Business Horizons (2010) 53, 59—68                                                                                        ...
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Kaplan & Haenlein - Users of the world, unite - the challenges and opportunities of social media


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The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very limited understanding of what the term ‘‘Social Media’’ exactly means; this article intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media.

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  1. 1. Business Horizons (2010) 53, 59—68 of the world, unite! The challenges andopportunities of Social MediaAndreas M. Kaplan *, Michael Haenlein ´ESCP Europe, 79 Avenue de la Republique, F-75011 Paris, France KEYWORDS Abstract The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business Social Media; executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in User Generated which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Content; Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very Web 2.0; limited understanding of what the term ‘‘Social Media’’ exactly means; this article Social networking sites; intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Virtual worlds Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media. # 2009 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. All rights reserved.1. The specter of Social Media Museum’s collection of 300,000 objects seem tiny in comparison.As of January 2009, the online social networking According to Forrester Research, 75% of Internetapplication Facebook registered more than 175 surfers used ‘‘Social Media’’ in the second quarter ofmillion active users. To put that number in perspec- 2008 by joining social networks, reading blogs, ortive, this is only slightly less than the population of contributing reviews to shopping sites; this repre-Brazil (190 million) and over twice the population of sents a significant rise from 56% in 2007. The growthGermany (80 million)! At the same time, every is not limited to teenagers, either; members ofminute, 10 hours of content were uploaded to the Generation X, now 35—44 years old, increasinglyvideo sharing platform YouTube. And, the image populate the ranks of joiners, spectators, and crit-hosting site Flickr provided access to over 3 billion ics. It is therefore reasonable to say that Socialphotographs, making the world-famous Louvre Media represent a revolutionary new trend that should be of interest to companies operating in * Corresponding author. online space–—or any space, for that matter. E-mail addresses: (A.M. Kaplan), Yet, not overly many firms seem to act (M. Haenlein). ably in a world where consumers can speak so freely0007-6813/$ — see front matter # 2009 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003
  2. 2. 60 A.M. Kaplan, M. Haenleinwith each other and businesses have increasingly content communities, social networking sites, virtualless control over the information available about game worlds, and virtual social worlds–—and presentthem in cyberspace. Today, if an Internet user types ways in which companies can efficiently make use ofthe name of any leading brand into the Google these applications. Based on this analysis, we thensearch, what comes up among the top five results derive a set of 10 recommendations companiestypically includes not only the corporate webpage, should follow when thinking about developing theirbut also the corresponding entry in the online own Social Media strategy, be it with respect to theseencyclopedia Wikipedia. Here, for example, cus- aforementioned types or other applications whichtomers can read that the 2007 model of Hasbro’s might emerge in the future.Easy-Bake Oven may lead to serious burns on chil-dren’s hands and fingers due to a poorly-designedoven door, and that the Firestone Tire and Rubber 2. What is Social Media–—And what is itCompany has been accused of using child labor in its not?Liberian rubber factory. Historically, companieswere able to control the information available about As highlighted, the idea behind Social Media is farthem through strategically placed press announce- from groundbreaking. Nevertheless, there seems toments and good public relations managers. Today, be confusion among managers and academic re-however, firms have been increasingly relegated to searchers alike as to what exactly should be includ-the sidelines as mere observers, having neither the ed under this term, and how Social Media differ fromknowledge nor the chance–—or, sometimes, even the the seemingly-interchangeable related concepts ofright–—to alter publicly posted comments provided Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. It thereforeby their customers. Wikipedia, for example, ex- makes sense to take a step back and provide insightpressly forbids the participation of firms in its online regarding where Social Media come from and whatcommunity. they include. Such an evolution may not be surprising. After all, By 1979, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis from Dukethe Internet started out as nothing more than a giant University had created the Usenet, a worldwideBulletin Board System (BBS) that allowed users to discussion system that allowed Internet users toexchange software, data, messages, and news with post public messages. Yet, the era of Social Mediaeach other. The late 1990s saw a popularity surge in as we understand it today probably started about 20homepages, whereby the Average Joe could share years earlier, when Bruce and Susan Abelsoninformation about his private life; today’s equivalent founded ‘‘Open Diary,’’ an early social networkingwould be the weblog, or blog. The era of corporate site that brought together online diary writers intoweb pages and e-commerce started relatively re- one community. The term ‘‘weblog’’ was first usedcently with the launch of Amazon and eBay in at the same time, and truncated as ‘‘blog’’ a year1995, and got a right ticking-off only 6 years later later when one blogger jokingly transformed thewhen the dot-com bubble burst in 2001. The current noun ‘‘weblog’’ into the sentence ‘‘we blog.’’ Thetrend toward Social Media can therefore be seen as an growing availability of high-speed Internet accessevolution back to the Internet’s roots, since it re- further added to the popularity of the concept,transforms the World Wide Web to what it was leading to the creation of social networking sitesinitially created for: a platform to facilitate informa- such as MySpace (in 2003) and Facebook (in 2004).tion exchange between users. But does that mean This, in turn, coined the term ‘‘Social Media,’’ andthat Social Media is just old wine in new bottles? contributed to the prominence it has today. TheProbably not! As we will delve into further, the most recent addition to this glamorous groupingtechnical advances that have been made over the has been so-called ‘‘virtual worlds’’: computer-past 20 years now enable a form of virtual content based simulated environments inhabited by three-sharing that is fundamentally different from, and dimensional avatars. Perhaps the best known virtualmore powerful than, the BBS of the late 1970s. world is that of Linden Lab’s Second Life (Kaplan & This article discusses the challenges and opportu- Haenlein, 2009c).nities that emerge from this evolution for firms, and Although the list of the aforementioned applica-provides structure to better understand the rapidly tions may give some idea about what is meant byevolving field of Social Media. We begin by providing a Social Media, a formal definition of the term firstdefinition and classification of Social Media by looking requires drawing a line to two related concepts thatat their historical roots, technical specificities, and are frequently named in conjunction with it: Webdifferences from other entities such as Web 2.0 and 2.0 and User Generated Content. Web 2.0 is a termUser Generated Content. We then focus on six that was first used in 2004 to describe a new way intypes of Social Media–—collaborative projects, blogs, which software developers and end-users started to
  3. 3. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media 61utilize the World Wide Web; that is, as a platform willingness to engage online) make UGC nowadayswhereby content and applications are no longer fundamentally different from what was observed increated and published by individuals, but instead the early 1980s. Based on these clarifications of Webare continuously modified by all users in a partici- 2.0 and UGC, it is now straightforward to give a morepatory and collaborative fashion. While applications detailed definition of what we mean by Social Me-such as personal web pages, Encyclopedia Britannica dia. In our view–—and as used herein–—Social Media isOnline, and the idea of content publishing belong to a group of Internet-based applications that build onthe era of Web 1.0, they are replaced by blogs, wikis, the ideological and technological foundations ofand collaborative projects in Web 2.0. Although Web Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange2.0 does not refer to any specific technical update of of User Generated Content.the World Wide Web, there is a set of basic function- Within this general definition, there are variousalities that are necessary for its functioning. Among types of Social Media that need to be distinguishedthem are Adobe Flash (a popular method for adding further. However, although most people would prob-animation, interactivity, and audio/video streams to ably agree that Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, andweb pages), RSS (Really Simple Syndication, a family Second Life are all part of this large group, there is noof web feed formats used to publish frequently systematic way in which different Social Media ap-updated content, such as blog entries or news head- plications can be categorized. Also, new sites appearlines, in a standardized format), and AJAX (Asynchro- in cyberspace every day, so it is important that anynous Java Script, a technique to retrieve data from classification scheme takes into account applicationsweb servers asynchronously, allowing the update of which may be forthcoming. To create such a classifi-web content without interfering with the display and cation scheme, and to do so in a systematic manner,behavior of the whole page). For the purpose of our we rely on a set of theories in the field of mediaarticle, we consider Web 2.0 as the platform for the research (social presence, media richness) and socialevolution of Social Media. processes (self-presentation, self-disclosure), the When Web 2.0 represents the ideological and two key elements of Social Media. Regarding thetechnological foundation, User Generated Content media-related component of Social Media, social(UGC) can be seen as the sum of all ways in which presence theory (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976)people make use of Social Media. The term, which states that media differ in the degree of ‘‘socialachieved broad popularity in 2005, is usually applied presence’’–—defined as the acoustic, visual, and phys-to describe the various forms of media content that ical contact that can be achieved–—they allow toare publicly available and created by end-users. emerge between two communication partners.According to the Organisation for Economic Co- Social presence is influenced by the intimacy (inter-operation and Development (OECD, 2007), UGC personal vs. mediated) and immediacy (asynchronousneeds to fulfill three basic requirements in order vs. synchronous) of the medium, and can be expectedto be considered as such: first, it needs to be to be lower for mediated (e.g., telephone conversa-published either on a publicly accessible website tion) than interpersonal (e.g., face-to-face discus-or on a social networking site accessible to a select- sion) and for asynchronous (e.g., e-mail) thaned group of people; second, it needs to show a synchronous (e.g., live chat) communications. Thecertain amount of creative effort; and finally, it higher the social presence, the larger the socialneeds to have been created outside of professional influence that the communication partners have onroutines and practices. The first condition excludes each other’s behavior. Closely related to the idea ofcontent exchanged in e-mails or instant messages; social presence is the concept of media richness.the second, mere replications of already existing Media richness theory (Daft & Lengel, 1986) is basedcontent (e.g., posting a copy of an existing newspa- on the assumption that the goal of any communica-per article on a personal blog without any modifi- tion is the resolution of ambiguity and the reductioncations or commenting); and the third, all content of uncertainty. It states that media differ in thethat has been created with a commercial market degree of richness they possess–—that is, the amountcontext in mind. While UGC has already been of information they allow to be transmitted in a givenavailable prior to Web 2.0, as discussed above, time interval–—and that therefore some media arethe combination of technological drivers (e.g., more effective than others in resolving ambiguity andincreased broadband availability and hardware uncertainty. Applied to the context of Social Media,capacity), economic drivers (e.g., increased avail- we assume that a first classification can be madeability of tools for the creation of UGC), and based on the richness of the medium and the degreesocial drivers (e.g., rise of a generation of of social presence it allows.‘‘digital natives’’ and ‘‘screenagers’’: younger age With respect to the social dimension of Socialgroups with substantial technical knowledge and Media, the concept of self-presentation states that
  4. 4. 62 A.M. Kaplan, M. Haenleinin any type of social interaction people have the In a similar spirit, social networking sites allowdesire to control the impressions other people form for more self-disclosure than content communities.of them (Goffman, 1959). On the one hand, this is Finally, virtual social worlds require a higher level ofdone with the objective of influencing others to gain self-disclosure than virtual game worlds, as therewards (e.g., make a positive impression on your latter are ruled by strict guidelines that force usersfuture in-laws); on the other hand, it is driven by a to behave in a certain way (e.g., as warriors in anwish to create an image that is consistent with one’s imaginary fantasy land). We will now provide morepersonal identity (e.g., wearing a fashionable outfit detail on each of these six different types of Socialin order to be perceived as young and trendy). The Media, and discuss the challenges and opportunitieskey reason why people decide to create a personal they offer companies.webpage is, for example, the wish to present them-selves in cyberspace (Schau & Gilly, 2003). Usually,such a presentation is done through self-disclosure; 3. The challenges and opportunities ofthat is, the conscious or unconscious revelation of Social Mediapersonal information (e.g., thoughts, feelings,likes, dislikes) that is consistent with the image 3.1. Collaborative projectsone would like to give. Self-disclosure is a criticalstep in the development of close relationships (e.g., Collaborative projects enable the joint and simul-during dating) but can also occur between complete taneous creation of content by many end-users andstrangers; for example, when speaking about per- are, in this sense, probably the most democraticsonal problems with the person seated next to you manifestation of UGC. Within collaborative proj-on an airplane. Applied to the context of Social ects, one differentiates between wikis–—that is,Media, we assume that a second classification can websites which allow users to add, remove, andbe made based on the degree of self-disclosure it change text-based content–—and social bookmark-requires and the type of self-presentation it allows. ing applications–—which enable the group-based col- Combining both dimensions leads to a classifica- lection and rating of Internet links or media content.tion of Social Media which we have visualized in Exemplary applications within this category includeTable 1. With respect to social presence and media the online encyclopedia Wikipedia, a wiki currentlyrichness, applications such as collaborative projects available in more than 230 different languages, and(e.g., Wikipedia) and blogs score lowest, as they are the social bookmarking web service Delicious, whichoften text-based and hence only allow for a rela- allows the storage and sharing of web bookmarks.tively simple exchange. On the next level are con- The main idea underlying collaborative projects istent communities (e.g., YouTube) and social that the joint effort of many actors leads to a betternetworking sites (e.g., Facebook) which, in addition outcome than any actor could achieve individually;to text-based communication, enable the sharing of this is similar to the efficient-market hypothesis inpictures, videos, and other forms of media. On the behavioral finance (Fama, 1970). From a corporatehighest level are virtual game and social worlds perspective, firms must be aware that collaborative(e.g., World of Warcraft, Second Life), which try projects are trending toward becoming the mainto replicate all dimensions of face-to-face interac- source of information for many consumers. As such,tions in a virtual environment. Regarding self-pre- although not everything written on Wikipedia maysentation and self-disclosure, blogs usually score actually be true, it is believed to be true by morehigher than collaborative projects, as the latter and more Internet users. This may be particularlytend to be focused on specific content domains. crucial as regards corporate crises. For example, Table 1. Classification of Social Media by social presence/media richness and self-presentation/self-disclosure
  5. 5. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media 63when online book retailer Amazon started to test 3.3. Content communitiesthe idea of dynamic pricing, comments declaringsuch a practice as unfair showed up instantaneously The main objective of content communities is theunder the Wikipedia entry on ‘‘time-based pricing.’’ sharing of media content between users. ContentYet, collaborative projects also provide some unique communities exist for a wide range of differentopportunities for firms. Finnish handset manufac- media types, including text (e.g., BookCrossing,turer Nokia, for instance, uses internal wikis to via which 750,000+ people from over 130update employees on project status and to trade countries share books), photos (e.g., Flickr), videosideas, which are used by about 20% of its 68,000 (e.g., YouTube), and PowerPoint presentationsstaff members. Likewise, American computer soft- (e.g., Slideshare). Users on content communitiesware company Adobe Systems maintains a list of are not required to create a personal profile page;bookmarks to company-related websites and con- if they do, these pages usually only contain basicversations on Delicious. information, such as the date they joined the com- munity and the number of videos shared. From a3.2. Blogs corporate viewpoint, content communities carry the risk of being used as platforms for the sharingBlogs, which represent the earliest form of Social of copyright-protected materials. While major con-Media, are special types of websites that usually tent communities have rules in place to ban anddisplay date-stamped entries in reverse chronologi- remove such illegal content, it is difficult to avoidcal order (OECD, 2007). They are the Social Media popular videos–—such as recent episodes of comedyequivalent of personal web pages and can come in a dramas–—being uploaded to YouTube only hours aftermultitude of different variations, from personal they have been aired on television. On the positivediaries describing the author’s life to summaries side, the high popularity of content communitiesof all relevant information in one specific content makes them a very attractive contact channel forarea. Blogs are usually managed by one person only, many firms; this is easy to believe when one con-but provide the possibility of interaction with others siders that YouTube serves over 100 million videosthrough the addition of comments. Due to their per day. In 2007, Procter & Gamble organized ahistorical roots, text-based blogs are still by far contest for its over-the-counter drug Pepto-Bismol,the most common. Nevertheless, blogs have also whereby users were encouraged to upload to You-begun to take different media formats. For exam- Tube 1-minute videos of themselves singing aboutple, San Francisco-based allows users to the ailments Pepto-Bismol counteracts, includingcreate personalized television channels via which heartburn and nausea. In a similar spirit, kitchenthey can broadcast images from their webcam in appliances manufacturer Blendtec became popularreal time to other users. Many companies are al- for its bevy of inexpensive ‘‘Will it blend?’’ videos,ready using blogs to update employees, customers, which have been watched by millions of people.and shareholders on developments they consider to Other firms, such as Cisco and Google, rely onbe important. Jonathan Schwartz, CEO of Sun Micro- content communities to share recruiting videos,systems, maintains a personal blog to improve the as well as keynote speeches and press announce-transparency of his company; so does automotive ments, with their employees and investors.giant General Motors. Yet, as is the case with col-laborative projects, blogs do not come without 3.4. Social networking sitesrisks. These generally present in two fashions. First,customers who–—for one reason or another–—turn Social networking sites are applications that enableout to be dissatisfied with or disappointed by the users to connect by creating personal informationcompany’s offerings may decide to engage in virtual profiles, inviting friends and colleagues to havecomplaints in the form of protest websites or blogs access to those profiles, and sending e-mails and(Ward & Ostrom, 2006), which results in the avail- instant messages between each other. These per-ability of potentially damaging information in online sonal profiles can include any type of information,space. Second, once firms encourage employees to including photos, video, audio files, and blogs. Ac-be active on blogs, they may need to live with the cording to Wikipedia, the largest social networkingconsequences of staff members writing negatively sites are U.S.-based Facebook (initially founded byabout the firm. Microsoft’s former ‘‘technical evan- Mark Zuckerberg to stay in touch with his fellowgelist’’ Robert Scoble, for example, had a tendency students from Harvard University) and MySpaceto fiercely criticize the products of his employer–— (with 1,500 employees and more than 250 millionbefore he decided to leave the Redmond-based registered users). Social networking sites are of suchsoftware company in 2006. high popularity, specifically among younger Internet
  6. 6. 64 A.M. Kaplan, M. Haenleinusers, that the term ‘‘Facebook addict’’ has been hunter–—starts to more and more closely resembleincluded in the Urban Dictionary, a collaborative their real life personality. Besides their use for in-project focused on developing a slang dictionary game advertising (similar in idea to productfor the English language. Several companies are placement in blockbuster movies), the high popu-already using social networking sites to support larity of virtual game worlds can also be leveragedthe creation of brand communities (Muniz & in more traditional communication campaigns.O’Guinn, 2001) or for marketing research in the Japanese automotive giant Toyota, for example,context of netnography (Kozinets, 2002). To pro- used pictures and mechanics from the World ofmote the movie ‘‘Fred Claus,’’ a 2007 Christmas Warcraft application in its latest Tundra commercialcomedy film, Warner Brothers created a Facebook to reach the 2.5 million players in the U.S. alone.profile via which visitors could watch trailers, down-load graphics, and play games. Likewise, the Adidas 3.6. Virtual social worldscustom soccer community on MySpace allows visi-tors to associate themselves with one of two brands The second group of virtual worlds, often referred toof elite soccer cleats produced by the German sports as virtual social worlds, allows inhabitants to chooseapparel manufacturer, and to access product re- their behavior more freely and essentially live aviews and information on professional soccer play- virtual life similar to their real life. As in virtual gameers who play using ‘‘their’’ shoes. Some firms even go worlds, virtual social world users appear in the formone step further and use Facebook as a distribution of avatars and interact in a three-dimensional virtualchannel. Consider U.S.-based florist 1-800-Flower- environment; however, in this realm, there are, which offers a widget on Facebook called rules restricting the range of possible interactions,‘‘Gimme Love’’ whereby users can send ‘‘virtual except for basic physical laws such as gravity. Thisbouquets’’ to friends or, with a click of the mouse, allows for an unlimited range of self presentationbe directly transferred to the company’s website to strategies, and it has been shown that with increasingsend real flowers. usage intensity and consumption experience, users of virtual social worlds–—or ‘‘residents,’’ as they prefer3.5. Virtual game worlds to be called–—show behavior that more and more closely mirrors the one observed in real life settingsVirtual worlds are platforms that replicate a three- (Haenlein & Kaplan, 2009; Kaplan & Haenlein, 2009a,dimensional environment in which users can appear 2009b). Arguably, the most prominent example ofin the form of personalized avatars and interact with virtual social worlds is the Second Life application,each other as they would in real life. In this sense, founded and managed by the San Francisco-basedvirtual worlds are probably the ultimate manifesta- company Linden Research Inc. Besides doing every-tion of Social Media, as they provide the highest thing that is possible in real life (e.g., speaking tolevel of social presence and media richness of all other avatars, taking a walk, enjoying the virtualapplications discussed thus far. Virtual worlds come sunshine), Second Life also allows users to createin two forms. The first, virtual game worlds, require content (e.g., to design virtual clothing or furnituretheir users to behave according to strict rules in the items) and to sell this content to others in exchangecontext of a massively multiplayer online role-play- for Linden Dollars, a virtual currency traded againsting game (MMORPG). These applications have gained the U.S. Dollar on the Second Life Exchange.popularity in recent years, as standard game con- Some residents are so successful in this task thatsoles–—such as Microsoft’s X-Box and Sony’s Play- the virtual money earned that way complementsStation–—now allow simultaneous play among a their real life income. Virtual social worlds offer amultitude of users around the globe. Examples of multitude of opportunities for companies in market-virtual game worlds include the cod-medieval ing (advertising/communication, virtual product‘‘World of Warcraft,’’ which counts around 8.5 mil- sales/v-Commerce, marketing research), and humanlion subscribers who explore the virtual planet of resource and internal process management; for aAzeroth in the form of humans, dwarves, orcs, or more detailed discussion, see Kaplan and Haenleinnight elves, to fight monsters or to search for trea- (2009c).sure; and Sony’s EverQuest, in which 16 differentraces of players (e.g., wizards, clerics) travel thefantasy world of Norrath. The rules of such games 4. Ten pieces of advice for companiesusually limit the degree of self-presentation and deciding to use Social Mediaself-disclosure possible, although some users spendso much time with these applications that their Social Media is a very active and fast-moving do-character–—be it a warrior, a wizard, or a dragon main. What may be up-to-date today could have
  7. 7. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media 65disappeared from the virtual landscape tomorrow. the wheel if somebody has already done it, espe-It is therefore crucial for firms to have a set of cially given that Social Media show positive networkguidelines that can be applied to any form of Social externalities in the sense that they get more attrac-Media, whether they are part of the aforementioned tive to join the more participants they already have.list or not. Next, we provide such a set of recom- But in some cases, the right application might justmendations. Given that Social Media have both a not be available yet. Japan’s Fujifilm, for example,social- and a media-component, we split our advice recently launched its own social network to build ainto two sections: five points about using media and community of photo enthusiasts. In a similar spirit,five points about being social. U.S.-based department store firm Sears collaborat- ed with MTV music television to create a social4.1. Five points about using media network around back-to-school shopping. Yet, what- ever the ultimate decision–—to buy, make, or both–—4.1.1. Choose carefully it is vital that there is an understanding of the basicThere are dozens–—if not hundreds–—of Social Media idea behind Social Media. It’s all about participa-applications, and new ones are appearing on the tion, sharing, and collaboration, rather thanhorizon every day. If you still need time to run your straightforward advertising and selling.core business, you simply cannot participate in themall, especially since ‘‘being active’’ is one key re- 4.1.3. Ensure activity alignmentquirement of success (see below). Choosing the Sometimes you may decide to rely on various Socialright medium for any given purpose depends on Media, or a set of different applications within thethe target group to be reached and the message same group, in order to have the largest possibleto be communicated. On the one hand, each Social reach. In this case, it is crucial to ensure that yourMedia application usually attracts a certain group of Social Media activities are all aligned with eachpeople and firms should be active wherever their other. A prime example in this context is computercustomers are present. For example, if your main manufacturer Dell and its ‘‘Digital Nomads’’ cam-target audience is book lovers, a content community paign. Dell uses a combination of social networkingvia which users share self-written novels or poems is sites (Facebook, LinkedIn), blogs, and content com-likely better suited to your purpose than a virtual munities (YouTube videos) to show how its range ofworld which centers on fighting dragons and finding laptop computers enable individuals to become atreasures. On the other hand, there may be situa- nomadic mobile workforce. In a similar spirit, Chrys-tions whereby certain features are necessary to ler’s Jeep brand connects with its customers byensure effective communication, and these features combining photos shared on the content communityare only offered by one specific application. For Flickr, with groups on social networking sites such asexample, when the U.S. Army undertook an initia- MySpace and Facebook. Using different contacttive in 2007 to reach the Hispanic community, channels can be a worthwhile and profitable strate-it decided to utilize the social networking site gy. But remember: one goal of communication is theUnivision rather than the more popular Facebook. resolution of ambiguity and reduction of uncertain-This choice was driven in part by the fact that ty, and nothing is more confusing than contradictingUnivision–—a Spanish-language television network messages across different the U.S. and Puerto Rico–—is the social networkingapplication with the largest Latin American audi- 4.1.4. Media plan integrationence, due to an extensive range of telenovelas and What is true for different types of Social Media alsoMexican programs produced by Grupo Televisa. holds for the relationship between Social Media andHowever, another reason Univision was chosen is traditional media: Integration is key! While you maybecause it offers a moderating service which checks consider these two arenas to be completely differ-comments from users for appropriateness before ent, in customers’ eyes they are both part of theposting them on the site. In contrast, other appli- same: your corporate image. Consider the actions ofcations, including Facebook, allow users to post soft drink giant Coca-Cola. In June 2006, a pair ofmessages without supervision. performance artists shot a video featuring a series of geysers they created by dropping Mentos brand4.1.2. Pick the application, or make your own mints into 2-liter bottles of Coke; the clip becameOnce you know which game you’re playing, the next a major hit on YouTube. Realizing customers’ enthu-decision involves whether to make or buy. In some siasm for this performance, Coca-Cola fostered thecases, it might just be best to join an existing Social sensation by airing the video on late-night televisionMedia application and benefit from its popularity and ensuring broad digital distribution across differ-and user base. After all, there is no need to reinvent ent content communities. Besides the advantage of
  8. 8. 66 A.M. Kaplan, M. Haenleinhigh impact/low cost media coverage, the campaign else’s than it is about engaging others in open andalso resulted in a measurable sales uplift. active conversation. Participants on Social Media applications have the desire to actively engage4.1.5. Access for all and to become both producers and consumers ofAlthough this might sound elementary, once the firm information, so-called ‘‘prosumers’’ (Toffler, 1980).has decided to utilize Social Media applications, it is Be considerate of this need and act accordingly.worth checking that all employees may actuallyaccess them. Commonly, firms block Facebook, 4.2.2. Be interestingYouTube, and Second Life on corporate PCs for fear Let’s face it: nobody is interested in speaking to athat staff might spend too much time networking boring person. As such, if you would like your cus-instead of working. While this is certainly a consid- tomers to engage with you, you need to give them aeration, it cannot imply that employees must have reason for doing so–—one which extends beyondspecial permission to be able to access the company saying you are the best airline in town, or manufac-blog. At the same time, there is a need to curtail the ture the most robust kitchen blender. The first steppossibility of the entire organization spending all its is to listen to your customers. Find out what theytime producing funny videos and uploading them to would like to hear; what they would like to talkYouTube. One possible approach involves defining about; what they might find interesting, enjoyable,groups of employees whose primary objective is the and valuable. Then, develop and post content thatmanagement of corporate Social Media; all other fits those expectations. Coffee powerhouse Star-staff members are treated as occasional partici- bucks, for example, created the ‘‘My Starbuckspants. Under this scenario, the first group is given Idea’’ platform, via which customers can submitadministrator rights–—which allows the opening of new ideas for the company. These ideas are subse-new discussion threads and deletion of inappropri- quently voted on by other users, with the winnersate posts–—while the second group is not. Also, at being considered for implementation by Starbuckssome point, it will be necessary to develop certain top management. As stated by Oscar Wilde in hisguidelines for Social Media usage; as done, for novel, The Picture of Dorian Grey: The one sin forinstance, by ‘‘Big Blue’’ IBM, which has a corporate which there is no forgiveness is ennui.charta for appropriate behavior within Second Life.For example, it is important to highlight that every 4.2.3. Be humbleemployee needs to identify himself or herself as Never forget that Social Media existed before yousuch when posting a comment on the corporate decided to engage in them; indeed, in many cases,blog. Otherwise, end-consumers could get the even before you knew about their existence. In thisimpression that anonymous accounts are used to light, do not expect that you know better how to useenable employees to post fake messages and over- them than others who have spent countless hours only-positive feedback, which could severely damage Facebook or Second Life, for example. Before youthe credibility of your whole Social Media campaign. enter any application, first take some time to dis- cover it and to learn about its history and basic4.2. Five points about being social rules. Only once you have gained the necessary understanding, start to participate. When aero-4.2.1. Be active space and defense firm Boeing decided to launchIf you want to develop a relationship with someone, its first corporate blog, the site was designed suchit is always advisable to take the lead and to be that users were not allowed to comment on whatactive. Social Media are all about sharing and inter- they saw. Yet, interaction and feedback are criticalaction, so ensure that your content is always fresh elements of all Social Media, blogs included. Hence,and that you engage in discussions with your cus- many readers perceived the Boeing blog as a fake,tomers. Consider the aforementioned blog kept by and simply corporate advertising in disguise. If thereSun Microsystems CEO Jonathan Schwartz. Via this is one certain path to failure, it involves thinkingoutlet, the figurehead discusses–—on an ongoing that Social Media is just about posting existing TVbasis–—his corporate strategy, new product develop- spots on YouTube or putting prefabricated pressment projects, and company values, and replies announcements on corporate blogs.directly to correspondence received. In consideringyour Social Media efforts, be aware that firm in- 4.2.4. Be unprofessionalvolvement must extend beyond responding to neg- Have you ever noticed that in Hollywood blockbust-ative comments and defending product offerings. er films, it’s not usually the handsome guy who endsSocial Media is less about explaining why your baking up with the girl, but rather the clumsy, charmingmix, detergent, or shampoo is better than anyone one? The same goes for Social Media, and firms
  9. 9. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media 67would be wise to avoid overly-professional content deleted from their Facebook network. The cam-offerings. There’s no need to spend $100,000 to paign was adopted by over 20,000 users, resultingdesign the perfect MySpace presence, or hire a in the sacrificing of 233,906 friends in exchange forprofessional writer to manage your corporate blog. free burgers. Only one month later, in January 2009,Instead, try to blend in with other users and don’t be Facebook shut down Whopper Sacrifice, citing pri-afraid to make mistakes! Bill Marriott, Chairman and vacy concerns. Who would have thought that theCEO of the Marriott International Hotel chain, uses price of a friendship is less than $2 a dozen?his blog, for example, to post regular updates and A new trend is on the horizon, though; Watch outstories from his travels to Marriott properties around for Mobile Social Media! Mobile Web 2.0 is very similarthe world–—very much in the same way as would a to Web 2.0, as discussed earlier. In contrast to itswork colleague when describing her last vacation. predecessor Mobile Web 1.0, which relied on propri-Social Media users are people like you, who under- etary protocols (e.g., WAP) and use-based pricing,stand that things do not always go smoothly. And, if Mobile Web 2.0 is characterized by open standardsyou’re nice to them, they may even give you free (e.g., a transition to the TCP/IP protocol, the tech-advice on how to do it better the next time. nical foundation of the World Wide Web) and flat-rate systems. Even the manual entry of web addresses4.2.5. Be honest using small and difficult-to-handle keyboards isLast but not least, be honest and respect the rules of becoming history. Soon, all items around you willthe game. Some Social Media–—such as Wikipedia–— be equipped with Radio Frequency Identificationmay not allow companies to be involved, so do not (RFID) tags that will be able to automatically connecttry to force your way in. Consider Anheuser-Busch, to your mobile phone and send URLs to them, similarowner of SeaWorld marine mammal parks. Anheus- to today’s text messages. This technical evolution iser-Busch tried to ‘‘rectify’’ misleading information laying the groundwork for moving Social Media ap-on Wikipedia through the use of PR firms, and failed plications away from desktop PCs and laptops, to-miserably at it. Never expect that other participants ward mobile devices. Why log into Facebook if youmay not find out who stands behind some anonymous can easily update all your friends using Twitter? Whyuser account; after all, you’re dealing with some of wait until you return home to watch the new YouTubethe most technologically sophisticated people on video if you can do so conveniently on your iPhone?the planet. According to Jupiter Research, the market for Mobile Web 2.0 evolutions will grow from a mere $5.5 billion today to an impressive $22.4 billion by5. Nothing to lose but their chains 2013. Mobile Social Media applications are expected to be the main driver of this evolution, soon ac-Today, everything is about Social Media. Some in- counting for over 50% of the market. In one way, thisdustry gurus claim that if you do not participate in surge toward Mobile Social Media can even be seenFacebook, YouTube, and Second Life, you are not as another step toward Internet democratizationpart of cyberspace anymore. Social Media allow and closing the digital divide between developedfirms to engage in timely and direct end-consumer and emerging countries. In India, for example, mo-contact at relatively low cost and higher levels of bile phones outnumber PCs by 10 to 1. In Thailand,efficiency than can be achieved with more tradi- only 13% of the population owns a computer, versustional communication tools. This makes Social Media 82% who have access to a mobile phone. It is there-not only relevant for large multinational firms, but fore not surprising that the Pew Research Center–—aalso for small and medium sized companies, and Washington-based think tank–—estimates that byeven nonprofit and governmental agencies. Using 2020, a mobile device will be the primary InternetSocial Media is not an easy task and may require new connection tool for most people in the world. Makingways of thinking, but the potential gains are far from Social Media applications mobile is likely to tap abeing negligible. Dell, for example, states that its currently unexploited base of new users. Even if per-use of Twitter–—a micro blogging application that capita spending in these countries may still be low,allows sending out short, text-based posts of 140 vast population numbers make them relevant forcharacters or less–—has generated $1 million in in- virtually any firm.cremental revenue due to sales alerts. Some firms Obviously, Mobile Social Media does not comemay even be too successful for their own good, as without a price. Some would argue that while itillustrated by Burger King’s ‘‘Whopper Sacrifice’’ enables the detailed following of friends half-waycampaign: In December 2008, the fast food giant across the world, it can foster a society wheredeveloped a Facebook application which gave users we don’t know the names of our own next-doora free Whopper sandwich for every 10 friends they neighbors. Be that as it may, and independent of
  10. 10. 68 A.M. Kaplan, M. Haenleinwhether or not one approves of such an evolution, it Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2009b). Consumers, companies,seems undisputable that (Mobile) Social Media will and virtual social worlds: A qualitative analysis of Second Life. Advances in Consumer Research, 36(1), 873— the locomotive via which the World Wide Web Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2009c). The fairyland of Secondevolves. Businesses, take note–—and don’t miss this Life: About virtual social worlds and how to use them. Businesstrain! Horizons, 52(6), 563—572. Kozinets, R. V. (2002). The field behind the screen: Using netno- graphy for marketing research in online communities. JournalReferences of Marketing Research, 39(1), 61—72. Muniz, A. M., & O’Guinn, T. C. (2001). Brand community. JournalDaft, R. L., & Lengel, R. H. (1986). Organizational information of Consumer Research, 27(4), 412—432. requirements, media richness, and structural design. Manage- OECD. (2007). Participative web and user-created content: Web ment Science, 32(5), 554—571. 2.0, wikis, and social networking. Paris: Organisation forFama, E. F. (1970). Efficient capital markets: A review of theory Economic Co-operation and Development. and empirical work. Journal of Finance, 25(2), 383—417. Schau, H. J., & Gilly, M. C. (2003). We are what we post? Self-Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. presentation in personal web space. Journal of Consumer New York: Doubleday Anchor Books. Research, 30(3), 385—404.Haenlein, M., & Kaplan, A. M. (2009). Flagship brand stores within Short, J., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology virtual worlds: The impact of virtual store exposure on real life of telecommunications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. brand attitudes and purchase intent. Recherche et Applica- Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave: The classic study of tomorrow. tions en Marketing 24(3). New York: Bantam Books.Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2009a). Consumer use and business Ward, J. C., & Ostrom, A. L. (2006). Complaining to the masses: potential of virtual worlds: The case of Second Life. The The role of protest framing in customer-created complaint International Journal on Media Management 11(3). web sites. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(2), 220—230.