Viral Marketing Andreas M. Kaplan (kaplan@escpeurope.eu) Executive MBA
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Environment: Communication must happen at the right time and place Environment is crucial in the rise of epidemics – small...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business hori...
Further reading Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing danc...
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Viral marketing - Definition - Success factors - Kaplan Andreas

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Good explanation of how to do a viral marketing campaign, classification of viral marketing campaigns

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  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) In sociology , a tipping point or angle of repose is the event of a previously rare phenomenon becoming rapidly and dramatically more common. The phrase was coined in its sociological use by Morton Grodzins , by analogy with the fact in physics that adding a small amount of weight to a balanced object can cause it to suddenly and completely topple. Grodzins studied integrating American neighborhoods in the early 1960s. He discovered that most of the white families remained in the neighborhood as long as the comparative number of black families remained very small. But, at a certain point, when "one too many" black families arrived, the remaining white families would move out en masse in a process known as white flight . He called that moment the "tipping point". The idea was expanded and built upon by Nobel Prize -winner Thomas Schelling in 1972. A similar idea underlies Mark Granovetter 's threshold model of collective behavior.
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) Context: Positive WoM – No because people went to Paris in order to see Paris Eiffeltower, did not talk about Disneyland Paris… Disney changed product and sells now weekends to go only to Disney, short term stays… Before rather vice versa – If you are in Paris go visit also Disneyland… Little things matter An epidemic can be tipped or reversed by tinkering with the smallest details of the immediate environment The “Broken Windows” theory
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference ( ISBN 0-316-31696-2 ) is a book by Malcolm Gladwell , first published by Little Brown in 2000 . Tipping points are "the levels at which the momentum for change becomes unstoppable." [1] Gladwell defines a tipping point as a sociological term: "the moment of critical mass, the threshold, the boiling point." [2] The book seeks to explain and describe the "mysterious" sociological changes that mark everyday life. As Gladwell states, "Ideas and products and messages and behaviors spread like viruses do." [3] The examples of such changes in his book include the rise in popularity and sales of Hush Puppies shoes in the mid-1990s and the precipitous drop in the New York City crime rate after 1990. [ edit ] The three rules of epidemics Gladwell describes the "three rules of epidemics" (or the three "agents of change") in the tipping points of epidemics. " The Law of the Few ", or, as Gladwell states, "The success of any kind of social epidemic is heavily dependent on the involvement of people with a particular and rare set of social gifts." [4] According to Gladwell, economists call this the "80/20 Principle, which is the idea that in any situation roughly 80 percent of the 'work' will be done by 20 percent of the participants." [5] These people are described in the following ways: Connectors are the people who "link us up with the world ... people with a special gift for bringing the world together." [6] They are "a handful of people with a truly extraordinary knack [... for] making friends and acquaintances". [7] He characterizes these individuals as having social networks of over one hundred people. To illustrate, Gladwell cites the following examples: the midnight ride of Paul Revere , Milgram's experiments in the small world problem , the " Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon " trivia game, Dallas businessman Roger Horchow , and Chicagoan Lois Weisberg , a person who understands the concept of the weak tie . Gladwell attributes the social success of Connectors to "their ability to span many different worlds [... as] a function of something intrinsic to their personality, some combination of curiosity, self-confidence, sociability, and energy." [8] Mavens are "information specialists", or "people we rely upon to connect us with new information." [9] They accumulate knowledge, especially about the marketplace , and know how to share it with others. Gladwell cites Mark Alpert as a prototypical Maven who is "almost pathologically helpful", further adding, "he can't help himself". [10] In this vein, Alpert himself concedes, "A Maven is someone who wants to solve other people's problems, generally by solving his own". [11] According to Gladwell, Mavens start "word-of-mouth epidemics" [12] due to their knowledge, social skills, and ability to communicate. As Gladwell states, "Mavens are really information brokers, sharing and trading what they know". [13] Salesmen are "persuaders", charismatic people with powerful negotiation skills. They tend to have an indefinable trait that goes beyond what they say, which makes others want to agree with them. Gladwell's examples include California businessman Tom Gau and news anchor Peter Jennings , and he cites several studies about the persuasive implications of non-verbal cues, including a headphone nod study (conducted by Gary Wells of the University of Alberta and Richard Petty of the University of Missouri) and William Condon's cultural microrhythms study. The Stickiness Factor , the specific content of a message that renders its impact memorable. Popular children's television programs such as Sesame Street and Blue's Clues pioneered the properties of the stickiness factor, thus enhancing the effective retention of the educational content in tandem with its entertainment value. The Power of Context : Human behavior is sensitive to and strongly influenced by its environment. As Gladwell says, "Epidemics are sensitive to the conditions and circumstances of the times and places in which they occur." [14] For example, " zero tolerance " efforts to combat minor crimes such as fare-beating and vandalism on the New York subway led to a decline in more violent crimes city-wide. Gladwell describes the bystander effect , and explains how Dunbar's number plays into the tipping point, using Rebecca Wells' novel Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood , evangelist John Wesley , and the high-tech firm Gore Associates.
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) Therefore, the real reason for its success is most likely the simple fact that it was more personal. As mentioned at the start of this article, a key part of advertising is the power of persuasion. A researcher's ability to tap into the potential consumer's psyche - without them being aware - can be the difference between success and failure. Proof of this is all around us, from how we respond to subconscious body language to the impact of campaigns. A prime example of this can be found in media moral panics, or warnings of an epidemic. The elements that make these things successful can be just as apparently trivial as Wunderman's gold box. The psychologist Howard Levanthal conducted an experiment in the 1960s to see if he could persuade a group of college seniors of Yale University to voluntarily receive a tetanus vaccination. As John Hallward explains in his book Gimmel!: the human nature of successful marketing, 'Levanthal wanted to study the effects of "high fear" versus "low fear" messages.' The students were separated into two groups and each was given a booklet explaining the dangers of tetanus , how vaccination was important, and that free inoculations were being offered at the university's health centre. The booklets were slightly different, with the 'high fear' one containing graphic images - including a child having a tetanus -induced seizure and victims with urinary catheters and nasal tubes - and highly-descriptive language to present tetanus in a very negative light, while the 'low fear' one lacked the pictures and descriptive language. Group one received the 'high fear' booklet while group two received the 'low fear' one. The aim of the study was simply to see whether the different presentations of the booklets impacted the students' attitudes differently i.e. whether the 'high fear' message scared the students into getting vaccinated more than the 'low fear' one. Predictably, the 'high fear' group one were much more convinced of the dangers tetanus presented and were accordingly more convinced of the necessity of vaccination. Despite this, however, just three per cent of the 'high fear' group were actually motivated enough to get an inoculation. This is the same figure as the 'low fear' group, showing no difference in the campaigns in terms of actual success, even though the 'high fear' group had higher awareness of the perils of tetanus than the 'low fear' group. So, then, for ninety-seven per cent of both groups the lessons (or fear) did not translate into action. For some reason, the contents of the experiment did not stick with the students. In the book The Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell, the author describes the 'Stickiness Factor' as a thoroughly imperative factor for any successful campaign, and were we ignorant to its existence it would be all too easy to conclude that Levanthal's booklet was not explaining tetanus properly. For instance, one might wonder whether attempting to scare the students was the appropriate course of action, whether there was a social stigma surrounding tetanus that persuaded the students to admit they were at risk, or maybe that the idea of an injection was scary. Whatever the reason may be, it would be a certain universal agreement that with only three per cent of each group receiving vaccinations there was a long way to go to increase the numbers. Yet the 'Stickiness Factor' does offer an explanation quite different. This offering is that the booklet and experiment had nothing wrong with it per se , but rather it was just lacking its own gold box; the small feature that would take it from somewhat effective to totally successful. Indeed, when Levanthal repeated the experiment he included a small change: an inclusion of a map of the campus which clearly showed the health building circled, with a list of vaccination times. Levanthal's own gold box increased the vaccination rate to a sizeable twenty-eight per cent. This small detail eradicated the possibility of students not getting vaccinated because they didn't know where and when they could get inoculated. Interestingly, the number of students who opted for a vaccination was equal in both the high and low fear groups, meaning that the differences in presentation of the booklets were irrelevant. The students, as seniors, were old enough to know the dangers of tetanus and that a vaccine existed; they did not need graphic pictures to encourage them to protect themselves. Moreover, they would have been at the university long enough to know where the health centre was located and most probably did not even use the included map. Therefore, the real reason for its success is most likely the simple fact that it was more personal. The fear and graphic imagery was fruitless, what the students really responded to was the knowledge of what time they could go to get a vaccination at a time suitable for them.  The addition of the map and timetable helped the students to plan their day, akin to a secretary handing the boss his daily schedule. Because we are bombarded daily with an onslaught of advertising messages we learn to filter them out, so the new presentation of the booklet made the students accept it as something to slot into their timetable. In this way, they were no longer feeling forced to visit the health centre, but made the choice to do so. Making them feel like they had the choice of whether or not to receive a vaccination made the booklet memorable, and that made it successful.
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) A select few enjoy a disproportionate amount of influence over the spread of social trends Word-of’-Mouth epidemics are the work of connectors Questions: INSEAD working paper – Viral marketing: A large-scale field experiment (Toubia, Stephen, Freud)
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) Context: Positive WoM – No because people went to Paris in order to see Paris Eiffeltower, did not talk about Disneyland Paris… Disney changed product and sells now weekends to go only to Disney, short term stays… Before rather vice versa – If you are in Paris go visit also Disneyland… Little things matter An epidemic can be tipped or reversed by tinkering with the smallest details of the immediate environment The “Broken Windows” theory
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) Context: Positive WoM – No because people went to Paris in order to see Paris Eiffeltower, did not talk about Disneyland Paris… Disney changed product and sells now weekends to go only to Disney, short term stays… Before rather vice versa – If you are in Paris go visit also Disneyland… Little things matter An epidemic can be tipped or reversed by tinkering with the smallest details of the immediate environment The “Broken Windows” theory
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) Airline JetBlue’s recent problems — passengers were left on planes on runways for up to 11 hours last week during snow storms — caused BusinessWeek to make a last-minute change to this week’s cover, according to Reuters. Robert MacMillan wrote, “BusinessWeek magazine’s March 5 edition, out on Thursday, features a cover story on its first-ever survey of companies that provide the best customer service. “ Until last week, JetBlue Airways Corp. was in fourth place, behind insurance provider USAA, Four Seasons Hotels and Cadillac. “ But BusinessWeek had to rethink its story after last week, when the airline canceled about 1,200 flights and left hundreds of passengers stranded on grounded aircraft because of an East Coast ice storm. “ Rather than dropping JetBlue from the package, BusinessWeek published the survey with the company’s name and related photos crossed out. “ On the cover, JetBlue’s name is struck out, with the department store company Nordstrom replacing it. Underneath the cover text presenting the top companies is a new line, added in a different typeface: ‘… And one extraordinary stumble.’” A few weeks ago on Valentine’s Day, a major winter ice storm caused jetBlue Airways to experience an unprecedented operational breakdown that caused over a thousand flight cancellations, hundreds of flight delays, and left customers stranded on runways for over 10 hours. As a Client Services VP and a jetBlue customer, I was shocked to hear about this huge customer service disaster, but was very glad I wasn’t flying with them that week! You probably heard about it too because it generated so much negative word of mouth that it spread like wildfire across the Internet and news media as angry customers rightfully vented their frustrations toward the company. It was clear that this PR nightmare would have a devastating impact on jetBlue’s previously high-flying reputation. Something had to be done fast to save it! What did jetBlue do in an attempt to turn highly negative word of mouth into positive word of mouth? 1. Listen to their customers, admit their mistakes and show sincere remorse Dave Neeleman, the CEO of jetBlue (not just their VP of Customer Service), responded quickly (not weeks later after a full investigation) with a written apology letter to jetBlue’s customers. But this was not your typical form letter written by the marketing department – this was a sincere, thoughtful apology that repeatedly expressed remorse and embarrassment while openly admitting the mistakes that were made by the company rather than trying to make excuses for them. Haven’t we all grown tired of hearing empty excuses from airline companies! 2. Commit to making significant changes to improve customer service Mr. Neeleman described specific corrective steps to address their operational issues and committed to implementing them. He then went a step further by publishing the jetBlue Customer Bill of Rights , a first in the airline industry, which describes how operational issues, like flight cancellations and delays, will be handled and what rights jetBlue customers have when they do. 3. Back up their promises with real results Knowing that “talk is cheap” and results are what matter, Mr. Neeleman made the very public decision to replace their Chief Operating Officer as a result of this incident. This is not at all surprising, but it does demonstrate a commitment to making significant changes quickly to resolve their operational issues and restore customer and investor confidence. How will these steps result in positive word of mouth? In jetBlue’s case, by listening to the concerns of their customers, accepting responsibility for their mistakes, and showing sincere remorse, the CEO demonstrated that the company cares about its’ customers. But to effectively turn this crisis into a positive word-of-mouth opportunity, jetBlue must remain dedicated to making significant changes to their operational and customer service strategies, such as the Customer Bill of Rights, that will deliver measurable improvements in service levels and customer satisfaction. They cannot afford to repeat the same mistakes that caused this incident or they will lose most of the positive word of mouth gained up to that point. There is no doubt that it will take a long time for jetBlue to restore their reputation, but if they succeed positive word of mouth will prevail and their customer community will be more loyal than ever before. Their stock price will go back up too. And I will be happy to fly with them again! The jetBlue situation illustrates the fundamental truth that customers want to know that a company cares about them, listens to their feedback, and takes action to address issues. At Bazaarvoice, my team helps our clients use customer ratings and reviews as a valuable source of product feedback, and take corrective action like redesigning a product to lower its return rate, thereby increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty. An excellent example of this is how PETCO shares 1 and 2 star rated reviews with their customer service department so they can proactively reach out to customers and determine how to address their issue. We also provide a tool called the Client Response tool to allow clients to directly respond to customer reviews online. This lets their customers know openly that issues have been clarified or resolved, showing that our clients listened and took action if needed. The positive word of mouth that ensues not only improves the company’s reputation, but also increases customer satisfaction and loyalty, which are the keys to driving company growth. How does your company turn negative word of mouth into positive?
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan)
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) Mentos/Diet Coke Another wacky scientist schtick, these guys got famous by making art out of the explosions caused by mixing diet coke and mentos. Mentos handled it beautifully, Coke did not.
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) Piers Morgan Strips for Burger King Fragrance Ad Read more: http://www.slashfood.com/2009/06/15/piers-morgan-strips-for-burger-king-fragrance-ad/2#ixzz0uIwRSFfi Whopper virgins - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lv1iNgioMgY
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan) 150 people is the maximum that any one person can have a genuinely social relationship with.  Malcolm defines this “social” relationship as “ the number of people that you would not feel embarressed about joining uninvited for a drink if you happened to bump into them in a bar.”
  • International Marketing (Andreas Kaplan)
  • Viral marketing - Definition - Success factors - Kaplan Andreas

    1. 1. Viral Marketing Andreas M. Kaplan (kaplan@escpeurope.eu) Executive MBA
    2. 2. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Viral marketing is defined “as electronic Word-of-Mouth in which some form of marketing message related to a company, brand or product is transmitted in an exponentially growing way, often through the use of social media applications” (Andreas M. Kaplan 2011) Viral marketing (electronic WoM - buzz) is a question of crossing the tipping point <ul><li>Viral marketing starts with a seed of individuals who spread a message by infecting their friends </li></ul><ul><li>Viral marketing relies on audience to distribute the objective </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction rate R: Expected number of new infectious people generated by each existing one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R = 1: Tipping point (moment from which onwards an event of a previously rare phenomenon becoming rapidly and dramatically more common) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R > 1: Success, epidemic (each person who gets the message will, on average, spread it to more than one additional person, leading to exponential growth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R < 1: Failure </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Relationship between Word-of-Mouth, Social Media and Viral marketing + = Word-of-Mouth Social Media Viral Marketing … the sharing of information about a product, promotion, etc., between a consumer and a friend, colleague, or other acquaintance (American Marketing Association) … a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content ( Kaplan and Haenlein 2010) … electronic Word-of-Mouth in which some form of marketing message related to a company, brand or product is transmitted in an exponentially growing way, often through the use of social media applications. (Kaplan and Haenlein 2011) Exponential growth
    4. 4. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) The three basic conditions for creating a viral marketing epidemic Market mavens (Receive) Social hubs (Distribute) Salespeople (Amplify) Message (Memorable, Interesting) Viral marketing epidemic Environment <ul><li>Size of initial seeding population < 150 (Dunbar’s number) </li></ul><ul><li>Luck to be at the right time at the right place </li></ul>
    5. 5. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Message has to be memorable and sufficiently interesting to kick off a virus Mavens, hubs, and salespeople spread the message, but for an epidemic to start, people need to remember the message and act on it: it must be interesting <ul><li>The power of the practical and personal </li></ul><ul><li>If you can hold their attention you can educate them </li></ul><ul><li>If they understand what they see, they will pay attention </li></ul>Tetanus Leaflet 2 Tetanus Leaflet 1 ??? Tetanus Leaflet 3
    6. 6. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Messengers need to belong to three groups: Market mavens, social hubs, and salespeople Market mavens are individuals who are continuously “on the pulse” of things (information specialists) ; they are usually among the first to get exposed to the message and who transmit it to their immediate social network. Social hubs are people with an exceptionally large number of social connections ; they often know hundreds of different people and have the ability to serve as connectors or bridges between different subcultures. Salespeople might be needed who receive the message from the market maven, amplify it by making it more relevant and persuasive, and then transmit it to the social hub for further distribution. Market mavens may not be particularly convincing in transmitting the information Do not forget about the environment and Dunbar’s number! Market mavens (Receive) Social hubs (Distribute) Salespeople (Amplify)
    7. 7. Environment: Communication must happen at the right time and place Environment is crucial in the rise of epidemics – small changes in the environment lead to huge results, and people are much more sensitive to environment than companies generally realize “ Sometimes, some plain good old luck is needed to glue everything together, as sometimes it’s just not the right time and/ or place to launch a viral marketing campaign ” Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3)
    8. 8. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Four groups of social media viral marketing campaigns Customers Company Initiator of viral marketing campaign Strokes of luck (e.g., the Diet Coke & Mentos Experiment) Triumphs (e.g., Burger King‘s Whopper Sacrifice campaign) Nightmares (e.g., the case of Jet Blue) Homemade issues (e.g., Charlie‘s and Jeremy‘s Sony PSP blog)
    9. 9. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Nightmares: Minimize negative viral marketing campaigns - The example of jetBlue
    10. 10. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Homemade issues: Creating bad viral marketing - The example of WalMart’s flog
    11. 11. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Strokes of luck: Jumping on positive viral marketing - The example of Mentos / Diet Coke + = ?
    12. 12. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Triumphs: Planning good viral marketing campaigns - The example of Burger King
    13. 13. Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) Issues with viral marketing communication Five pieces of advice when spreading a virus Successful viral marketing requires a little bit of luck and gut feeling Viral marketing is only as good as the remaining marketing mix Viral marketing needs to be backed-up by traditional forms of communication Excessive planning and intervention kills any viral marketing campaign Highly provocative and edgy messages are a double-edged sword
    14. 14. Further reading Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media–Viral Marketing dance, Business horizons, 54(3) <ul><li>De Pelsmacker P., Geuens M., Van den Burgh J. (2009) Marketing communications : A European perspective, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) The early bird catches the news: Nine things you should know about micro-blogging, Business Horizons, 54(2), 105-113. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2011) Two hearts in 3/4 time: How to waltz the Social Media – Viral Marketing dance, Business Horizons, 54(3). </li></ul><ul><li>Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2010) Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, 53(1), p. 59-68. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaplan A.M., Haenlein M. (2009) The fairyland of Second Life: About virtual social worlds and how to use them, Business Horizons, 52(6), 563-572. </li></ul><ul><li>Lendrevie J., De Baynast A. (2008) Publicitor (7e édition), Dunod. </li></ul><ul><li>Malaval P., Decaudin J.-M. (2009) Pentacom (2e édition), Pearson. </li></ul><ul><li>Vakratas Demetrios and Ambler Tim (1999) How advertising works: What do we really know?, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 63, pp.26-43. </li></ul>
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