Here I will be following Clandinin & Connelly’s (2000) recommendations. The workshop will wrap up in a conclusion, and, potentially, with ideas about further work. NOTE: It is suggested, yet not required, that before taking part in the workshop, the participants should read Chapter One titled “Why Narrative”, in Clandinin & Connelly’s book Narrative Inquiry (2000), or Jean Clandinin’s brief interview available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnaTBqapMrE . For further information, please contact: Esko Johnson, PhEd Principal Lecturer in English Language and Communication Kokkola Campus Centria University of Applied Sciences
Ten sides to narrative In 1991, Bruner published an article in Critical Inquiry entitled "The Narrative Construction of Reality." In this article he proposes that the mind structures its sense of reality through "cultural products, like language and other symbolic systems," and he focuses on the idea of narrative as one of these cultural products. He defines ten sides to narrative : Narrative diachronicity: The notion that narratives take place over some sense of time. Particularity: The idea that narratives deal with particular events, although some events may be left vague and general. Intentional state entailment: The concept that characters within a narrative have "beliefs, desires, theories, values, and so on". Hermeneutic composability: The theory that narratives are that which can be interpreted in terms of their role as a selected series of events that constitute a "story." See also Hermeneutics Canonicity and breach: The claim that stories are about something unusual happening that "breaches" the canonical (i.e. normal) state. Referentiality: The principle that a story in some way references reality, although not in a direct way; narrative truth can offer verisimilitude but not verifiability. Genericness: The flip side to particularity, this is the characteristic of narrative whereby the story can be classified as a genre. Normativeness: The observation that narrative in some way supposes a claim about how one ought to act. This follows from canonicity and breach. Context sensitivity and negotiability: Related to hermeneutic composability, this is the characteristic whereby narrative requires a negotiated role between author or text and reader, including the assigning of a context to the narrative, and ideas like suspension of disbelief. Narrative accrual: Finally, the idea that stories are cumulative, that is, that new stories follow from older ones. [Source of the ten: Wikipedia, s.v. "Jerome Bruner"]
Introduction to-narrative inquiry-workshop_2012
Introduction to narrative inquirywith special consideration of research on education Esko Johnson, PhD (Education) Principal Lecturer in English Language and Communication Kokkola Campus Centria University of Applied Sciences, Finland
NOTE: Before the workshopBefore taking part in the workshop, theparticipants should read Chapter Onetitled “Why Narrative”, in Clandinin &Connelly’s book Narrative Inquiry(2000), or view Jean Clandinin’s briefinterview available in Youtube at:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnaTBqapMrE
Aim of this workshop• You will find it easier and more interesting to read and interpret narrative research texts and assess their value• You will be able to consider or plan to draw up research designs that follow principles commonly observed within NI
This workshop: showcasing and asking key questions Introducing the NI approach (with some related studies), to raise your awareness on: – What is a narrative? – What goes on in narrative inquiry? – How is narrative inquiry different compared to other qualitative approaches in education research? – What is not narrative inquiry?
The very vast area of NINarrative inquiry includes:• eliciting, finding or constructing narratives• analysing narratives (also: narratology)• narrative analysis (in a way “narrative synthesis”)Overall, the use of narratives connects areas of research, and it is multidisciplinary; education and..• Sociology, social work, political science, psychology, anthropology/ ethnology…• Arts, literature, linguistics, language studies, communication sciences…• Management studies, organisational research…• Medicine, therapy, nursing science...
Mimesis1, mimesis2, and mimesis3(Heikkinen, Huttunen & Kakkori 2000; Ricoeur 1981) Life and its pre- understanding Composing a story Applying the story to one’s life Reformed life and its pre- Composing a understanding story Life: Story: “Original” “Picture”, imitation
What goes on in narrative inquiry?- 1• NI covers and utilises narrative as both the method and phenomena of study• By eliciting, analyzing and understanding stories that are lived and told, NI is located in qualitative research methodology• NI involves the reconstruction of a person’s experience in relationship both to the other and to a social milieu• Paradigmatic vs narrative knowing (Bruner 1991)• Analysis of narratives vs narrative analysis (Bruner 1991; Clandinin & Connelly 2000)
What goes on in narrative inquiry?- 2• Relationship of the researcher to the researched: – interpretation and understanding of meaning – the researcher and the researched are not bounded but in relationship with each other; both parties will learn in the encounter• Shift: from the use of numbers toward the use of words as data• Shift: from a focus on the general and universal toward the local and specific (knowledge, knowing)• Acceptance of alternative epistemologies or ways of knowing (Pinnegar & Daynes 2007)
What goes on in narrative inquiry?- 3“Narrative inquiry [is] a methodology basedupon collecting, analysing, and re-presentingpeople’s stories as told by them (...) basedon a worldview (ontology) that we live ourstoried lives and our world is a storied world(...) Narrative represents, constitutes andshapes social reality (…) Competingnarratives represent different realities notsimply different perspectives (…) Telling andre-telling one’s story helps a person create asense of self.” (Etherington 2004, 75)
What is a story and what is not?• Your research project will require you to define this; – a relative definition: “it depends”• Yet, the simple and “classical” definition: a story has a beginning, middle, and end (evaluative part) – a first‑person oral telling or retelling of an individual – or not; – a predicament, conflict, or struggle; a protagonist or character; a sequence with a plot during which the predicament is resolved in some fashion – or not• A story has a time, place, plot, and scene• Compare: canonical story vs the story with the breach (Bruner 1991)• Compare: big story vs small story (incl. fragment and metaphor)• Compare: story as content vs form/language of story
Stories and NI“People shape their daily lives by stories of who they andothers are and as they interpret their past in terms of thesestories. Story, in the current idiom, is a portal through which aperson enters the world and by which their experience of theworld is interpreted and made personally meaningful.Narrative inquiry, the study of experience as story, then, isfirst and foremost a way of thinking about experience.Narrative inquiry as a methodology entails a view of thephenomenon. To use narrative inquiry methodology is toadopt a particular view of experience as phenomenon understudy.”(Connelly & Clandinin 2006, p. 375)
”Pre-historical site” (GLG field report by a student)”After we arrived to Alaveteli, we had a salmon soup and took outfor a walk in the forest. We were with two nice guides, whowanted to show us a pre-historical village. We have been walkingfor ten minutes before arriving in front of the first « house ». It wasin fact a depression in the ground. We saw a lot of them. Thesedepressions in the ground were used by pre-historical men asbasics of their huts. (…) But it is difficult after so much time todetermine exactly their usefulness. Of course there are still sometraces of their passage, but nothing else. It was really difficult toimagine pre-historical men lived there.” ”Nevertheless we think that it was a little bit boring. Indeed wesaw about six depressions. Of course they had different uses, butfor us it was just holes! However, it was interesting to learn aboutthis pre-historical period.”
Story telling and retelling incyber learning environments” The purpose (…) [was] to investigate story telling andretelling as a learning strategy to facilitate meaningfullearning on environmental education in cyberspace. (…)story telling (…) can build a richer context (…) learners canenhance environmental ethics indirectly.[T]he development of a cyber learning environment viacomputer networks (…) helps them build environmentalawareness through storytelling at the elementary level. Theproject (…) facilitating narrative inquiry with individual andcollaborative learning through online activities. (…) )[T]hisstudy suggests design strategies for building cyber learningenvironment through story telling.”(Heo 2004)
”Becoming a foreign languageteacher in the changinglandscape of a university ofapplied sciences” (transl)
Professional values as explained in my autobiographical study (Johnson 2011*)– Cosmopolitan values (a.k.a. global citizenship) vs everyday nationalism– Collaboration for change of teaching and learning (using ICT as a ”tool”)– Helping the student, while having an eye on the (language) needs of the working life– Equity (especially in the local worklife community)– Life-long learning, uncompromising (?) professional inquiry (’teacher-as-researcher’) (* I refer to my handout which is to be available in the workshop)
So what is the position and justification of NI in the ”jungle” of education research paradigms?
Assumption: Teacher’s practicalprofessional knowledge isdialogic and contextualised, andit is created and accessible in astoried form– Beliefs, imagery and metaphors– Reality: relational, temporal, continuous– Everyday realities and happenings in teachers’ and students’ lives make a difference - evolved into:– Life stories and identities– Postmodern education research: generic or “scientific” principles of teaching and learning are not in the foreground in NI(See Clandinin & Huber 2010; Clandinin, Pushor & Orr 2007; Elbaz-Luwisch 2007 for more)
Paradigm Postpositivism Pragmatism ConstructivismRes. methods Primarily QUAL QUAN + QUAL QUALLogic Primarily deductive Deductive + inductive InductiveEpistemology Modified dualism. Subjective perspective.(knowledge; Research findings Objective and The producer and targetwhat do we probably subjective of scientific knowledgeknow and how) represent”truth” are inseparableAxiology Research inquiry is Values have a central(value concepts; laden with values,what are the which can, however, be role in the interpret- Scientific inquiry isvalues) controlled or ation of research and laden with values bracketed its findingsOntology External reality must be Critical or accepted. Select(concepts of explanations that best Relativismbeing, qualities transsendental lead to the expectedof being and outcomereality)Causalities Relations of social All phenomena are phenomena have Phenomena have may interconnected and permanent laws which have causal shape each other. can be explored. The connections, but these Cause and effect can causes and effects of links can never be never be separated in phenomena can be precisely confirmed. the explanation. hypothetised. Adapted from Tashakkori & Teddlie (1998)
Interviews with foreign students1. Adapting to living and studying in Finland. Integration and becoming a member of the COU (Centria) community.2. Development of your Finnish language skills3. Interaction with other people. Network of friends and acquaintances.4. The most important things that happened in your life (since April 2007). - Positive and negative experiences.5. How you have grown as a person.6. Your plans for life after graduation; career and prospects)7. English language and communication: your English skills today; how you improved during [the past academic year]; your strengths and needs today; aims and objectives; how you want to develop.8. The English course you took with me in [the academic year]; things you learned in the course; improvements your would like to suggest.
From field text towards interim text, and then towards research text Based on the interview transcript, I wrote a story about the students’ experience as a foreign student at Centria, (as this unfolded to me in the thematic, unstructured interview of 1 to 2 hrs); for this: 1. First, I listened to the interview several times during many weeks, without any stops or memoing 2. Next, I wrote a detailed thematic narrative (narrative condensation) – This could also be termed a dialogic meaning structure (co-created by interviewee and interviewer) 3. Finally, I wrote further thematic condensations, as I worked my way towards the research text (Johnson 2011)
An interview transcriptMary: (*) Yeah. And we… I have a period, I had a period, that maybe it’s quite, something like study, like, you know, it’s like this way. And then you learn quite good. (Esko: Oh yeah.) And you feel down. (Esko: Yeah, it’s the ups and downs also.) It’s difficult to say that this kind of…Esko: OK. I, I think this is part of human life that we never have (Mary: yeah) everything so level but it’s going to go up now. (Mary: yeah) You have to accept that.Mary: Yeah.Esko: Although it’s it’s not always very nice to have that.Mary: Yeah. But like language, at the beginning, I feel quite good here. Like only the language. And I feel depressed. (….) And here now I feel more better. And then maybe more difficult. And then that we got here. So it’s quite good.Esko: When you were here, you know, everything was quite good and you were all excited. Did you then say to your to yourself, phew, I have had a very good day today? (laughter)Mary: Ooh, I just feel that I’m happy and (Esko: okay) ooh, that’s very nice, so sweet, that only…. So yeah. But I, and in the morning-time when I stand up I feel I am very happy. (* pseudonym)
LISA’S SECOND STORY (2008)Lisa arrives to my interview well ahead of time. We sit We start to talk about weather, anddown and talk about the weather. So far it’s been coldweather in May, we think. Lisa asks me if it’s going to then discuss the summer seasonbe summer soon in Kokkola. I reply I don’t really that is ahead of us now, and aboutthink so, in my language "kesä" starts in June("kesäkuu") when it’s time to dress in a t-shirt only. her and my plans.For Lisa this will be the first summer to spend inFinland. Last autumn, in 2007, when Lisa came back Lisa thinks I’m always busy. Weto Kokkola, she thought it was very cold. Lisa adds talk about being busy. Lisa says inthat with the foreigners coming back, the winter willcome, too. We discuss Lisas plans for the summer. It developing countries people areseems that she’ll to stay in Kokkola for most of this much more in a hurry.summer.Talking about me, Lisa says I always look like Im in agreat hurry, running to do things. I recognize myselfand laugh at this comment and say you should neverrun, you shouldn’t waste your time on running but bethoughtful about your steps. Lisa says in thedeveloping countries people are in fact much more in ahurry, since they have a pressure for work. Everybodyis in a hurry when they work. In the morning they run.So they are much more in a hurry than people here inEurope.Lisa asks me about my research project. Will I do research as Lisa asks about my research.I did last year? I tell her yes, I will focus this summer andautumn term much more on research than previously. Im (….) (…)going to analyse, write conclusions based on the data, andthen I will be finalising my thesis at the end of the year. (….)(…)
From Outi’s interview (Johnson 2011)”We work in a service profession, and I would like tobe a consultant to my students. In online teaching andlearning, the teacher is pretty much in a consultant’srole, giving feedback, guiding them, giving themadvice and answering their questions (...) It’s aboutthis aspect I like to explain to all of my classes, that Imay know something about the English language, butI don’t perhaps know much about their field of study.You see, quite often I’ll have to ask them aboutsomething. In a way, it involves us to combine ourexpertise: They explain this thing to me, this newtechnology that so far I haven’t time to discuss withmy colleagues during the coffee break.. It’s such anice image, isn’t it, about collaboration.” (Outi’sinterview, May 2003)
My Story as a Music (Teacher) Student (from my Communication Skills class)Part One - My significant learning experiencesNOTE: Remember to discuss episodes and turning points; important people who had animpact on my learning; situations and institutions.Reasons: to make the story temporal; personal and social; to tell about your stressfulmoments and personal growth, too.1 What did I learn in the areas of playing, performing, singing; music education and music teaching?How and why did I learn…?2 What is my favourite repertoire? What kind of repertoire do I aim to learn?3 For instrumentalists: What is my instrument (instruments) like? Why do I like it (them)? Forvocalists: What is my singing voice like (vocal range and quality)? How do I like it?4 What did I learn in the areas of composing and improvising? How and why did I learn…?5 What did I learn in the area of theoretical knowledge on music? How and why did I learn…?Part Two - SWOT – strengths, weaknesses (“internal”); opportunities and threats (“external”)1 What are my strengths as a music student?- As a player/singer?- As a music pedagog?- As a learner of theoretical knowledge on music?2, 3,4: Repeat the above for weaknesses; opportunities and threats. Note that opportunities andthreats are external, i.e., outside of you.(…)
Eve’s story as a music student (from my Communication Skills class)The job of a music teacher was one of my dream jobs in school. Istarted to play accordion when I was 8 years old. I would haveliked violin lesson but all the student places were full already. Iwas in many competitions of accordion playing and I will go tomany competitions in my future. My favourite repertoire is fastand slow pieces. A good folk music band consist of violin(s),double bass, harmonium, accordion, guitar and maybe singing.My instruments are two- and five row accordions. I like to playthese cos if I´m going to a gig I have always the melody andbass side with me. So I don´t need an accompanist.When I had my thesis concert I was thinking that this is myconcert, everyone will came here to watch and listen to myconcert so. That was very stressful time. I have to think how theaudience will like my concert. Is it too long? Too short? Boring?The concert must look like me. It was a huge relief when theconcert was over and the audience liked it.I like composing but I have never made whole pieces or I meanthat I have never arranged any my own pieces for bands. WhenI´m composing some kind a piece, the best way usually isimprovising. Theory does not interest me at all. It´s enough thatI pass the tests. A musician and music teacher will have to bedealing with strange people.
”A new note about the [Non-European] culture.Theirreligion is very interesting. Also the timing as well.Wearranged a meeting and they come one hour later than thereal time. In their country they told me that no one is goingon the exact time.They are not hurrying and it oftenhappens to them that they [are] late like two hours and it isnormal. Of course for me it was not a good feeling to waitfor them and they didn’t come but we have to understandthem.” ”But on the other side it could be really hard to makebusiness with them. Otherwise the [Country X] people arereally nice and friendly and if you have problem they helpyou any time.They share everything with you but if you tellthem ”no thank you” it is very rude for them.They will feelthat you don’t like them and you can easily hurt them if yourefuse their offer.” (Exchange student’s diary, GLG 2007)
Conclusion 1: the merits and challenges of NI• Highlights people’s (students’, teachers’) lived experience (on and off campus) [M]• Makes us think of the meanings of specific events in our lives (as students, as teachers) [M]• Helps us explore the continuity and discontinuity of our experience (as students, as teachers) [M]• Can be embedded in mixed methods designs [M]• [How] do we really learn to reflect on ourselves and our life events against whatever makes our ‘real life’? [C]• Striking a balance between our stories (ourselves) and the stories of others [C]• Striking a balance between ‘big’, ‘long’, or transformative, or key stories and ‘small’ stories [C] – Whose transformation? Whose key? – Why so big? Adapted from Bamberg (2007); Clandinin & Huber (2010); Clandinin, Pushor & Orr (2007)
Conclusion 2: what is not narrative inquiry as I see it?Research studies (e.g. with case-study approaches)which: – Describe something in a “storied way” - yet doing so disconnect and objectify => monologic, non- relational • NI is “much more than just telling stories” (Clandinin, Pushor & Orr 2007; cf. Bruner 1991) – Blur the context(s), temporality and dialogue of human experience – Attempt to gain ”objective” data and abstract knowledge (generalisations, fixed meanings) by compromising the multitude and diversity of human experience – Fail to commit to ethical standards and high quality requirements of NI
BIBLIOGRAPHYAndrews, A., Squire, C. & Tamboukou, M. (ed) 2008. Doing Narrative Research. London: SAGE.Bamberg, M. 2007. Stories: big or small. Why do we care? In Bamberg, M. (ed) Narrative - State of the Art. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 165-174Bruner, J. 2001. Self-making and world-making. In J. Brockheimer (ed.) Narrative and identity. Studies in Autobiography, Self and Culture. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 31–37.Bruner, J. 1991. The narrative construction of reality. Critical Inquiry 18, 1-21.Bruner, J. 1990 Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Clandinin, D.J. & Connelly, F.M. 2000. Narrative inquiry: experience and story in qualitative research. San Franciso, CA: Jossey-Bass.Clandinin, D.J., & Huber, J. 2010. Narrative inquiry. In B. McGaw, E. Baker, & P. P. Peterson (eds.), International encyclopedia of education (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Elsevier, 436-441.Clandinin, D. J., Pushor, D. & Murray Orr, A. 2007. Navigating sites for narrative inquiry. Journal of Teacher Education 58, 21-35.Connelly, F.M. & Clandinin, D.J. 2006. Narrative inquiry. In Handbook of complementary methods in education research, 447-487.Elbaz-Luwisch, F., Moen, T. & Gudmundsdottir, S. The multivoicedness of classrooms: Bakhtin and narratives of teaching. In R. Huttunen, H.L.T. Heikkinen & L. Syrjälä (eds) Narrative research: voices of teachers and philosophers. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, 197-218.Etherington, K. 2004. Becoming a reflexive researcher: Using our selves in research. London: Jessica Kingsley.
BIBLIOGRPAPHY ( “UNDER CONSTRUCTION”)Heikkinen, H.L.T. 2002. Telling stories in teacher education. In R. Huttunen, H.L.T. Heikkinen & L. Syrjälä (eds) Narrative research: voices of teachers and philosophers. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, 123-141.Korhonen, K. 2002. Intercultural competence as part of professional qualifications. A training experiment with bachelor of engineering students. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.Phillion, J. & Connelly, M. 2002. Narrative inquiry in a multicultural landscape: Multicultural teaching and learning. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Pinnegar, S. & Daynes, G. 2007. Locating narrative inquiry historically: Thematics in the turn to narrative. In Clandinin, J (ed) Narrative Inquiry. Mapping a methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 3-34.Ricoeur, P. 1981. Hermeneutics and the human sciences. Translated by J. Thompson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Riessman, C. K. 2008. Narrative methods for the human sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. 1998. Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.