My Seminar


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My Seminar

  2. 2. Open Source<br />Open Source<br />It’s “impossible to avoid”<br />
  3. 3. Open Source<br />By 2011, 80% of all<br />commercial software<br />will contain open source code.<br />
  4. 4. DEFINITION<br />Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) programs have licenses giving users the freedom:<br />-to run the program for any purpose,<br />-to study and modify the program, and<br />-to freely redistribute copies of either the original or modified program<br />Not non-commercial, not necessarily no-charge<br />Often supported via commercial companies<br />Synonyms: Libre software, FLOS, FLOSS<br />Antonyms: proprietary software, closed software<br />
  5. 5. HISTORY<br />In 1983, Richard Stallman, longtimemember of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users. Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation(FSF) was founded in October 1985. He developed a free software definition and the concept of "copyleft “, designed to ensure software freedom for all.<br />
  6. 6. FREEDOM<br />Freedom 1: The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish<br />Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits <br />Freedom 2: The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor<br />Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose<br />
  7. 7. Open source definition<br />-free distribution<br />-source code<br />-derived works<br />-integrity of author’s code<br />-no discrimination among the persons and group<br />-no discrimination against felid of endeavor<br />-distribution of license<br />-license must not be specific to a product<br />-license must not restrict other software<br />-license must be technology neutral.<br />
  8. 8. Commercial Support<br /><ul><li>IBM -SUN
  11. 11. APPLE -HP
  12. 12. DELL -GOOGLE
  13. 13. YAHOO -MICROSOFT</li></li></ul><li>LIST OF SOME EXAMPLES<br />-LINUX KERNEL<br />-BSD<br />-GNU/LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM<br />-GNU COMPLIER COLLECTION<br />-C LIBRARY<br />-MY SQL RELATIONAL DATABASE<br />- Apache web server<br /> - Sendmail mail transport agent<br />
  14. 14. OSS DEVELOPMENT MODEL<br />DEVELOPER<br />Development<br />Community<br />TRUSTED DEVELOPER<br />Bug Report<br />TRUSTED REPOSITORY<br />Source Code  <br />DISTRIBUTOR<br />USER<br /><ul><li> OSS/FS users typically use software without paying licensing fees
  15. 15. OSS/FS users typically pay for training & support (competed)
  16. 16. OSS/FS users are responsible for developing new improvements &any evaluations that they need; often cooperate/pay others to do so</li></li></ul><li>Disadvantage of proprietary software<br />-COST! <br />License fee<br />Product bundling—example: Microsoft office.<br />Licensee cannot modify or enhance the code;<br />Often not built to open standards, leading to interoperability problems;<br />Shut off from continuing development and information sharing in open source community;<br />Some proprietary code is not as good as its open source counterparts.<br />
  17. 17. OSS vs. Proprietary<br />Process/code openness means more & different sources of evaluation information for COTS OSS<br />Bug databases, mailing list discussions, …<br />Anyone (inc. you) can evaluate in detail<br />See http: //<br />Proprietary=pay/use, OSS=pay/improvement<br />In OSS, pay can be time and/or money<br />Support can be competed & changed<br />OSS vendors, government support contracts, self<br />OSS can be modified & redistributed<br />New option, but need to know when to modify<br />Forking usually fails; generally work with community<br />
  18. 18. Business Models<br />The revenue model:<br /> Value creation: definition of the offer generating the highest<br />willingness to pay.<br /> Capture of the value created through:<br /> The sale of rights (sale of patents, licenses or even client files).<br /> The sale of products.<br /> The sale of services.<br /> The cost structure:<br /> Definition according to the cost categories (raw materials,<br />marketing, R&D, administrative) and their types (fixed or<br />variable).<br /> Identification of the company’s specific skills which give a<br />competitive advantage.<br /> Determination of the capital sources.<br />
  19. 19. Typology of different business models<br />The services or<br /> indirect valorisation<br />model<br />The value added<br />distribution model<br />Buisness model<br />The double license or<br />commercial open<br />source license model<br />The mutualization<br />model<br />
  20. 20. LIST OF <br />FREE SOFTWARE LICENSE<br />
  21. 21. The GNU “General Public License” (GPL) <br />No standard open source license, but GPL most widely used (roughly 85% of open source software);<br />Terms include:<br />User freedom to distribute and/or modify;<br />Requirement that original and modified source code be always made available to the world under the terms of the original license;<br />Must retain copyright notices and warranty disclaimers;<br />Does not include grant of patent licenses;<br />
  22. 22. The Mozilla Public License<br />Developed by Netscape for the Mozilla browser<br />Terms include:<br />Very similar to the GPL but,<br />Can charge royalties for modified versions;<br />Can include source code within larger works licensed under different license types, thus license does not ‘infect’ all downstream projects;<br />Must retain copyright notices and warranty disclaimers;<br />May provide additional warranties to downstream users but may have to indemnify original developer for any claims arising as a result;<br />Includes grant patent licenses<br />
  23. 23. The IBM Public License<br />Terms include:<br />User freedom to distribute and/or modify;<br />No requirement for source code availability in downstream distribution;<br />The program can be distributed in executable form thus allowing downstream users to develop, sell, and install customized software packages without having to make all customizations available to the world;<br />Must retain all copyright notices and warranty disclaimers;<br />Includes grant of patent licenses.<br />
  24. 24. The Apache Software License<br />Governs the Apache web-server software.<br />Terms include:<br />User freedom to distribute and/or modify;<br />No requirement for source code to be made available to the world in downstream distribution;<br />Must retain all copyright notices and warranty disclaimers;<br />
  25. 25. The FreeBSD License<br />Unrestrictive license:<br />Only requires preservation of copyright notices and warranty disclaimers<br />
  26. 26. Business / monetization model for the wellknown companies<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. SECURITY<br />- Neither OSS nor proprietary are always more secure<br />Many specific OSS programs are significantly more secure; see quantitative studies “Why…” at<br />OSS advantage: Open design principle<br />Saltzer& Schroeder [1974/1975], “Protection mechanism must not depend on attacker ignorance”<br />Hiding source code doesn’t impede attacks<br />“Security by Obscurity” requires real secret-keeping: can’t give access to source code, executable program, or website<br />Attackers can modify OSS and proprietary software<br />Trick is to get that modified version into supply chain<br />OSS: subverting/misleading/becoming the trusted developers or trusted repository/distribution, and none notice attack later<br />OSS security requirements:<br />Developers/reviewers need security knowledge<br />People have to actually review the code: yes, it really happens!<br />Problems must be fixed, fixes deployed <br />
  29. 29. Advantages : open source license<br />PRICE: Generally no or low license fees;<br />Availability of source code coupled with permission to make modifications;<br />Access open source development community, which may be very active with respect to code used. Continuing improvement; outstanding development;<br />More likely to be built to open standards, so interoperable with other open standards systems<br />
  30. 30. Disadvantages: open source license<br />No indemnification; if a third party claims that licensee is using code that the third party developed, the licensee has no one to pay his legal fees and damage award (SCO v. IBM);<br />No maintenance and support (unless purchased separately);<br />No warranties regarding media, viruses, and performance;<br />Staff must be open source savvy;<br />License terms are NOT standard: thus important to pay close attention to terms.<br />