DADA Artistic and literary movement reflecting a widespread nihilistic protest against all aspects of Western culture, especially against militarism during and after World War I (1914-1918)
Nihilism (from Latin nihil, "nothing") <ul><li>Designation applied to various radical philosophies, usually by their opponents, the implication being that adherents of these philosophies reject all positive values and believe in nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives claimed that nihilism would destroy all possibility of orderly and purposeful existence and was directly contrary to real human needs and desires but other radicals called it a necessary phase in social transformation. </li></ul>
Tristan Tzara (1896-1963) <ul><li>French essayist and poet, born in Romania, known primarily as the founder of the Dada movement . </li></ul><ul><li>First in Zürich, Switzerland, and later in Paris, Tzara wrote the movement's first manifestos, describing its nihilistic tenets. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1930, however, he abandoned the pessimism and sterility of Dadaism and became interested in surrealism. </li></ul><ul><li>He joined the French Resistance during World War II, and following the war he turned his poetic insight toward the more realistic problems of humankind. </li></ul>
Jean or Hans Arp (1887-1966), <ul><li>Avant-garde French sculptor, painter, and poet, born September 16, 1887, in Strasbourg. </li></ul><ul><li>Arp studied art in Weimar and Paris between 1905 and 1909 and then painted in Switzerland for several years. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1912 he had become associated with Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists in Munich. Arp's work during the 1915-16 period consisted of angularly patterned, totally abstract tapestries and drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1916 Arp helped found the revolutionary Dadaist school of artists in Zürich. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In 1917 Arp's style of art changed to the familiar abstract, curvilinear forms of his later work. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1924 Arp moved to Paris, where he was associated with the surrealists and produced painted wooden bas-reliefs and humorous cut-cardboard constructions. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1930s, Arp began to work in freestanding sculpture, carving and molding a variety of substances. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of his smooth, biomorphic forms is Human Concretion (1935; cast stone version, 1949, Museum of Modern Art, New York City). </li></ul>
TECNICAS <ul><li>FOTOMONTAJE </li></ul><ul><li>COLLAGE </li></ul><ul><li>READY MADE </li></ul><ul><li>FROTTAGE </li></ul>
TENDENCIAS <ul><li>ZURICH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PICABIA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEW YORK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DUCHAMP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BERLIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENTREGUERRA (CASI TODO DESTRUIDO) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PARIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BRETON </li></ul></ul>
Man Ray (1890-1976) <ul><li>American painter, photographer, and leading figure in the artistic avant-garde in Paris of the 1920s. </li></ul><ul><li>He was born in Philadelphia, studied at the National Academy of Design in New York City, and held his first one-man show of paintings in 1912. </li></ul><ul><li>With his friend, the French painter Marcel Duchamp, he helped to found the New York City Dada group in 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Duchamp's influence, he began to work with new materials and techniques, for example, painting with an airbrush on glass and other surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>His "ready-mades"—such as his flatiron with tacks projecting from the bottom called The Gift (1921, Museum of Modern Art, New York City)—were made from everyday manufactured objects. He also pioneered in kinetic works, which have moving parts. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Going to Paris in 1921, he developed "Rayographs," abstract images made by placing objects on light-sensitive surfaces. He also became involved in surrealism and made art films, including L'Étoile de Mer (1928). </li></ul><ul><li>The expressive possibilities of photography interested him increasingly, and in California from 1940 to 1946 he taught the subject. In later years in France, he experimented with new ways of making color prints, and he published an autobiography, Self Portrait (1963). </li></ul>
Francis Picabia (1879-1953) <ul><li>French avant-garde artist, born in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>His art defies classification, as he painted in almost every major contemporary style, including impressionism, cubism, fauvism, orphism, dadaism, surrealism, and abstract art. </li></ul><ul><li>He also worked in figurative painting as well as in drawing and collage. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, he designed the influential costumes and sets for the Swedish Ballet production of Relâche in 1924. </li></ul><ul><li>As a writer, he contributed to several avant-garde reviews. His interest in literature and language was particularly evident in his later works. </li></ul>
DEFINICION DE BRETON <ul><li>PURO AUTOMATISMO PSIQUICO POR EL CUAL SE INTENTAEXPRESAR VERBALMENTE O POR ESCRITO O DE CUALQUIER OTRA MANERA, EL FUNCIONAMIENTO REAL DEL PENSAMIENTO EN AUSENCIA DE CUALQUIER CONTROL EJERCIDO POR LA RAZON AL MARGEN DE TODA PREOCUPACION ESTETICA O MORAL </li></ul>
“… CADA SEGUNDO HAY UNA FRASE EXTRAÑA A NUESTRO PENSAMIENTO CONSCIENTE QUE ESTA PIDIENDO EXTERIORIZARSE” <ul><li>FREUD Y EL SUBCONCIENTE : ESCRITURA LIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPROMISO POLITICO DE OPOSICION </li></ul><ul><li>EXCENTRICISMO </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENTACION </li></ul>
PRECURSORES <ul><li>HIERONIMUS BOSCH (1450? – 1516) FANTASIA </li></ul><ul><li>WILLIAM BLAKE (1757 – 1827) VISIONES </li></ul><ul><li>FRANCISCO JOSE DE GOYA Y LUCIENTES – (1746 – 1828) PESADILLAS </li></ul><ul><li>HENRI ROUSSEAU (1844 – 1910) RUPTURA DEL MANEJO DEL ESPACIO </li></ul><ul><li>MARC CHAGALL (1887 – 1985) RENUNCIA A LA COMPOSICION </li></ul><ul><li>GIORGIO DE CHIRICO (1888 – 1978) PINTURA METAFISICA </li></ul>
Hieronymous (van Aken) Bosch (1450-1516 <ul><li>Hieronymus Bosch is known for his enigmatic panels illustrating complex religious subjects with fantastic, often demonic imagery </li></ul><ul><li>References to astrology, folklore, witchcraft, and alchemy, in addition to the theme of the Antichrist and episodes from the lives of exemplary saints, are all woven together by Bosch into a labyrinth of late medieval Christian iconography. </li></ul>
(c. 1450-1516) Bosch, Hieronymous Garden of Earthly Delights Outer wings, "Creation of the World" c. 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
Bosch, Hieronymous Garden of Earthly Delights Left wing, "Paradise" c. 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
Garden of Earthly Delights (center panel) 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
Garden of Earthly Delights Right wing, "Hell" c. 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
Bosch, Hieronymous Garden of Earthly Delights Detail of bird-headed monster (right wing) c. 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
The Man-Tree, pen and bistre, Albertina at Vienna.
<ul><li>Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes </li></ul><ul><li>(1746-1828) </li></ul><ul><li>innovative Spanish painter and etcher; one of the triumvirate—including El Greco and Diego Velázquez—of great Spanish masters. </li></ul>
Atropos also called The Fates Las Parcas 1820-23 Oil on gesso transferred to linen 123 cm x 266 cm Museo del Prado Madrid Spain
Goat also called Witches Sabbath 1820-23 Oil on gesso Prado Museum, Madrid 140 cm x 438 cm
Fight with Cudgels also called Duel with Cudgels 1820 – 1823 Oil on plaster 123 cm x 266 cm Prado Museum, Madrid Asmodea 1820-23 Oil on gesso 48 1/2 inches by 104 1/2 inches Prado Museum, Madrid
SATURNO Saturno devorando a su hijo 1820 – 1823 Oil on plaster 146 cm x 83 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain
RUBENS SATURNO OLEO SOBRE LINO 1686 MESEO DEL PRADO MADRID, ESPAÑA
Blake, William (1757-1827), English poet, painter, and engraver, who created a unique form of illustrated verse; His unique style was imaginative and visionary and was a radical departure from the type of art generally produced in the late 18th century . . Blake, William The Ancient of Days 1794 Relief etching with watercolor 23.3 x 16.8 cm (9 1/8 x 6 7/8 in.) British Museum, London
Blake, William The Body of Abel Found by Adam and Eve c. 1825 Watercolor on wood 32 x 43 cm (12 3/4 x 17 in.)
HENRI ROUSSEAU “ EL ADUANERO” 1844 – 1910 1885 DESPUES DE SU JUBILACION
Rousseau, Henri The Sleeping Gypsy 1897 Oil on canvas 51" x 6'7" (129.5 x 200.7 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York LA REALIDAD SE VE SUPERADA POR LA MAGIA Y EL MISTERIO QUE INFUNDEN LOS TONOS MATIZADOS Y LOS ESPACIOS CONFUSOS
Rousseau, Henri Woman Walking in an Exotic Forest (Femme se promenant dans une foret exotique) 1905 Oil on canvas 39 3/8 x 31 3/4 in. (99.9 x 80.7 cm) The Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pennsylvania
Henri Rousseau THe Dream 1910 Oil on canvas 6' 8 1/2" x 9' 9 1/2" The Museum of Modern Art, New York
Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Russian-born French painter. Born to a humble Jewish family in the ghetto of a large town in White Russia, Chagall passed a childhood steeped in Hasidic culture. Very early in life he was encouraged by his mother to follow his vocation and she managed to get him into a St Petersburg art school. Returning to Vitebsk, he became engaged to Bella Rosenfeld (whom he married twelve years later), then, in 1910, set off for Paris, 'the Mecca of art'.
GIORGIO DE CHIRICO 1888 – 1978 Nació en Grecia Estudió en Atenas, Munich, Florencia, Turín y París FUNDADOR DE LA PINTURA METAFISICA
"The case of Giorgio de Chirico is one of the most curious in art history. An Italian, born in 1888 and raised partly in Greece - where his father, an engineer, planned and built railroads - he led a productive life, almost Picassoan in length; he died in 1978. He had studied in Munich, and in his early twenties, under the spell of the Symbolist painter Arnold Böcklin , he began to produce a series of strange, oneiric cityscapes. When they were seen in Paris after 1911, they were ecstatically hailed by painters and poets from Picasso to Paul Éluard; before long de Chirico became one of the heroes of Surrealism .
ANDROMACA Giorgio de Chirico (Italian, born in Greece, (1888–1978)
<ul><li>The Uncertainty of the Poet (1913) </li></ul>
A riadne , Giorgio de Chirico (Italian, born in Greece, (1888–1978) 1913 Oil and graphite on canvas;135.6 x 180.3 cm , MET
ANDRE BRETON <ul><li>(1896-1966) </li></ul><ul><li>French poet and critic </li></ul><ul><li>studied medicine and worked in psychiatric wards in World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>as a writer in Paris, he was a pioneer in the antirationalist movements in art and literature known as Dadaism and surrealism, which developed out of the general disillusionment with tradition that marked the post-World War I era. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Frida Kahlo had three exhibitions during her lifetime. The exhibitions in New York City in 1938 and in Paris in 1939 were organized through her contact with the French surrealist poet and essayist André Breton. </li></ul><ul><li>(1907-1954), Mexican painter, who produced mostly small, highly personal self-portraits using elements of fantasy and a style inspired by native popular art. </li></ul>
REVUELTA Y POESIA <ul><li>ESPANTAPAJAROS CONTRA LA RAZON </li></ul><ul><li>DESCREDITO DE LA CIVILIZACION OCCIDENTAL </li></ul><ul><li>GUSTO POR UNA BUENA BROMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HOMO LUDENS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MOVIMIENTO ANTI-ARTE </li></ul><ul><li>SORPRESA, POLEMICA, ESCANDALO, EXPERIMENTACION, AGRESION, VIOLENCIA, INSULTO, HUMOR </li></ul>
TENDENCIAS SURREALISTAS <ul><li>FIGURATIVAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SALVADOR DALI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSCAR DOMINGUEZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RENE MAGRITTE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ABSTRACTA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JOAN MIRO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MARX ERNST </li></ul></ul>
Max Ernst The Hat Makes the Man . 1920. Gouache, pencil, ink, and cut-and-pasted collotypes, (35.6 x 45.7 cm). MOMA "seed-covered stacked-up man seedless waterformer (‘edelformer') well-fitting nervous system also tightly fitted nerves! (the hat makes the man) (style is the tailor),"
MARX ERNST (Alemania, 1891-1976 ) The Kiss (Le Baiser), 1927. Oil on canvas, 129 x 161.2 cm. Peggy Guggenheim Collection.
Napoleon in the Wilderness . (1941) Oil on canvas, (46.3 x 38.1 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York.
1944 El ojo del silencio Oleo sobre tela. 108 x 141 cm. Museo: Washington University Art Gallery. Saint Louis
MAN RAY 1890 – 1976 AMERICANO PINTOR Y FOTOGRAFO DE VANGUARDIA Trabajos cinéticos, rayografías, etc.
MAN RAY (1890-1977) <ul><li>Brooklyn, NY . Emmanuel Radinski changed his name at the age of 15 to get away from persecution because of his obvious Russian-Jewish heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>His artistic training : evening classes in N. Y. </li></ul><ul><li>1915 - met Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) and Francis Picabia (1879-1959) and soon became involved in the thriving Dada movement. </li></ul>
<ul><li>His most remembered Dada object is " Gift ". </li></ul>
OSCAR DOMINGUEZ (1904 – 1957) MAQUINA DE COSER ELECTRO-SEXUAL 1935
Oscar Domínguez 1935 Madera pintada, hierro y papel 41x33x12 cm. Firmada y fechada en el dorso
Federico García Lorca (1898-1936) 1921-conoce a Dali 1924-en Cadaqués con Dali 1927-presenta “Mariana Pineda” con decorados de Dali 1929-”El poeta en Nueva York” (divulga su identidad sexual)
<ul><li>Anna María Dalí, quien en el año 1987 donara para su custodia a la casa natal y ahora museo del famoso poeta García Lorca, importantes manuscritos con la historia desde que se conocieron en 1925, fotografías realizadas en 1927 y la mayoría de las bellísimas cartas dirigidas por Lorca a Anna María Dalí, que son testimonio de la hermosa y fiel amistad que se prolongó hasta su muerte </li></ul>
<ul><li>Paul Éluard was born Eugène Grindel on December 14, 1895, near Paris </li></ul><ul><li>His studies in Paris were interrupted by illness, and at sixteen he left for a sanatorium in Davos, Switzerland, where he spent a year and a half. Shortly after his return to Paris, he entered the army and served in the trenches; he was discharged with gangrene of the bronchi. </li></ul><ul><li>In Paris Éluard met other young writers, notably André Breton, Louis Aragon, and Philippe Soupault, who were active in the Dadaist movement; this group of young writers soon moved toward Surrealism. Éluard signed the original Surrealist manifestos, and his poetry acquired a new character through these influences. </li></ul><ul><li>Éluard also included among his close friends such visual artists as Picasso, Miró, Tanguy, and Dali. </li></ul><ul><li>Éluard was married in 1912; he and his wife, Gala, later had a daughter, Cécile. This marriage failed, however, and in March 1924, Éluard disappeared from the Paris scene and rumors of his death spread. </li></ul><ul><li>During a seven-month world tour he visited Panama, New Zealand, Australia, Java and Sumatra, India, Indochina, and Ceylon. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1926, with the publication of Capitale de la Douleur, his reputation was established. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1931, Éluard fell in love with and married Nusch, who inspired much of his poetry. Their marriage was a happy one, lasting until her death in 1946. </li></ul>
"Galarina"; 1944 portrait of Gala Salvador Dalí
Gala Eluard Dalí , 26 August 1894 - 10 June 1982 <ul><li>She was born Helena Dmitrievna Deluvina Diakonova in Kazan , Russia , to a family of intellectuals. In 1913 she was sent to a sanatorium in Clavadel in Switzerland to treat her tuberculosis . She met with Paul Eluard while in Switzerland and married him a few years later. She moved to Paris with him and they had a daughter named Cécile. </li></ul><ul><li>Gala became involved in the Surrealist movement with Eluard. </li></ul><ul><li>Gala was inspiration for many artists including Eluard, Louis Aragon , Max Ernst and Andre Breton . Breton, the "ideologue of surrealisme" later despised her. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul and Gala visited a young surrealist painter in Catalonia together with their friends in 1929 . </li></ul>
<ul><li>1929 - During that short stay Gala and Dalí fell in love with each other and she took a firm decision: "We will never again be apart." From that time on Gala became the model, muse and inseparable companion of one of the 20th century's most famous artists, whom she followed in his stays in various parts of Europe and the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1971 to 1980 Gala made stays in Púbol Castle, where she was buried. The castle, known now as Gala Dalí Castle Museum-House , has been open to the public since 1996 </li></ul>
Dalí's love for his Galatea was legendary, and there is little doubt that her influence can be seen in all his work. She was ten years older than he, a strong personality in her own right, and his fiercest critic and protector. And for him, she was the subject of every work. When she died before him, the air went out of his creative tires. Galatea of the Spheres 1952 Teatre-Museu Dalí, Figueras
Galatea of the Spheres 1952 Teatre-Museu Dalí, Figueras
GEROME 1890 oil masterpiece, " Galatea and Pygmalion ," by Jean-Léon Gérome. Based on the Greek myth: The artist Pygmalion was on a quest to sculpt his ultimate vision of womanhood. Seeing the beauty of his final sculpture, he fell in love. Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love and Beauty, felt pity for the lovesick artist and, breathing life into the statue, united Galatea and Pygmalion.
<ul><li>An affair quickly developed between Dalí and Gala. Dali was 11 years younger than Gala. They married in 1932 . </li></ul><ul><li>She underwent a hysterectomy at around this time. </li></ul><ul><li>She was a real muse for Dalí, who said that she was the one who saved him from madness and an early death. Indeed, behind his artistic genius Dali was a troubled, insecure and disorganised man and it was Gala who acted as his agent, the interface between the genius and the real world. In doing so she had hurt many sensitivities who accused her of being materialistic. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Gala had numerous affairs, which Dalí did not object to. </li></ul><ul><li>She had a fondness for young artists, and in her old age often gave those who associated with her expensive gifts. </li></ul><ul><li>She earned for herself the position amongst the pantheon of the greatest objects of love the world has ever seen in the hands of Dalí. </li></ul><ul><li>Gala is a frequent model in Dalí's work, often in religious roles such as the Blessed Virgin Mary as in the painting The Madonna of Port Lligat . </li></ul><ul><li>Dalí's numerous paintings of her show his great love for her, and some are perhaps some of the most affectionate and sensual depictions of a middle-aged woman in Western art. </li></ul><ul><li>Gala died in 1982 and was buried in the Castle of Púbol in Catalonia which Dalí had bought for her. </li></ul>
Portrait of Paul Eluard Fernand Léger 1952 Gouache on paper SIZE: h: 68.1 x w: 50.5 cm