon. If they are pre-literate they still have experiences but no transferable skills.
Things you should know about your ELLs Level of proficiency First language (if it is a romance language, there is a similarity so transfer will be easier than Asian, Middle Eastern or some African languages) Level of literacy Similarity of culture with ours in order to critique, argue and engage in different discourse
What you should know about second language acquisition ELLs acquire social English first - the language they need to communicate socially Academic language comes later and is harder to acquire (language of strategies, skills, content or domain specific and textbooks) Syntax and nuances of language come last so do not expect correct language from ELLs until they reach proficiency. What you are looking for is communicative competence so they can engage in learning, Pronunciation and accent are not measures of language proficiency
Strategies for all Strands Model your thinking and your writing Visuals support speaking, listening, reading and writing Paraphrasing and simplifying language allows for access to content Do not water down content, modify and simplify Speak clearly and slowly Use gestures, TPR, and more gestures Modify text, assignments, assessments Support staying on topic with texts that are simpler and slowly build up to more complex ones (Staying on Topic p.33)
Allow use of students’ first language to access content and support learning Be aware of student’s culture, he/she may need help in understanding different genres like storytelling, persuasive or argumentative writing Always activate prior knowledge to assess how much student knows about a subject, then build background knowledge Make sure that topics are familiar, otherwise, provide background knowledge through visuals and realia
Writing Create a list of websites that have images to support content or domain specific vocabulary For Spanish speakers & romance languages, point out cognates (words that are the same in two languages: revolution - revolucion, calendar -calendario) Accept cross-linguistic inventive spelling until ELLs have acquired enough English - you may write the correct spelling on a separate post-it or T-chart. Allow use of first language. For beginners(L1 & 2), you may consider the language experience approach (they dictate and you are the scribe)
Allow students to copy words and simple phrases (they may write translation as well) Create a vocabulary list specific to the text but skip words that are not necessary for basic communication Create an academic vocabulary list specific to the standard eg: details in text, main idea, explicitly, infer Have a “portable word wall” (flaschards, podcast, wordle) for students to refer to: vocabulary words, sequencing words, cause and effect, persuasive words
Use visuals from magazines or websites related to topic for students to label, write captions Use graphic organizers at all levels of proficiency to help students map ideas, organize main ideas, details, sequencing, compare and contrast Have students create posters, pictures with labels or other visuals as a writing product
Key sentence structures or frames for PL1 &PL2:”The main character is…” The setting is…” “A detail I see is…’ “This detail tells me that…” “The author uses ….to show …” “I believe that… because the author say …”“I agree because…” “I disagree because…” “My opinion is… based on…” Write sentence frames that students can use interchangeably with different vocabulary Word study - prefix, suffix, word families, multiple meaning words and homophones. As they appear, create a word wall or word bank of synonyms and antonyms
Writing - What ELLs can do:Draw, label, list, produce words or short phrases from visuals, create phrases & sentences from models, describe
Reading Connect reading instruction to writing instruction (procedural or how to books or videos, writing about something they are experts at using sequencing words) Use picture books that match topic/strategy (can be mentor - anchor texts or texts from a lower grade level with same strategy) Use post-its to label, write short phrases on book, ELLs can write the translation next to it Provide access to a computer so student can go online to research content and translate terms
Reading - What ELLs can do:Identify words, select general themes, match labels, captions or facts, find information to show main ideas or details from visuals, identify features of text in informational texts -table of contents, headings, captions, labels, diagrams, glossary words, glossary, index
Speaking and Listening Please remember: new arrivals should not be put on the spot to use oral language. If they are silent, do not force them to speak, they can point, gesture & label. Use same language buddies when possible Provide opportunities for pair work and small group instruction so ELLs can feel less threatened Allow for plenty of wait time for oral responses Do not correct student’s response, you are looking for communication
Speaking & Listening-What ELLs can do: Orally: name, use single words, short phrases, answer Wh- questions, Yes/No questions, respond, describe, compare, produce phrases or short sentences, state, Receptively from oral directions: gesture during reading or speaking to show comprehension, locate, identify words from word banks, short text, captions, match, follow directions, find, choose, select, compare, distinguish, arrange information, determine character, setting
CCCS #1 RL and RI The anchor : Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. RL and RI: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Notice bold words are the academic language of skills and objectives.
RL Std.1 - Using visual support- Read text aloud. Point out detail- specific sentences- label in English and native language, have student infer. He can use translation to make inference.“I want to live there. I I know Erica wants to go to want to go there Japan because she says it. I infer she loves the country when I grow up”. and wants to learn about it. Notice amount of text.
Another explicit example “ She studied Japanese in middle and high school and all the way through college”. Infer why Erica would do that and what the picture means.
RI - Std.1 - For informational texts, students can use a variety oftext levels -gradation- and draw inferences from details. Are all clouds the same? Which clouds bring rain?
How to select texts for L1 –L3 Use age appropriate picture books Identify student’s high interest to utilize background knowledge, then select an author or series of informational texts Use books that are not text heavy and then gradate to books that have more text Use books with labels, captions, diagrams
Some authors to consider Gail Gibbons for informational and procedural texts Weather Words in the example for Std.1 - RI Jane Yolen for literature - Owl Moon Eve Bunting for literature & realistic fiction – How Many Days to America, Night Tree Allen Say for literature, realistic fiction and multicultural – Erika -San in the example for Std.1 RL Patricia Polacco for literature – Thank you, Mr.Falker Example of a high interest books: Home Run by Robert Burleigh Roller Coaster by Marla Frazee Informational texts - National Geographic, Benchmark Newbridge and other publishers
References WIDA Standards, 2007 Edition WIDA Standards, Draft 2011 WIDA CAN DO Descriptors, Gr. Cluster 3-5 Cloud,Genesee,Hamayan,2009,Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners, Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann. Gibbons, Pauline, 2002, Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning, Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann. Pimentel, Susan, 2012, Common Core State Standards for Literacy & Els - Presentation Kean University, NJ