Speech 104 Extra Credit


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  • Speech 104 Extra Credit

    1. 1. Critical Thinking Thinking is something that comes natura!y to everyone, but it is taken for granted in our society. Thinking is o"en casual and simplistic, whereas critical thinking evaluates the quality of thinking, which is a ski! that separates us $om the animals.
    2. 2. Defining Critical Thinking Critical thinking is a mental process that skillfully breaks basic thinking into numerous processes such as analyzing, evaluating, problem solving, decision making to reach a conclusion. The decision making process for a critical thinker is much more complex. It involves logical, moral reason, and emotional criteria to make up one’s mind.
    3. 3. Aspects of Thinking Critically Reasoning has many forms where the conclusion often follows the premises proceeding it Example: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is a man. Analyzing data before jumping into conclusions is crucial for decision making and problem solving
    4. 4. Succeeding in College In the book “Peak Performance” written by Sharon Ferrett, she talks about numerous characteristics of what a critical thinker is, and I found this to be pivotal for all students to succeed in college. When I first read this book, I liked to use this list as a good way to succeed in all of my classes. By following this list in all of your courses, you will find endless amount of success in college and in life. 1. Asks pertinent questions. 2. Assesses statements and arguments. 3. Is able to admit a lack of understanding or information. 4. Has a sense of curiosity. 5. Is interested in finding new solutions. 6. Is able to clearly define a set of criteria for analyzing ideas. 7. Is willing to examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions, and weigh them against facts. 8. Listens carefully to others and is able to give feedback. 9. Sees that critical thinking is a lifelong process of self assessment. 10. Looks for evidence to support assumptions and beliefs. 11. Is able to adjust opinions when new facts are found. 12. Looks for proof. 13. Examines problems closely. 14. Is able to reject information that is incorrect or irrelevant.
    5. 5. Socrates and Critical Thinking Socrates established the importance of seeking evidence 2500 years ago. He examined reasoning, and analyzed simple concepts. His “Socratic Questioning” method is synonymous with critical thinking. In our classes’ book “Communicating Critical Thinking” by Jim Marteney, he mentions that critical thinkers are intellectual curious and this Socratic Questioning method is a way to feed this curiosity to uncover truths, analyze questions to figure out what we know and what we do not know.
    6. 6. Confusion and Critical Thinking Confusion is a major part of life and learning. Critical thinkers have the ability to come to terms with confusion. Confusion is the darkness, and often leads to something great. The curiosity and confusion of what space is like is what fueled America to go to the moon. At one time or another in the world, people have questioned what they had be told. They questioned that the world was not flat, and were ridiculed. A famous quote from a Chinese Proverb states, “ One who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; one who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.” A critical thinker understands that we learn new things every day, and confusion is apart of that learning process. Socrates, considered one of the wisest men of the history of the world, once said “I know nothing except the fact of my ignorance.” This quote is extremely profound saying that the only thing that we know is that we know nothing. When working on analyzing data and thinking critically, it is important to avoid irrelevancies also known as “red herrings.” Going astray from an inference is the sign of one who is not a critical thinker. They will remain on the original argument in order to come to a conclusion.
    7. 7. Knowledge Knowledge, which is argued to be from nature or nurture, needs to be justified, true, and believed in order to be considered knowledge according to Plato. A critical thinker can distinguish what might actually be true from something they wish were true. They could realize that probability of an outcome determines whether it could be true or not. Sir Francis Bacon once said “ Knowledge is Power” and this statement could not be more true. With knowledge, the sky is the limit and you have no limitations. The more knowledge you obtain through questioning, and the willingness to wonder why the world is the way it is.
    8. 8. Having an Open Mind Having an open mind is such a vital part of being critical thinker, because there is an endless amount of knowledge in the world, and one person could never consume all of it. Also, no one person is always right, and you need to be open-minded enough to realize when you are wrong and get past it. The people who were open-minded in the past are the people we are talking about today. Aristotle had an open-mind about whether the world is flat or not. This open-minded thinking led to him figuring out that the shadows on the moon being a crescent shape was proof enough for him that the earth was not flat. No one at the time was open- minded enough to believe that this was a possibility, because of course the world is not round, because the ground is flat that we are standing on, duh! The first step to having an open mind is being about to admit when you do not know something. You learn from asking questions, not from knowing the answer. When you are about to say that you do not know something, then you are more likely to be open-minded about learning what you admittedly do not know.
    9. 9. Critical Thinker in the Real World The world is not as black and white as some might see it. It is always changing and learning to adapt and resolve situations is an important part of any critical thinkers life. Critical thinkers should have the ability to use previous knowledge and experience to come to a conclusion to solve a unforeseen problem. In an article by Michael Spindler he talks about how the ability to analyze and evaluate a situation, and then develop a strategic plan to act upon in order to resolve the situation, Review, investigate, and implement the plan is a important part of applying critical thinking towards real world situations that would work in both school and your career.
    10. 10. How to Know if You Are a Critical Thinker After reading this powerpoint slide show, you might be wondering, “Do I think critically?” Critical Thinking is an acquired skill, and even if you feel like your analytical reasoning and critical thinking is not up to par, you can always work at improving your skills. According to the Critical Thinking Community, a well cultivated critical thinker does the following: raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely. gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards. thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences. communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.