Professor Christopher DayPresentation to IX Congress of ESCUELAS CATOLICAS,Madrid, Spain, 24-26 November 2011
Five key questions for school head teachers and managers in this century 1. What do we know about how teacher quality affects pupil outcomes? 2. What do we know about what head teachers do to achieve success: transformational and pedagogical leadership? 3. How do successful leaders influence the improvement of pupil outcomes? 4. Is successful leadership a moral practice? 5. Leading the learning: what do successful head teachers do?
Changes which aredriving the work of schools and school systems
I would reckon I would work 15 or 16 hours aday. The list of duties is frightening, meetingswith staff, parents, builders, governors,psychologists, social workers and many others.Assemblies to run every day in two differentschools, budgets and targets to set andmanage, furniture to choose, caterers tohandle, staff to hire, fire and reviews. (Saturday Guardian, 16th June, 2007, Work, p.3 – cited in Thomson, 2009:66)
Leading concerns Managing concerns• Vision • Implementation• Strategic issues • Operational issues• Transformation • Transactions• Ends • Means• People • Systems• Doing the right thing • Doing things right
1. What do we know about how teacher quality affects pupil outcomes?
Eric Hanushek, an economist from Stanford, hasestimated that the students of a very badteacher learn, on average, half a year’s worth ofmaterial in one school year. The students in theclass of a very good teacher will learn a yearand a half’s worth of material. That differenceamounts to a year’s worth of learning in asingle year... (Gladwell, Dec 15th 2008. The New Yorker)
Having poor teachers can be devastating (…)the least effective teachers elicited averagestudents gains of roughly 14 percentile points ayear, whereas the most effective teacherselicited an average gain of 52 percentile pointsa year. (Hattie, 2009: 17)
• Promote active learning approaches• Promote choice in learning and learning approaches• Facilitate learning how to learn• Encourage pupils to explain their thinking• Support pupils in making connections and transferring their learning to new situations• Provide meaningful, relevant contexts for learning• Apply formative assessment processes helping pupils to self- monitor their learning and set new learning goals
2. What do we know aboutwhat head teachers do to achieve success: transformational and pedagogical leadership?
Most school variables, considered separately,have only small effects on student learning. Toobtain large effects, educators need to createsynergy across the relevant variables. Among allthe parents, teachers and policy makers whowork hard to improve education, educators inleadership positions are uniquely wellpositioned to ensure the necessary synergy… (Wallace Foundation Final Report, October, 2009:6)
Improving Conditions for Teaching & Learning Building Defining Vision, Redesigning Relationships and Enriching Values & Direction Inside the the Curriculum School Community Student Learning, Restructuring the Well Being & Organisation: Achievement: RedesigningEnhancing Roles &Teaching & High Expectations Responsibilities Learning Building Trust Enhancing Teacher Quality Building Relationships (including Outside the Succession School Community Planning) (Day et al, 2011)
Define the vision, values and directions Improve conditions for teaching and learning Redesign the organisation: aligning roles and responsibilities Enhance teaching and learning Redesign and enrich the curriculum Enhance teacher quality (including succession planning) Build relationships inside the school community Build relationships outside the school community
Shaping the future Leading learning and teaching Developing self and working with others Managing the organization Securing accountability Strengthening community
3. How do successful leaders influenceimprovements in pupils’ outcomes?
Capacity Motivation School Altered Working andleadership practices conditions commitment Working = weak influence conditions = moderate influence = strong influence
We need to ensure that moral purpose is at the fore of all educational debates with our parents, our students, our teachers, our partners, our policy makers and our wider community. We define moral purpose as a compelling drive to do right for and by students, serving them through professional behaviours that ‘raise the bar and narrow the gap’ and through so doing demonstrate an intent, to learn with and from each other as we live together in this world.
Schools as Impersonal Schools as Affective Schools as High Schools as Person-Organisations Communities Performance Learning Centred Learning Organisations CommunitiesThe Functional The Personal The Personal is Used The Functional is forMarginalises the Marginalises the for the Sake of the the Sake of/ExpressivePersonal Functional Functional of the PersonalMechanistic Affective Community Learning Organisation Learning CommunityOrganisationCommunity is Community has Community is a Useful Organisation Exists toUnimportant/Destruct No/Few Tool to Achieve Promote Communityive of Organisational Organisational OrganisationalPurposes Consequences or Purposes RequirementsEfficient Restorative Effective Morally and Instrumentally Successful Fielding, 2003: 6
5. Leading the learning:what do head teachers do?
Leadership Dimension Meaning of Dimension Effect Size Estimate1. Establishing Goals and Includes the setting, communicating and Average ES = 0.35Experiences monitoring of learning goals, standards and expectations, and the involvement of staff and others in the process so that there is clearly and consensus about goals2. Strategic Resourcing Involves aligning resource selection and Average ES = 0.34 allocation to priority teaching goals. Includes provision of appropriate expertise through staff recruitment.3. Planning, Coordinating Direct involvement in the support and evaluation Average ES – 0.42and Evaluating Teaching of teaching through regular classroom visits andand the Curriculum the provision of formative and summative feedback to teachers. Direct oversight of curriculum through school-wide coordination across classes and year levels and alignment to school goals.4. Promoting and Leadership that not only promotes, but directly Average ES-0.84Participating in Teacher participates with teachers in, formal or informalLearning and professional learning.Development5. Ensuring an Orderly Protecting time for teaching and learning by Average ES – 0.27and Supportive reducing external pressures and interruptionsEnvironment and establishing an orderly and supportive environment both inside and outside classrooms.
alignment of the activity with the school improvement plan (e.g. new forms of student assessment, teaching approaches, behaviour management) building in-house leadership (e.g. mentoring, peer observation, INSET led by colleagues) succession planning: preparing colleagues for leadership roles building capacity for learning and change sustaining commitment providing extended time
engaging external expertise ensuring teachers were engaged in the learning challenging problematic discourses, especially around low expectations for students providing opportunities to participate in a professional community that was focused on the teaching-learning relationship ensuring that opportunities were aligned with current policy and research involving school leaders who supported the learning by setting and monitoring targets and developing the leadership of others (Day et al, 2011)
The school systems that have been successfulin improving select an integrated set of actionfrom the menu of the interventions appropriateto their level of performance. These improvingsystems appear to be careful in maintaining theintegrity of the interventions; the evidencesuggests that during each performance stagethey select a critical mass of interventions fromthe appropriate menu and then implement themwith fidelity. (McKinsey & Co, 2010: 20)
1 Assess current 1 System Performance performance level • Measure student outcomes • Decide if current level isExcellent poor, fair, good, great or excellent Great 2 Select interventions Good • Decide what the system needs to do in order to raise student outcomes, Fair guided by its performance level and specific Poor challenges 3 Adapt to context 3 Context • Tailor leadership style and tactics (e.g. mandate or 2 Interventions persuade) to the history, culture, politics, structure etc. of the school system and nation
Implications for action• all schools must have a school-wide policy for teaching and learning. This should be based upon agreed system-wide standards and tailored to the particular school context. It should include clear guidelines for equity and differentiation and high expectations in the classroom and throughout the school• the head teacher must have ultimate responsibility for formulation, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of the effects of this policy. He/she must be supported in this internally and externally• under the leadership of the head teacher, all schools must work towards establishing cultures of collective responsibilities and accountabilities through developing professional learning communities
• head teachers and other leaders in schools must be supported in their responsibilities through system-wide programmes of training and support based upon the establishment of leadership standards• such programmes should focus upon the needs for leadership development at different career stages, for example teachers who are intending to become head teachers, newly appointed head teachers, experienced head teachers, middle leaders in schools• they should focus upon competency development, nurturing moral purpose and the qualities associated with this; commitment and leadership resilience; and the management and leadership of change• they should be established in partnerships with universities in order to provide a national system of accreditation
Gracias Christopher Daychristopher.firstname.lastname@example.org