4.3

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4.3

  1. 1. 4.3. El descubrimiento del SUBconsciente: el surrealismo en Europa y América Latina. 4.3. Comprender la importancia del descubrimiento del subconsciente y su expresión en el surrealismo en Europa y América Latina.
  2. 2. SUBCONSCIENTE Y TEORIA FREUDIANA
  3. 3. SURREALISMO <ul><li>1917 – APOLLINAIRE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOVIMIENTO LITERARIO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANDRE BRETON </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1925 – GALERIA PIERRE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOVIMIENTO PICTORICO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARP, ENST, RAY, KLEE, DE CHIRICO, MIRO, PICASSO, DALI, MAGRITTE </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. DEFINICION DE BRETON <ul><li>PURO AUTOMATISMO PSIQUICO POR EL CUAL SE INTENTAEXPRESAR VERBALMENTE O POR ESCRITO O DE CUALQUIER OTRA MANERA, EL FUNCIONAMIENTO REAL DEL PENSAMIENTO EN AUSENCIA DE CUALQUIER CONTROL EJERCIDO POR LA RAZON AL MARGEN DE TODA PREOCUPACION ESTETICA O MORAL </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>INCONSCIENCIA </li></ul><ul><li>IRRACIONALIDAD </li></ul><ul><li>BUSQUEDA </li></ul><ul><li>INVESTIGACION INDIVIDUAL </li></ul>
  6. 6. “… CADA SEGUNDO HAY UNA FRASE EXTRAÑA A NUESTRO PENSAMIENTO CONSCIENTE QUE ESTA PIDIENDO EXTERIORIZARSE” <ul><li>FREUD Y EL SUBCONCIENTE : ESCRITURA LIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPROMISO POLITICO DE OPOSICION </li></ul><ul><li>EXCENTRICISMO </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIMENTACION </li></ul>
  7. 7. PRECURSORES <ul><li>HIERONIMUS BOSCH (1450? – 1516) FANTASIA </li></ul><ul><li>WILLIAM BLAKE (1757 – 1827) VISIONES </li></ul><ul><li>FRANCISCO JOSE DE GOYA Y LUCIENTES – (1746 – 1828) PESADILLAS </li></ul><ul><li>HENRI ROUSSEAU (1844 – 1910) RUPTURA DEL MANEJO DEL ESPACIO </li></ul><ul><li>MARC CHAGALL (1887 – 1985) RENUNCIA A LA COMPOSICION </li></ul><ul><li>GIORGIO DE CHIRICO (1888 – 1978) PINTURA METAFISICA </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hieronymous (van Aken) Bosch (1450-1516 <ul><li>Hieronymus Bosch is known for his enigmatic panels illustrating complex religious subjects with fantastic, often demonic imagery </li></ul><ul><li>References to astrology, folklore, witchcraft, and alchemy, in addition to the theme of the Antichrist and episodes from the lives of exemplary saints, are all woven together by Bosch into a labyrinth of late medieval Christian iconography. </li></ul>
  9. 9. (c. 1450-1516) Bosch, Hieronymous Garden of Earthly Delights Outer wings, &quot;Creation of the World&quot; c. 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
  10. 11. Bosch, Hieronymous Garden of Earthly Delights Left wing, &quot;Paradise&quot; c. 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
  11. 12. Garden of Earthly Delights (center panel) 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
  12. 13. Garden of Earthly Delights Right wing, &quot;Hell&quot; c. 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
  13. 14. Bosch, Hieronymous Garden of Earthly Delights Detail of bird-headed monster (right wing) c. 1504 Triptych, plus shutters Oil on panel Central panel, 220 x 195 cm; Wings, 220 x 97 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
  14. 15. The Man-Tree, pen and bistre, Albertina at Vienna.
  15. 16. <ul><li>Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes </li></ul><ul><li>(1746-1828) </li></ul><ul><li>innovative Spanish painter and etcher; one of the triumvirate—including El Greco and Diego Velázquez—of great Spanish masters. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Atropos also called The Fates Las Parcas 1820-23 Oil on gesso transferred to linen 123 cm x 266 cm Museo del Prado Madrid Spain
  17. 18. Goat also called Witches Sabbath 1820-23 Oil on gesso Prado Museum, Madrid 140 cm x 438 cm
  18. 19. Fight with Cudgels also called Duel with Cudgels 1820 – 1823 Oil on plaster 123 cm x 266 cm Prado Museum, Madrid Asmodea 1820-23 Oil on gesso 48 1/2 inches by 104 1/2 inches Prado Museum, Madrid
  19. 20. SATURNO Saturno devorando a su hijo 1820 – 1823 Oil on plaster 146 cm x 83 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain
  20. 21. RUBENS SATURNO OLEO SOBRE LINO 1686 MESEO DEL PRADO MADRID, ESPAÑA
  21. 22. WILLIAM BLAKE 1757 – 1827 INGLATERRA
  22. 23. Blake, William (1757-1827), English poet, painter, and engraver, who created a unique form of illustrated verse; His unique style was imaginative and visionary and was a radical departure from the type of art generally produced in the late 18th century . . Blake, William The Ancient of Days 1794 Relief etching with watercolor 23.3 x 16.8 cm (9 1/8 x 6 7/8 in.) British Museum, London
  23. 24. <ul><li>NEWTON </li></ul>NEWTON
  24. 25. William Blake, Pietà , 1795 , Tate Gallery
  25. 26. Blake, William The Body of Abel Found by Adam and Eve c. 1825 Watercolor on wood 32 x 43 cm (12 3/4 x 17 in.)
  26. 27. HENRI ROUSSEAU “ EL ADUANERO” 1844 – 1910 1885 DESPUES DE SU JUBILACION
  27. 28. Rousseau, Henri The Sleeping Gypsy 1897 Oil on canvas 51&quot; x 6'7&quot; (129.5 x 200.7 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York LA REALIDAD SE VE SUPERADA POR LA MAGIA Y EL MISTERIO QUE INFUNDEN LOS TONOS MATIZADOS Y LOS ESPACIOS CONFUSOS
  28. 29. Rousseau, Henri Woman Walking in an Exotic Forest (Femme se promenant dans une foret exotique) 1905 Oil on canvas 39 3/8 x 31 3/4 in. (99.9 x 80.7 cm) The Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pennsylvania
  29. 30. Henri Rousseau THe Dream 1910 Oil on canvas 6' 8 1/2&quot; x 9' 9 1/2&quot; The Museum of Modern Art, New York
  30. 31. Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Russian-born French painter. Born to a humble Jewish family in the ghetto of a large town in White Russia, Chagall passed a childhood steeped in Hasidic culture. Very early in life he was encouraged by his mother to follow his vocation and she managed to get him into a St Petersburg art school. Returning to Vitebsk, he became engaged to Bella Rosenfeld (whom he married twelve years later), then, in 1910, set off for Paris, 'the Mecca of art'.
  31. 32. LA MUJER Y LAS ROSAS 1929
  32. 33. RECUERDOS, DELIRIO, INGENUIDAD, ROMANTICISMO
  33. 34. GIORGIO DE CHIRICO 1888 – 1978 Nació en Grecia Estudió en Atenas, Munich, Florencia, Turín y París FUNDADOR DE LA PINTURA METAFISICA
  34. 35. &quot;The case of Giorgio de Chirico is one of the most curious in art history. An Italian, born in 1888 and raised partly in Greece - where his father, an engineer, planned and built railroads - he led a productive life, almost Picassoan in length; he died in 1978. He had studied in Munich, and in his early twenties, under the spell of the Symbolist painter Arnold Böcklin , he began to produce a series of strange, oneiric cityscapes. When they were seen in Paris after 1911, they were ecstatically hailed by painters and poets from Picasso to Paul Éluard; before long de Chirico became one of the heroes of Surrealism .
  35. 36. ANDROMACA Giorgio de Chirico (Italian, born in Greece, (1888–1978)
  36. 37. <ul><li>The Uncertainty of the Poet (1913) </li></ul>
  37. 38. A riadne , Giorgio de Chirico (Italian, born in Greece, (1888–1978) 1913 Oil and graphite on canvas;135.6 x 180.3 cm , MET
  38. 39. CANCION DE AMOR
  39. 40. ANDRE BRETON <ul><li>(1896-1966) </li></ul><ul><li>French poet and critic </li></ul><ul><li>studied medicine and worked in psychiatric wards in World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>as a writer in Paris, he was a pioneer in the antirationalist movements in art and literature known as Dadaism and surrealism, which developed out of the general disillusionment with tradition that marked the post-World War I era. </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Frida Kahlo had three exhibitions during her lifetime. The exhibitions in New York City in 1938 and in Paris in 1939 were organized through her contact with the French surrealist poet and essayist André Breton. </li></ul><ul><li>(1907-1954), Mexican painter, who produced mostly small, highly personal self-portraits using elements of fantasy and a style inspired by native popular art. </li></ul>
  41. 42. REVUELTA Y POESIA <ul><li>ESPANTAPAJAROS CONTRA LA RAZON </li></ul><ul><li>DESCREDITO DE LA CIVILIZACION OCCIDENTAL </li></ul><ul><li>GUSTO POR UNA BUENA BROMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HOMO LUDENS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MOVIMIENTO ANTI-ARTE </li></ul><ul><li>SORPRESA, POLEMICA, ESCANDALO, EXPERIMENTACION, AGRESION, VIOLENCIA, INSULTO, HUMOR </li></ul>
  42. 43. TENDENCIAS SURREALISTAS <ul><li>FIGURATIVAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SALVADOR DALI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSCAR DOMINGUEZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RENE MAGRITTE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ABSTRACTA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JOAN MIRO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MARX ERNST </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. MARX ERNST (1891-1976 ) Alemania,
  44. 45. Max Ernst The Hat Makes the Man . 1920. Gouache, pencil, ink, and cut-and-pasted collotypes, (35.6 x 45.7 cm). MOMA &quot;seed-covered stacked-up man seedless waterformer (‘edelformer') well-fitting nervous system also tightly fitted nerves! (the hat makes the man) (style is the tailor),&quot;
  45. 46. MARX ERNST (Alemania, 1891-1976 ) The Kiss (Le Baiser), 1927. Oil on canvas, 129 x 161.2 cm. Peggy Guggenheim Collection.
  46. 47. Napoleon in the Wilderness . (1941) Oil on canvas, (46.3 x 38.1 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  47. 48. 1944 El ojo del silencio Oleo sobre tela. 108 x 141 cm. Museo: Washington University Art Gallery. Saint Louis
  48. 49. MAN RAY 1890 – 1976 AMERICANO PINTOR Y FOTOGRAFO DE VANGUARDIA Trabajos cinéticos, rayografías, etc.
  49. 50. MAN RAY (1890-1977) <ul><li>Brooklyn, NY . Emmanuel Radinski changed his name at the age of 15 to get away from persecution because of his obvious Russian-Jewish heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>His artistic training : evening classes in N. Y. </li></ul><ul><li>1915 - met Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) and Francis Picabia (1879-1959) and soon became involved in the thriving Dada movement. </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>His most remembered Dada object is &quot; Gift &quot;. </li></ul>
  51. 52. OSCAR DOMINGUEZ (1904 – 1957) MAQUINA DE COSER ELECTRO-SEXUAL 1935
  52. 53. Oscar Domínguez 1935 Madera pintada, hierro y papel 41x33x12 cm. Firmada y fechada en el dorso
  53. 55. SURREALISMO EUROPEO
  54. 56. SURREALISMO LATINOAMERICANO

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