3.3.3 Dada
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3.3.3 Dada

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3.3.3 Dada 3.3.3 Dada Presentation Transcript

  • 3.4. El estallido de la crisis y el nihilismo: Dada. 3.4. Conocer las consecuencias del estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundial para comprender la crisis y el nihilismo del Dadaísmo.
  • 3.5. El descubrimiento del mundo interior y la creación del lenguaje abstracto. 3.5. Interpretar el descubrimiento del mundo interior y la creación del lenguaje abstracto en las primeras décadas del siglo XX, a través del análisis de casos de estudio.
  • DADA Artistic and literary movement reflecting a widespread nihilistic protest against all aspects of Western culture, especially against militarism during and after World War I (1914-1918)
  • Nihilism (from Latin nihil, "nothing")
    • Designation applied to various radical philosophies, usually by their opponents, the implication being that adherents of these philosophies reject all positive values and believe in nothing.
    • Conservatives claimed that nihilism would destroy all possibility of orderly and purposeful existence and was directly contrary to real human needs and desires but other radicals called it a necessary phase in social transformation.
  • CAFÉ VOLTAIRE , ZURICH
    • INSPIRACION FUTURISTA
    • DISCONFORMIDAD
  • Tristan Tzara (1896-1963)
    • French essayist and poet, born in Romania, known primarily as the founder of the Dada movement .
    • First in Zürich, Switzerland, and later in Paris, Tzara wrote the movement's first manifestos, describing its nihilistic tenets.
    • By 1930, however, he abandoned the pessimism and sterility of Dadaism and became interested in surrealism.
    • He joined the French Resistance during World War II, and following the war he turned his poetic insight toward the more realistic problems of humankind.
  • Jean or Hans Arp (1887-1966),
    • Avant-garde French sculptor, painter, and poet, born September 16, 1887, in Strasbourg.
    • Arp studied art in Weimar and Paris between 1905 and 1909 and then painted in Switzerland for several years.
    • By 1912 he had become associated with Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists in Munich. Arp's work during the 1915-16 period consisted of angularly patterned, totally abstract tapestries and drawings.
    • In 1916 Arp helped found the revolutionary Dadaist school of artists in Zürich.
    • In 1917 Arp's style of art changed to the familiar abstract, curvilinear forms of his later work.
    • In 1924 Arp moved to Paris, where he was associated with the surrealists and produced painted wooden bas-reliefs and humorous cut-cardboard constructions.
    • In the 1930s, Arp began to work in freestanding sculpture, carving and molding a variety of substances.
    • An example of his smooth, biomorphic forms is Human Concretion (1935; cast stone version, 1949, Museum of Modern Art, New York City).
  • TECNICAS
    • FOTOMONTAJE
    • COLLAGE
    • READY MADE
    • FROTTAGE
  • TENDENCIAS
    • ZURICH
      • ARP
      • PICABIA
    • NEW YORK
      • DUCHAMP
    • BERLIN
      • ENTREGUERRA (CASI TODO DESTRUIDO)
    • PARIS
      • BRETON
  • Man Ray (1890-1976)
    • American painter, photographer, and leading figure in the artistic avant-garde in Paris of the 1920s.
    • He was born in Philadelphia, studied at the National Academy of Design in New York City, and held his first one-man show of paintings in 1912.
    • With his friend, the French painter Marcel Duchamp, he helped to found the New York City Dada group in 1917.
    • Under Duchamp's influence, he began to work with new materials and techniques, for example, painting with an airbrush on glass and other surfaces.
    • His "ready-mades"—such as his flatiron with tacks projecting from the bottom called The Gift (1921, Museum of Modern Art, New York City)—were made from everyday manufactured objects. He also pioneered in kinetic works, which have moving parts.
    • Going to Paris in 1921, he developed "Rayographs," abstract images made by placing objects on light-sensitive surfaces. He also became involved in surrealism and made art films, including L'Étoile de Mer (1928).
    • The expressive possibilities of photography interested him increasingly, and in California from 1940 to 1946 he taught the subject. In later years in France, he experimented with new ways of making color prints, and he published an autobiography, Self Portrait (1963).
  • Francis Picabia (1879-1953)
    • French avant-garde artist, born in Paris.
    • His art defies classification, as he painted in almost every major contemporary style, including impressionism, cubism, fauvism, orphism, dadaism, surrealism, and abstract art.
    • He also worked in figurative painting as well as in drawing and collage.
    • In addition, he designed the influential costumes and sets for the Swedish Ballet production of Relâche in 1924.
    • As a writer, he contributed to several avant-garde reviews. His interest in literature and language was particularly evident in his later works.
    • Jean (Hans) Arp. Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance . 1916–17. Torn-and-pasted papers on gray paper, 19 1/8 x 13 5/8" (48.6 x 34.6 cm). Purchase. © 2002 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn
  •                                                              Overturned Blue Shoe with Two Heels Under a Black Vault (Soulier bleu renversé à deux talons, sous une voûte noire), ca. 1925. Painted wood, 79.3 x 104.6 x 5 cm. Peggy Guggenheim Collection. 76.2553 PG 53. Jean Arp © 2003 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn.
    • El dadá fue un movimiento antiarte que surgió en Zúrich ( Suiza ) en 1916 iniciado por Tristan Tzara.
    • se caracterizó por sentimientos de protesta contra convenciones literarias.
    • una actitud de burla total por las manifestaciones artisticas literarias.
    • por gestos y manifestaciones provocadoras en las que los artistas pretendían destruir todas las convenciones con respecto al arte ,
    • creando una especie de anti-arte o rebelión contra el orden establecido en aquella época de comienzos y mediados del siglo XX , en los periodos de la primera y comienzos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial .
    • tuvo su área de influencia no sólo en el arte gráfico sino que también en la música;
    • surge como consecuencia de la quiebra de valores consecuencia clara de la guerra.
  • Dadá en Nueva York (1915-1920)
    • Duchamp, Picabia, Jean Crotti , como europeos refugiados, junto con los americanos Man Ray , Morton Schamberg y otros dan vida al dadá neoyorquino.
    • La primera guerra mundial también llevó a Nueva York a grupos de artistas y refugiados. Entre ellos hay que destacar a Duchamp y Picabia.
    • Duchamp llegó de París a Nueva York con un regalo de los franceses para los estadounidenses ( particularmente para el coleccionista Walter Arensberg ) que consistía en una bola de cristal con aire de París.
    • Era el comienzo de los ready - mades (una rueda de bicicleta montada sobre un taburete, un botellero, un orinal, etc.), objetos sacados de la realidad y puestos en la esfera del arte por la simple acción y voluntad del artista.
    • El deleite estético estaba fuera de sus intenciones y la elección de los objetos:
      • ...se basaba en una reacción de indiferencia visual, con la total ausencia de buen o mal gusto... de hecho una completa anestesia...
    • Duchamp
    • Estos refugiados se integraron con las corrientes vanguardistas que desde comienzos del siglo se estaban gestando en Harlem , Greenwich Village y Chinatown .
    • Aunque Nueva York no era Zúrich, ni existía ese clima de refugiados políticos de la ciudad suiza, sí estaba presente el espíritu iconoclasta.
    • En 1913 tuvo lugar en Nueva York la Exposición Internacional de Arte Moderno, más conocida como el Armory Show .
    • Allí, el Desnudo descendiendo una escalera de Marcel Duchamp causó una auténtica conmoción y fue calificada de obra maestra por Breton.
  •  
    • Duchamp se convirtió en la bestia negra del arte moderno.
    • Marcel Duchamp ha pasado a la historia como uno de los artistas más enigmáticos e inteligentes del siglo XX.
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