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02223:	
  Fundamentals	
  of	
  	
  
Modern	
  Embedded	
  Systems	
  



           Lecture	
  1:	
  
          Introduc<...
Lecture	
  outline	
  

•  Course	
  informa<on	
  
   –  Examina<on:	
  project	
  


•  Modern	
  embedded	
  systems	
 ...
Course	
  informa<on	
  

•  Team	
  (see	
  contact	
  info	
  on	
  CampusNet)	
  
    –  Jan	
  Madsen,	
  course	
  le...
Course	
  informa<on,	
  cont.	
  

Literature	
  

•    Textbook:	
  
     Scheduling	
  in	
  Real-­‐Time	
  Systems	
  ...
Course	
  informa<on,	
  cont.	
  

•  Lectures	
  
    –  Language:	
  English	
  
    –  13	
  lectures	
  
         •  ...
What	
  is	
  an	
  embedded	
  system?	
  

•  Defini<on	
  
    –  an	
  embedded	
  system	
  special-­‐purpose	
  compu...
Embedded	
  systems	
  example	
  


Product:	
  Sonicare	
  Plus	
  toothbrush.	
  
  Microprocessor:	
  8-­‐bit	
  Zilog...
Embedded	
  systems	
  example,	
  cont.	
  




                         Product:	
  NASA's	
  Mars	
  
                 ...
Embedded	
  systems	
  example,	
  cont.	
  




                          Product:	
  Garmin	
  nüvi	
  

               ...
Embedded	
  systems	
  example,	
  cont.	
  




                   Product:	
  iPod	
  Touch	
  


                   Mic...
Embedded	
  systems	
  example,	
  cont.	
  



                        Product:	
  RCA	
  
                        RC5400...
Embedded	
  systems	
  example,	
  cont.	
  




                         Product:	
  Sony	
  Aibo	
  ERS-­‐110	
  
      ...
Smart	
  pills	
  –	
  2nd	
  genera<on	
  
Flying	
  micro-­‐insects!	
  
Do	
  not	
  have	
  to	
  be	
  small	
  …	
  
Ship	
  engine	
  
Embedded	
  systems	
  are	
  everywhere	
  



                                        o	
             o	
               ...
Characteris<cs	
  of	
  embedded	
  systems	
  

•  Single-­‐func<oned	
  
     –  Dedicated	
  to	
  perform	
  a	
  sing...
Some	
  sta<s<cs	
  

•  More	
  than	
  humans	
  on	
  the	
  planet,	
  already	
  
      –  40	
  billion	
  of	
  suc...
Example	
  area:	
  	
  
                                                                     automo<ve	
  
              ...
Distributed	
  architecture	
  
Evolu<on	
  of	
  Handsets	
  and	
  Technology	
  
Block	
  Diagram	
  of	
  State-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art	
  Smartphone	
  
                                                       ...
Tradi<onal	
  embedded	
  soaware	
  development	
  

•  Design	
  and	
  build	
  	
  
   the	
  target	
  hardware	
  
•...
System-­‐level	
  design	
  (Y-­‐chart)	
  

Application                                 System platform
  model          ...
Graphical	
  illustra<on	
  of	
  Moore’s	
  law	
  

       1981             1984       1987      1990     1993     1996 ...
Design	
  crisis	
  

                                                                 Gates/cm2	
  
                     ...
Design	
  challenge	
  –	
  op<mizing	
  design	
  metrics	
  

•  Common	
  metrics	
  
   –  Performance:	
  the	
  exec...
Design	
  challenge	
  –	
  op<mizing	
  design	
  metrics	
  

•  Common	
  metrics	
  (con<nued)	
  
   –  Time-­‐to-­‐p...
The	
  performance	
  design	
  metric	
  

•  Widely-­‐used	
  measure	
  of	
  system,	
  widely-­‐abused	
  
     –  Cl...
Time-­‐to-­‐market:	
  a	
  demanding	
  design	
  metric	
  

                                  •  Time	
  required	
  to...
Power	
  design	
  metric:	
  trends	
  


                                         Nuclear	
  Reactor	
  


             ...
Project:	
  Why?	
  

•  The	
  course	
  will	
  focus	
  on	
  the	
  analysis,	
  simulaHon	
  and	
  
   design	
  of	...
Project:	
  What?	
  

•  Soaware	
  tool:	
  	
  
    –    Implementa<on	
  of	
  simula<on,	
  analysis	
  and/or	
  des...
Project:	
  How?	
  

•  Soaware	
  tool	
  
   –     Input	
  
        •     Models	
  for	
  the	
  applica<on	
  and	
 ...
Project:	
  Deliverables	
  

•  Source	
  code	
  with	
  comments	
  
    –  Programming	
  language:	
  any	
  language...
Project,	
  cont.	
  

•  Milestones	
  
   –  Early	
  September:	
  Group	
  registra<on	
  
   –  Late	
  October:	
  A...
Preliminary	
  lecture	
  plan	
  

L1    	
  Introduc<on	
  (Paul	
  Pop,	
  Sven	
  Karlsson)	
  
L2    	
  Performance	...
Fundamentals of Modern Embedded Systems
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  1. 1. 02223:  Fundamentals  of     Modern  Embedded  Systems   Lecture  1:   Introduc<on  
  2. 2. Lecture  outline   •  Course  informa<on   –  Examina<on:  project   •  Modern  embedded  systems   –  Embedded  systems  design   –  Performance  vs.  predictability   •  Examples   –  Automo<ve  electronics   –  PlaySta<on  3,  mobile  phones   –  Mars  Pathfinder   Lecture  1/2  
  3. 3. Course  informa<on   •  Team  (see  contact  info  on  CampusNet)   –  Jan  Madsen,  course  leader   –  Paul  Pop  and  Sven  Karlsson,  lecturers   –  Domi<an  (Domi)  Tamas-­‐Selicean,  Wajid  Hassan  Minhass   teaching  assistants   •  Webpage   –  CampusNet   Lecture  1/3  
  4. 4. Course  informa<on,  cont.   Literature   •  Textbook:   Scheduling  in  Real-­‐Time  Systems   (full  text  available  online)   •  Selected  chapters   (full  text  available  on  CampusNet)   Lecture  1/4  
  5. 5. Course  informa<on,  cont.   •  Lectures   –  Language:  English   –  13  lectures   •  Lecture  notes:  available  on  CampusNet  as  a  PDF  file  the  day  before   •  Examina<on:  project,  see  CampusNet/Project   –  Report  evalua<on  and  oral  exam   •  7.5  ECTS  points   Lecture  1/5  
  6. 6. What  is  an  embedded  system?   •  Defini<on   –  an  embedded  system  special-­‐purpose  computer  system,   part  of  a  larger  system  which  it  controls.   •  Notes   –  A  computer  is  used  in  such  devices  primarily  as  a  means  to   simplify  the  system  design  and  to  provide  flexibility.     –  Oaen  the  user  of  the  device  is  not  even  aware  that  a   computer  is  present.     Lecture  1/6  
  7. 7. Embedded  systems  example   Product:  Sonicare  Plus  toothbrush.   Microprocessor:  8-­‐bit  Zilog  Z8.  
  8. 8. Embedded  systems  example,  cont.   Product:  NASA's  Mars   Sojourner  Rover.   Microprocessor:     8-­‐bit  Intel  80C85.  
  9. 9. Embedded  systems  example,  cont.   Product:  Garmin  nüvi   333  Mhz  microprocessor  
  10. 10. Embedded  systems  example,  cont.   Product:  iPod  Touch   Microprocessor:     532MHz  Samsung  ARM  
  11. 11. Embedded  systems  example,  cont.   Product:  RCA   RC5400P  DVD  player.   Microprocessor:     32-­‐bit  RISC.  
  12. 12. Embedded  systems  example,  cont.   Product:  Sony  Aibo  ERS-­‐110   Robo<c  Dog.   Microprocessor:     64-­‐bit  MIPS  RISC.  
  13. 13. Smart  pills  –  2nd  genera<on  
  14. 14. Flying  micro-­‐insects!  
  15. 15. Do  not  have  to  be  small  …  
  16. 16. Ship  engine  
  17. 17. Embedded  systems  are  everywhere   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o  o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o  o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o  
  18. 18. Characteris<cs  of  embedded  systems   •  Single-­‐func<oned   –  Dedicated  to  perform  a  single  func<on   •  Complex  func<onality   –  Oaen  have  to  run  sophis<cated  algorithms  or  mul<ple  algorithms.   •  Cell  phone,  laser  printer.   •  Tightly-­‐constrained   –  Low  cost,  low  power,  small,  fast,  etc.   •  Reac<ve  and  real-­‐<me   –  Con<nually  reacts  to  changes  in  the  system’s  environment   –  Must  compute  certain  results  in  real-­‐<me  without  delay   •  Safety-­‐cri<cal   –  Must  not  endanger  human  life  and  the  environment   Lecture  1/18  
  19. 19. Some  sta<s<cs   •  More  than  humans  on  the  planet,  already   –  40  billion  of  such  devices  by  2020   •  99%  of  the  processors  are  used  in  embedded  systems   –  4  billion  embedded  processors  were  sold  last  year  alone   •  €71  billion  global  market  in  2009,  growth  rates  of  14%   –  Market  size  is  about  100  <mes  the  desktop  market   •  Share  of  costs:     –  automo<ve  (36%),  industrial  automa<on  (22%),  telecommunica<ons   (37%),  consumer  electronics  (41%)  and  health/medical  equipment  (33%)   •  Half  a  million  more  engineers  needed,  worldwide   –  expected  to  double  over  the  next  6  years   Lecture  1/19  
  20. 20. Example  area:     automo<ve   Embedded  systems:   90%  future  innova<ons   ACC  Stop&Go   BFD   40%  price   ALC   KSG   42  voltage   Internet  Portal   GPRS,  UMTS   Telema<cs   Naviga<on  System   Online  Services   CD-­‐Changer   BlueTooth   Level  of  dependency   ACC  Adap<ve  Cruise   Car  Office   Control   Local  Hazard  Warning   Airbags   Integrated  Safety  System   DSC  Dynamic  Stability   Steer/Brake-­‐By-­‐Wire   Control   I-­‐Drive   Electronic  Gear  Control   Adap<ve  Gear  Control   Lane  Keeping  Assist.   Electronic  Air  Condi<on   Xenon  Light   Personaliza<on   ASC  An<  Slip  Control   BMW  Assist   Soaware  Update   ABS   RDS/TMC   Force  Feedback  Pedal   Electronic  Injec<ons   …   Telephone   Speech  Recogni<on   source:  BMW   Check  Control   Seat  Hea<ng  Control   Emergency  Call   Speed  Control   …   Autom.  Mirror  Dimming   Central  Locking   …   …   1970   1980   1990   2000  
  21. 21. Distributed  architecture  
  22. 22. Evolu<on  of  Handsets  and  Technology  
  23. 23. Block  Diagram  of  State-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art  Smartphone   Bauery   RF   Baseband  ASIC   Charger     Energy   management   64MB   ASIC   NOR   FLASH   White  LED   ARM9   driver   64MB   Back-­‐light   SDRAM   UMA  core   Mixed-­‐ LEDs   Signal  ASIC   SIM   2MPix   camera   module   IHF   BT   LED  Flash   Module   Keyboard   Applica<on   512MB   processor   MM NAND   C   FLASH   ARM9   512  MB   DDR   Frame   DRAM   UMA  core   buffer  ASIC   Posi<on   sensors   LCDs  
  24. 24. Tradi<onal  embedded  soaware  development   •  Design  and  build     the  target  hardware   •  Develop  the  soaware     independently   •  Integrate  them  and     hope  it  works   Does not work for complex projects
  25. 25. System-­‐level  design  (Y-­‐chart)   Application System platform model model Applica<on    model   System-level Architecture    model   design tasks Model of system Analysis implementation Software Hardware synthesis synthesis
  26. 26. Graphical  illustra<on  of  Moore’s  law   1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 10,000 150,000,000 transistors transistors Leading edge Leading edge chip in 1981 chip in 2002 •  Something  that  doubles  frequently  grows  more   quickly  than  most  people  realize!   –  A  2002  chip  could  hold  about  15,000  1981  chips  inside  itself  
  27. 27. Design  crisis   Gates/cm2   Moore’s  Law   (59%  CAGR)   Widening  Gaps   Log  Scale   Will  Trigger     Paradigm  Shi6!   Design  ProducHvity   (20-­‐25%  CAGR)   SoLware  ProducHvity   (8-­‐10%  CAGR)   0.35µ   0.25µ   0.18µ   0.15µ   0.12µ   0.1µ   Technology  (micron)  
  28. 28. Design  challenge  –  op<mizing  design  metrics   •  Common  metrics   –  Performance:  the  execu<on  <me  or  throughput  of  the   system   –  Unit  cost:  the  monetary  cost  of  manufacturing  each  copy  of   the  system,  excluding  NRE  cost   –  NRE  cost  (Non-­‐Recurring  Engineering  cost):  The  one-­‐<me   monetary  cost  of  designing  the  system   –  Size:  the  physical  space  required  by  the  system   –  Power:  the  amount  of  power  consumed  by  the  system   –  Flexibility:  the  ability  to  change  the  func<onality  of  the   system  without  incurring  heavy  NRE  cost  
  29. 29. Design  challenge  –  op<mizing  design  metrics   •  Common  metrics  (con<nued)   –  Time-­‐to-­‐prototype:  the  <me  needed  to  build  a  working   version  of  the  system   –  Time-­‐to-­‐market:  the  <me  required  to  develop  a  system  to   the  point  that  it  can  be  released  and  sold  to  customers   –  Maintainability:  the  ability  to  modify  the  system  aaer  its   ini<al  release   –  Correctness,  safety,  many  more  
  30. 30. The  performance  design  metric   •  Widely-­‐used  measure  of  system,  widely-­‐abused   –  Clock  frequency,  instruc<ons  per  second  –  not  good  measures   •  Latency  (response  <me)   –  Time  between  task  start  and  end   –  e.g.,  Digital  cameras  A  and  B  process  images  in  0.25  seconds   •  Throughput   –  Tasks  per  second,  e.g.  Camera  A  processes  4  images  per  second   –  Throughput  can  be  more  than  latency  seems  to  imply  due  to  concurrency,  e.g.   Camera  B  may  process  8  images  per  second  (by  capturing  a  new  image  while   previous  image  is  being  stored).   •  Speedup  of  B  over  S  =  B’s  performance  /  A’s  performance   –  Throughput  speedup  =  8/4  =  2  
  31. 31. Time-­‐to-­‐market:  a  demanding  design  metric   •  Time  required  to  develop  a   product  to  the  point  it  can   be  sold  to  customers   •  Market  window   Revenues ($) –  Period  during  which  the   product  would  have  highest   sales   •  Average  <me-­‐to-­‐market   Time (months) constraint  is  about  8  months   •  Delays  can  be  costly  
  32. 32. Power  design  metric:  trends   Nuclear  Reactor   PenHum  4  (Presco[)   PenHum  4   Hot  Plate   PenHum  3   PenHum  2   PenHum  Pro   PenHum   486   386  
  33. 33. Project:  Why?   •  The  course  will  focus  on  the  analysis,  simulaHon  and   design  of  embedded  systems.   •  Goal   –  Understand  and  apply  simula<on/analysis/design   techniques  for  embedded  applica<ons.   –  How:  implement  a  soaware  tool  that  can  simulate/ analyze/design  an  embedded  system.   •  Details     –  see  these  slides  and  “project.pdf”  on  CampusNet/Project   Lecture  1/34  
  34. 34. Project:  What?   •  Soaware  tool:     –  Implementa<on  of  simula<on,  analysis  and/or  design   techniques  for  embedded    systems    A1:  Very  Simple  Simulator   Simulate  the  running  of  an  embedded  applica<on  on   a  single  processor  system,  using  preemp<ve  fixed-­‐ priority  scheduling    A2:  Response-­‐Time  Analysis   Determine  the  worst-­‐case  response  <mes  for  the   embedded  system  simulated  in  A1   Lecture  1/35  
  35. 35. Project:  How?   •  Soaware  tool   –  Input   •  Models  for  the  applica<on  and  hardware  architecture    (Lecture  2)   –  Worst-­‐case  execu<on  <me  of  each  process  (Lectures  3)   –  Timing  constraints  (deadlines)   •  Scheduling  policy   –  Fixed-­‐priority  preemp<ve  scheduling  (Lectures  4−6)   –  Another  scheduling  policy  (Lectures  7−12  and  bibliography)   –  Output   •  Is  the  applica<on  mee<ng  all  the  deadlines?   –  Performance  numbers:  e.g.,  worst-­‐case  response  <mes   Lecture  1/36  
  36. 36. Project:  Deliverables   •  Source  code  with  comments   –  Programming  language:  any  language  is  fine   •  Sugges<on:  Java,  using  the  Jung  graph  library  and  GraphML  for  capturing   the  models:  hup://jung.sourceforge.net/   •  See  the  examples  on  CampusNet/Project   •  Report   –  Document  the  design  and  implementa<on   –  Describe  the  results  obtained   –  See  the  documents  on  CampusNet/Project   •  “soaware_development_projects.pdf”  and     “Systema<c  Soaware  Test.pdf”   Lecture  1/37  
  37. 37. Project,  cont.   •  Milestones   –  Early  September:  Group  registra<on   –  Late  October:  Advanced  topic  selec<on     •  Decide  on  the  “advanced  technique”  to  be  implemented   –  Present  your  advanced  topic  and  get  feedback   –  End  of  October:  Project  report  draa   •  Upload  draa  to  CampusNet   –  It  should  contain  a  descrip<on  of  the  advanced  topic   –  Beginning  of  December:  Final  report  submission   •  Upload  final  report  to  CampusNet   Lecture  1/38  
  38. 38. Preliminary  lecture  plan   L1  Introduc<on  (Paul  Pop,  Sven  Karlsson)   L2  Performance  analysis  (Jan  Madsen)      Lab:  SimpleScalar   L3  Worst-­‐case  execu<on  <me  analysis  (Jan  Madsen)    Lab:  aIT   L4  Scheduling  for  embedded  systems  (Paul  Pop)    Lab:  Project   L5  Schedulability  analysis  (I)  (Paul  Pop)      Lab:  TIMES   L6  Schedulability  analysis  (II)  (Paul  Pop)      Lab:  TIMES   L7  Handling  shared  resources  (Paul  Pop)      Realis<c  exercise     L8  Handling  dependencies  (Paul  Pop)      Lab:  MAST   L9  Parallel  programming  (Sven  Karlsson)      Lab:  OpenMP   L10  Aspects  of  parallel  programming  (Sven  Karlsson)  Lab:  CELL  simul.   L11  Hybrid  scheduling  (Paul  Pop)        Exercise   L12  Mul<-­‐core  systems  (Paul  Pop/Jan  Madsen)    Lab:  MAST   L13  Outlook  
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