Comenius book "5 Wonders of My Country". Comenius Project "Friends around Europe"


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This is a result from our Comenius Project "Friends around Europe". In this book you can see the five wonders of each country (Catalonia /Spain, Estonia, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland & Wales). They have been chosen by our families and pupils

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Comenius book "5 Wonders of My Country". Comenius Project "Friends around Europe"

  1. 1. Five Wondersof My CountryEstonia * France * Hungary * Italy *Poland * Spain (Catalonia) *UK (Wales) *
  2. 2. Dear Readers,This book is the final product of the Comenius partner-ship project ”Friends around Europe” which is supportedby ”EU’s Lifelong Learning Programme”We hope our ”5 Wonders” book gives you a short overviewof what every country values in their area and also awake thecuriosity from each educational community (pupils, familiesand teachers) to search and learn more about them in order tounderstand the range of European cultures.We do appreciate all our teachers efforts who collected andorganised the wonder pages of their countries.CataloniaPilar SertMaria Jesús GarciaSilvia RepulloBlanca MaldonadoHungaryÉva Nagyné CsetericsJózsefné HorváthKatalin Erőssné SchneiderMárta Kauferné VigEstoniaMaarika RuuseAnu JõgiaasAila OrrinSirje JugasteAile KilgiRasmus ToomperePolandMałgorzata PachałkoKatarzina WatorFrancePascale GuillienAnnie LemièreNathalie BoffyDarie SéguraMarie-Hélène VuilleminWalesGail RobertsEmma MerrettRachel DareItalyGiuliana Di PasqualeFrancesca CiarcellutiMariavittoria FiniziiConcetta FerrucciGiorgia BlasiottiLorena FagnaniAngela ProiettiWehopethatyouwillenjoyreadingthisuniquebook,asmuchas we enjoyed creating it.
  3. 3. CATALONIAArea: 31.895 km2Population: 7.565.603Capital: BarcelonaOfficial language: Catalan / SpanishLa Diada: 11thSeptemberFLAGCOAT OF ARMS
  5. 5. CATALUNYAWONDER 1. LA SEU VELLA DE LLEIDAThe Seu Vella old cathedral, alsoknown as “Lleida Castle”, is defi-nitely the city’s most emblem-atic monument.This unique cathedral sits on topof the hill overlooking the cityand affords magnificent viewsof Lleida and the surroundingcountryside of Segrià county.Construction of the cathedralbegan in 1203, but the bell tow-er was not completed until 1431.The first master builder was Perede Coma.According to historians, thecathedral was built on top ofa former Muslim mosque. Thetemple was the first building tobe completed and was conse-crated for worship in 1278 anddedicated to the Virgin Mary. Ithas a Latin cross floor plan witha nave and two aisles. The out-standing features of the interiorinclude the stonework in thenaves, which show the influ-ence of the artisans from Tus-cany, Toulouse and Provencewho worked on the cathedralthroughout the 13th century,as well as the remains of Gothicmural paintings.After the consecration of thetemple, work continued into the14th century, when the cloisterwas completed and construc-tion work began on the belltower and lasted until 1431.Xènia, 3 y Nil, 5 y
  6. 6. The bell towerThe oldest bells are from the15th century: They are called Sil-vestra, which rings on the hours,and Mònica, which rings on thequarter hours. The other five areelectric bells from the mid-20thcentury that have an essentiallyliturgical function. They are cal-led Bàrbara, Puríssima, Crist, Ma-rieta and Meuca.The cloisterThis 14th-century rectangularcloisterisaunique,opencloister,located on the west side of thecathedral. It has a gallery withfive ogival arches and eleganttracery windows that providebreathtaking views of the cityand the countryside beyond.The castle of la SudaLast Caliph of Cordoba refuge,venue of the Aragon’s Crownorigin or witness of the loyaltyoath of the catalan and arago-nese nobles to Infante James(later James I the Conqueror).These are some of the histori-cal facts that the Suda Castle orKing Castle has lived within thewalls during its existence.Gabriela, 5y Marc, 5y
  7. 7. CATALUNYA2. EL TEMPLE DE LA SAGRADAFAMÍLIA (ANTONI GAUDÍ)EXPIATORY CHURCHThe expiatory church of La Sa-grada Família is a work on agrand scale which was begunon 19 March 1882 from a projectby the diocesan architect Fran-cisco de Paula del Villar (1828-1901). At the end of 1883 Gaudíwas commissioned to carry onthe works, a task which he didnot abandon until his death in1926. Since then different archi-tects have continued the workafter his original idea.The building is in the centre ofBarcelona, and over the yearsit has become one of the mostuniversal signs of identity of thecity and the country. It is visitedby millions of people every yearand many more study its archi-tectural and religious content.It has always been an expiatorychurch, which means that sincethe outset, 125 years ago now, ithas been built from donations.Gaudí himself said: ”The expia-tory church of La Sagrada Famí-lia is made by the people and ismirroredinthem.Itisaworkthatis in the hands of God and thewill of the people.” The buildingis still going on and could be fin-ished some time in the first thirdof the 21st century.Marina, 7y Martí, 7yMaria, 7y
  8. 8. THE CHURCH TODAYWhenworkbeganonthechurch,in 1882, the architects, the brick-layers and the labourers workedin a very traditional way. WhenGaudí took over the directionhe was aware that the workswere complex and difficult andtried to take advantage of allthe modern techniques availab-le. And so, among other resour-ces, he had railway tracks laidwith small wagons to transportthe materials, brought in cranesto lift the weights and had theworkshops located on the siteto make the work easier.Today, 130 years later, the buil-ding of the church followsGaudí’s original idea and, just ashe himself did, the best techni-ques are applied to make thebuilding work safer, more com-fortable and faster. It is sometime now since the old wagonsgave way to powerful cranes,the old manual tools have beenreplaced by precise electric ma-chines and the materials havebeen improved to ensure excel-lent quality in the building pro-cess and the final result.The present Church TechnicalOffice and the managementare charged with studying thecomplexity of Gaudí’s originalproject, doing the calculationsand the building plans and di-recting the works as a whole.
  9. 9. CATALUNYA3. ELS CASTELLERSDESCRIPTIONCastells are human towers, a tradition thatstretches back two hundred years within Catalo-nia. They began in Camp de Tarragona and laterspread to Penedès before reaching the height oftheir popularity all over Catalonia in the 1980s. Acasteller is a person who takes part in the tradi-tion. He or she is a member of a castellers orga-nization which can include hundreds of peopleworking together to perfect these human tow-ers with the use of nothing but human strengthand ingenuity. The towers vary in complexity andcan reach heights of ten people standing foot-to-shoulder. Since 16 November, 2010, UNESCO hasincluded castells on its list of Masterpieces of theOral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.The castellers’ motto, taken from a Josep AnselmClavé poem from Els Xiquets de Valls, is: ”Força,Equilibri, Valor i Seny” (Strength, Equilibrium, Va-lor, and Wisdom).· Força : In the past, castellers were massiveand strong.· Equilibri : A skill necessary while one personstands on another.· Valor : A characteristic of all castellers, especi-ally those on the tower· Seny : A skill necessary from planning to exe-cution.The traditional costume of castellers is a shirt withthe emblem of the organization, white pants, asash, and a scarf. Children (aixecador i enxaneta)wear a helmet for safety. It is recommended thatcastellers don’t wear a watch, glasses, or other ac-cessories that could be dangerous for oneself orothers.Joel (6 years old)
  10. 10. A castell has discrete parts that have differentfunctions and modes of construction. These in-clude:· Pinya: the base of the castell. This is whereyou find most of the organization lending sup-port to the castell.· Tronc: the visible part of the castell. forma-da pels pisos compresos des dels baixos finsal pis immediatament anterior al de dosos. Itincludes the level standing on the pinya andsupporting the tower.· Pom de dalt: the next three levels of the cas-tell. These levels always have the same con-struction.· Folre: situated on top of the pinya. It has thesame form of the pinya and, like the pinya,gives support to the castell.· Manilles: the castellers situated above thefolre at the third level that help hold the fourthlevel.· Puntals: the castellers above the manilles.La música de les gralles indica l’evolució del cas-tell, tant a l’hora de carregar com de descarregar.The accompanying music indicates the construc-tion and deconstruction of the castell. The mu-sical group includes grallers (pipe-players) anddrummers. By playing music, castellers in the pin-ya are able to know how the castell is progress-ing. The piece they play is called “toc de Castells”and includes various distinct parts. They begin toplay depending on the castell being formed. Enles diades castelleres cada colla acostuma a aix-ecar tres castells i un pilar de comiat. On castell-eres holidays, each organization constructs threecastells and a “pilar de comiat.” The order of con-struction depends on the day. There are timeswhere the order is determined by a draw (Diadade San Fèlix, Concurs de castells); there are othertimes where the local organization chooses itsown order and the rest of the organizations haveto draw; and there are times where the organiza-tions choose the order themselves.Aina , 6yBlau, 6yMar , 6y
  11. 11. CATALUNYA4. CARAGOLS, CALÇOTS I PA AMB“TOMATA”EL CARAGOL A CATALUNYAThere are many typical ways to prepare snails(caragols) in Catalonia: as a stew ingredient, withrice, or with other meats. The most common wayto prepare is a la llauna. Caragols a la llauna is asimple dish in which snails are cooked in an overon a pan. This is typically accompanied by a spicysauce or an aioli. This dish is especially represen-tative of Lleida, where the Aplec de caragols, aculinary snail festival, began in 1980.In Catalonia, caragolades are very popular. Theyarepartiesheldinafield,orsometimessomeone´shouse, where people eat a wide variety of cara-gols and other foods, like at calçotades or boti-farrades.ELS CALÇOTSThe calçotada is the most traditional way to eatspring onions (calçots). Catalans strongly asso-ciatethemwithfestivalsandfriendlygatherings.InValls, where calçotades originated, people throwthem at the end of January. Since 1982, they havebecome the most popular and world-renownedversion of this very Catalan festival. People usual-ly throw calçotades when winter ends – the endof march or the beginning of April, depending onthe weather.A typical calçotada starts with a serving of bet-ween ten and twenty calçots per person accom-panied by a traditional sauce, normally romesco.The calçots are served on tiles to keep them hot.After finishing the calçots, people usually eat ot-her grilled vegetables and grilled meats alongwith red wine or cava.Because calçots are served straight off the grilland are dipped in sauce, you have to wear a bibto keep your clothes from getting dirty!
  12. 12. EL PA AMB TOMATAPa amb tomàquet is a characteristically Catalandish. Some consider it to be the most emblema-tic dish of Catalan cuisine. It consists of a slice ofbread rubbed with half a ripe tomato and seaso-ned with olive oil and salt. Traditionally, peasantsate it with a sardine on top as their meal. It is so-metimes accompanied by pork sausage (botifar-ra); fuet; ham; cheeses; anchovies or another pick-led fish; or roasted vegetables.Pa amb tomàquet has gained noteriety in Spainas the most representative Catalan dish.
  13. 13. CATALUNYA5. PARC NACIONALD’AIGÜESTORTES I ESTANY DE SANTMAURICIIs one of the fourteen SpanishNational Parks, the second inthe Pyrenees and the only onein Catalonia. In the park, thereare over 300 glacial lakes.This 14.119 hectare park hasan amazing amount of biolo-gical diversity, encompassingmeadows, fields, temperate fo-rests, coniferous forests, alpinevalleys, and rock formations.
  14. 14. Mariona, 8yThe name “aigüestortes” comes from the large, meandering streams that form the Sant Nicolau river,a tributary of the Tor river and, ultimately, the Noguera Ribagorçana river.In the park there is a wide variety of alpine fauna:rainbow trout, Pyrenean newts, blue ducks, he-rons, otters, and white quail, to name a few.The most famous landscape in the park is at“l’Estany de Sant Maurici,” a lake at the foot of thetwin summits “Els Enamorats.”Fans of hiking and climbing can go on multi-daytreks along trails such as the Gran Recorreguttranspirinenc, GR-11, that crosses the park in itsentirety.Nerea, 8y Laia, 8y David, 8y
  15. 15. ESTONIAArea: 45 228 km2Population: 1 340 415 Capital: TallinnOfficial language: EstonianIndependence Day: 24rdFebruaryFLAGCOAT OF ARMS
  16. 16. FIVE WONDERS of ESTONIA1. The Song and Dance Festival and National Costumes2. The Variety of Estonian Nature3. Wonderful Winter4. Rye-field with Cornflowers and Black bread5. E – Estonia1 23 45
  17. 17. ESTONIA1. The Song and DanceFestival and NationalCostumesHave you ever heard 18 000 voices singingat once?*Song Festival tradition in Estonia is 140years old. Festival is an enormous open-air choir concert held at the Tallinn SongFestival Grounds with the participation ofhundreds of choirs and thousands of sing-ers.*In November 2003, UNESCO declared Es-tonia’s Song and Dance Festival traditiona masterpiece of the Oral and IntangibleHeritage of Humanity.*Around 8 000 dancers take part of theDance Festival.Melliste Primary School`s choirNot every choir in Estonia is able to performat the Song Festival. Due to the popular-ity of the festival, there is stiff competitionamong the choirs.Melliste Primary School`s choir is small butthey were lucky to participate in the Festi-val several times.Kaidi, 9y Viktoria, 12yElise, 9y
  18. 18. Folk costume denoted nationalbelonging and social status,and both everyday and festiveclothing constituted a compli-cated system of signs, referringto the wearer’s social status, ageand marital status.Clothes were generally dividedinto three parts: festive clothes,visiting clothes for errands andworking clothes.Clothes were basically made ofhomespun woollen or linen fab-ric: shirts and married women’shead-wear were mostly madefrom linen, while various outergarments, gloves, stockings andsocks, were made from wool.Most of the clothes remainedundyed: linen garments werebleached white, woollen outergarments were mainly sheep-brown or black. The wool formaking skirts was dyed withherbal dyes. The bedstraw rootwas particularly widely used toproduce red colouring.Liis-Aleksandra, 9y Liisbet, 9ySille, 9yMikk, 9y
  19. 19. Estonia might easily be calledthe kingdom of bogs since ap-proximately one quarter of thecountry is covered with marsh-es. Virgin forests, surroundedby mostly untouched wetlands,serve as home to many endan-gered species. With practicallyevery step a lovely orchid is vis-ible. With a little luck, an eaglemay be seen overhead. Vitamin– rich red cranberries – some-times known as northern lem-ons – grow on the soft peatmoss beside plentiful marshtrails. Near the edge of the bog,cowberries, bilberries and blue-berries are waiting to be tasted.Bogs are a place of peace andquiet, a pleasant escape fromthe clamour of everyday life.ESTONIA2. Variety of EstonianNatureFor nature lovers, the North Eu-ropean country of Estonia is areal dreamland. This is a placewhere the land meets the sea,bogs are interspersed with vir-gin forests, fields and fish-richrivers and lakes. In the wood-landswhichcoverhalfofEstonia,wolves and bears are found inthe midst of other rarities. Onefact that most vividly speaks forEstonia`s nature is that a quarterof Estonia`s territory is designat-ed as a nature reserve.
  20. 20. ThesymbolofnorthernEstoniaandperhapsevenof all Estonian nature is the high limestone coastalbank with its beautiful waterfalls. The highest fallsin the bank are located in Valaste. From the vie-wing platform here, scenic strata layers are alsovisible. The slate bank isa n open window to theearth`s 4,5 billion year old geological history.Estonia is more densely covered in meteoritecraters than anywhere else in the world. One ofthem, formed about 7 500 years ago, is the Kaalifield of meteorite craters in Saaremaa.Estonia is bordered by the Baltic Sea on the northand west. This expanse bulges with large andsmall islands which number as many as 1 500. Thebiggest islands are Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Muhu andVormsi.Although Estonia is one of the smallest countriesin Europe, abundant bird habitats and nestinggrounds are to be found in forests, marshes, wet-lands, lakes, rivers, meadows, fields, rocky beach-es, islets and costal pastures. Shallow coastal wa-ter attracts hundreds of thousands of waterbirdswho nest in the Arctic.In total, more than 370 bird species have been re-gistered in Estonia. Two-hundred of them are nes-ting birds and the reminder migratory , winteringor coincideny visitors. The Estonian national birdis the barn swallow.There are 4 clear seasons in Estonia. The tempera-tur range: in winter may sink to – 30C (February)and in summer may rise to +30C (July)
  21. 21. We, the Estonians, are lucky – our winter is justcold and snowy enough for offering many inter-esting possibilities for relaxation and holidays.In winter one can be engaged in many wintersports. Estonian winters are as if made for vigor-ous activities. One can take part in and enjoy dif-ferent cultural events during the winter season,go to Christmas markets in various towns andbe fascinated by the magic of the wintry naturewhen making a winter trip.There are no big mountains in Estonia, but thewinter still offers for sports lovers:.* Skiing and snowboarding in hilly South Esto-nia.* Cross-country ski tracks – Did you know that Es-tonia had won six Olympic medals in cross-coun-try skiing?* Lakes, rivers and even the sea covered with iceare ideal for skating or it is popular to go ice fish-ing when the weather is nice in winter.* Sledging and snow tubing – children love it!ESTONIA3. Wonderful winterSnow is such a wonderful material but people don`t notice it! Winter is the most peaceful season. Infact, Estonians should be very happy because some countries haven`t winter at all! (Mikk, 9y)
  22. 22. Due to the fact that Estonia is a country with verystrong skiing traditions, it is quite common in Es-tonia that children at a very young age know howto use skis, sledges and even snowboards. Thereare not very many countries in the world wherethe children’s skiing is so customary.The deepest snow ever in Estonia was measuredat Pagari in the Virumaa region in March 1924 .The thickness of the snow cover was 97 cm then.Snowstorms are very typical of Estonian winters.Most of us still remember the 2010 Decembersnowstorm when due to the deep snow everydaylife and traffic was in chaos in several places in Es-tonia and people were trapped in cars.A monument to cold weather , the Frost Column,has been erected on the outskirts of Jõgeva. Itshows Estonia’s all-time cold record and the coldrecord of this century. This little town is known asthe coldest place in Estonia, the Estonian capitalof cold.On Jan. 17, 1940 the weather station of Jõgevameasured 43,5 degrees below zero in our coldestplace which marks the absolute cold record in Es-tonia.On a very cold winter day school is cancelled andthe Estonian children are allowed to stay at homeand have a cold wave holiday. It has happenedthat the children have stayed at home even for aweek because of a very cold weather.Kaidi, 9yMärt, 9y
  23. 23. Cornfloweristhenationalflowerof Estonia . It was officially elect-ed to be the national flower inthe year 1968. The fact that itwas very familiar to the peopleand loved by them spoke great-ly in its favour. Throughout thetimes the residents of all the re-gions of Estonia have known itwell. The reason for that is be-cause it grows mainly in wintercrop fields. It may seem strangebut our national flower is in facta weed. As the weed growingin winter rye and winter wheatit delights children but is a nui-sance to farmers. The childrenuse it together with daisies toweave beautiful wreaths andthey bring home its lovely blos-soms. Heads of the household,however, can’t get rid of it, nomatter what they do.*I like cornflowers because theyare beautiful and smell nicely. Ialso like black bread because it issweet and tasty. I like them both.Cornflower` field is so beautifullike a blue sky and like the coloursoftheEstonianflag.Blackbreadisso tasty like candy and it colour islike the second colour of our flag.Kätlin, 10yESTONIA4. Rye-field withcornflowers and blackbreadKristjan, 12yBlack bread has been one of the most important food for Estonians from the old times up to now.
  24. 24. For the Estonians black (rye)bread has been one of the mostimportant foodstuffs throug-hout the centuries. Apart fromporridge all other food is con-sidered secondary to bread andnot for nothing called „somet-hing to go with bread“. Ryebread was a common food,people ate it a lot at every meal.Country women usually bakedthe bread once a week, on Sa-turdays, and depending on thesize of the family, six to ten lo-aves were baked at a time. Eachloaf weighed from two kilo-grams to five kilograms.Marko, 9yRye bread is a type of breadmade with various percentagesof flour from rye grain. It can belight or dark in colour, depen-ding on the type of flour usedand the addition of coloringagents, and is typically denserthan bread made from wheatflour. It is higher in fiber thanwhite bread and is often darkerin color and stronger in flavor.Rye bread has notable healthbenefits when compared towhite bread.Food from the bread: breadsoup, bread stew, bread withcranberry sauce, ground breadwith whipped cream, breadand fruit pudding, rye breadfoam, ground bread-curd des-sert, layered bread, bread kvass,bread chips.Honour the bread because bread is older than we are*If you drop your bread, you have to pick it upand give it a kiss.*The first end cut from the loaf must be givento young girls, then they will have nice roundbreasts.*It was believed that if you put bread on the tableupside down famine would come to the house-hold. You should not wipe the floor when breadis in the oven, or you shall wipe out good breadluck.*You shold not eat your bread with gloves on, orthe bread will lose its power.*You can survive without meat, but not withoutbread.
  25. 25. ’e-Estonia’ is one of the most ad-vanced e-societies in the world– an incredible success storythat grew out of a partnershipbetween a forward-thinkinggovernment, a pro-active ICTsector and a switched-on, tech-savvy population.ESTONIA5. E-EstoniaLife in the Digital Societye-Estonia means voting in elections from thecomfort of your own living room. Filing your in-come tax return in just five minutes. Signing alegally-binding contract over the Internet, fromanywhere in the world, via your mobile phone.These are just a few of the services that Estonianstake advantage of on a regular basis.Government. Transparency and efficiency at alllevels of government have been boosted by ad-vanced e-services.Business. Business has been made easy by fastinteraction, lower bureaucracy and access to criti-cal information.Citizens. Integrated e-solutions have created aneffective, convenient interface between citizensand government agencies.Healthcare. Doctors, patients, hospitals and thegovernment are all benefiting from the conven-ience, access and savings that e-services havebrought.
  26. 26. Pranglimine: first web-based mental aritmeticgame (, 10yEducation. E-school has revolutionized the waystudents, teachers and parents interact, creatinga generation that is both better-educated andtech-savvy.Public Safety. Estonia is safer thanks to systemsthat give law enforcement officers the tools theyneed to do their jobs more efficiently and effec-tively.Cyber Security. A unique partnership betweenpublic and private IT sectors keeps Estonia onestep ahead of cyber security threats.Utilities. Innovations in the utilities and intelli-gent homes industries save energy and result ina cleaner environment.Welcome to e-school!Ragne, 10y
  27. 27. FRANCEArea: 552 000 km2Population: 62 800 000Capital: ParisOfficial language: FrenchFrench national day: 14thJulyFLAGNATIONAL EMBLEM
  28. 28. FIVE WONDERS of FRANCE1. The Mont – Blanc2. The Eiffel Tower3. The Palace of Versailles4. The Lascaux cave5. The Millau viaduct1 23 45
  29. 29. The massif of Mont Blanc is a mountain massif of the French-Italian Alps, where draws up itselfthe Mont Blanc, the highest summit of Western Europe which peaks in 4 810,45 m.He(It) is crossed by the tunnel of Mont Blanc, between Chamonix in the valley of Arve and Courmayeurin the valley of Aoste in Italy.FRANCE1. Le Mont BlancThe Mont Blanc rises in the heart of the massif ofMont Blanc and establishes (constitutes) the peakof the chain (channel) of the Alps.It is also the highest summit of Western Europe,what is worth to him (her) the nickname of: Roofof Europe. The summit represented for severalcenturies an objective for any sorts of adventur-ers, since its First ascent in 1786.Numerous frequented routes allow today to climbit with a serious preparation. It is an object of fas-cination in numerous cultural works.
  30. 30. The site of the massif of Mont Blanc is the object of a project of classification (ranking) on the list ofUNESCO world heritage as «unique (only) exceptional site to the world and as the cultural Mecca, theplace of birth and the symbol of the climbing.
  31. 31. FRANCE2. THE EIFFEL TOWERThe Eiffel Tower, nicknamed «theiron lady» is a iron lattice towerlocated on the Champ de Mars inParis. Built in 1889 as the entrancearch to the 1889 World’s Fair, it hasbecome both a global cultural iconof France and one of the most rec-ognizable structures in the world.First drawing of the Eiffel Tower byMaurice Koechlin, an engineer whoworked for the Eiffel Company.1886: The project has been se-lected for the «1889 ExpositionUniverselle», a World’s Fair whichwould celebrate the centennial ofthe French Revolution.
  32. 32. Built duration : 2 yearsCost: 8 000 000 francsWeight 10 100 tonnes.Hight 324meters125-metre-square baseHight of the 1st floor 57m,the 2nd floor 115m,the 3rd floor 277mThe tallest man-made structurein the world until 193018,038 pieces of puddle ironand two and a half million ri-vets.Number of visitors:236 445 812 guests(on 31st December 2007)1900:it has been usedfor radio transmissionThe original liftswere completely scrappedin 1982 after 97 years of serviceand were replacedMaintenance of the towerincludes applying 50 to 60 ton-nes of paint every seven yearsto protect it from rustThe tower has two restaurants ;one is The Jules Vernea gastronomical restaurantGustave EiffelEngineer -Architect-Builder and businessmanBorn December 15, 1832 in DijonDied December 27, 1923 in ParisHe created his company and did many iron buildingsuch as the railway station at Budapest. He becomepassionated by the iron tower project picturedby two partners.He helped Bartholdi to realise the Statue of Liberty
  33. 33. FRANCE3. Palace of VersaillesChâteau de Versailles The Palace seen from theMarble courtyard Apollo fountainThe “Château de Versailles”,which has been on UNESCO’sWorld Heritage , is one of themost beautiful achievementsof 18th-century French art. Thesite began as Louis XIII’s hunt-ing lodge before his son LouisXIV transformed and expandedit, moving the court and gov-ernment of France from Paristo Versailles in 1682. Each of thethree French kings who livedthere until the French Revolu-tion added improvements tomake it more beautiful.Apollo fountainDrawn by the 5 years oldLouis XIV The Sun King (1638-1715
  34. 34. ThePetitTrianonSheistheonlyqueentohave imposed her personal taste on Ver-sailles. Louis XVI’s wife loved this placewhere she could return to the pleasuresof simple, rural pursuits, away from thepomp of VersaillesThe famous “hall of mirrors “where the king put on his most ostenta-tious display of royal power in order to impress visitors.Louis XVI Last monarch of Versail-les (1754-1793) guillotined during theFrench revolution.The queen Marie-AntoinetteThe orangerieKing’s chamber
  35. 35. Lascaux is a cave in southwestern France famousfor its Paleolithic paintings,it’s located near thevillage of Montignac, in the department of Dor-dogne. It contains some of the best-known Up-per Paleolithic art.FRANCE4. The cave of LascauxThe cave was discovered on September 12, 1940by four teenagers,The cave complex was openedto the public in 1948. The cave was closed to the public in 1963 in orderto preserve the art,because 1,200 visitors per dayhad visibly damaged the paintings.Lascaux II, a replica of two of the cave halls — theGreat Hall of the Bulls and the Painted Gallery —was opened in 1983, 200 meters from the originaland can be visited.The cave contains nearly 2,000 figures, animalswhich were living at this time, human figures,hunting success and abstract signs.
  36. 36. How paleolithic cave painterswere painting?Most of the major images havebeen painted onto the walls us-ing mineral pigments, althoughsome designs have also been in-cised into the stone.Aurochs Horses ReindeerHunting scene Wild boar
  37. 37. The Millau Viaduct is a cable-stayed road-bridge that spansthe valley of the river Tarn nearMillau in southern France. TheMillau viaduct is considered bysome to be the “Pont du Gard“of the 21st century.FRANCE5. The Millau ViaductThe” pont du Gard”Designed by the French struc-tural engineer Michel Virlogeuxand British architect NormanFoster, it is the tallest bridge inthe world with one mast’s sum-mit at 343.0 metres Choosing acable-stay bridge, making sev-en towers, and using the whitecolour preserve the view of thelovely Tarn Valley and it looksgood. Fourteen years of prepa-ration for this exceptional con-struction.The piers and cable-stays Whileviews of the Millau Viaduct tendto focus on the towers, and thecables--as well as the deck--thebridge wouldn’t be possiblewithout the seven piers thatanchor it to the ground. Themetallic deck, which appearsvery light despite its total massof around 36,000 tonnes , is2,460 m long and 32 m wide.The seven masts, each 87 mhigh and weighing around 700tonnes, are set on top of thepylons. Between each of them,eleven stays (metal cables) areanchored, providing support forthe road deck. It is a stunning ar-chitectural and design feat. Andit is beautiful to look at as well.
  38. 38. The bridge not only has a dra-matic silhouette, but crucially, italso makes the minimum inter-vention in the landscape. Lit atnight, it traces a slender ribbonof light across the valley.The world’s tallest bridgeThe P2 pier of the Viaduct is thetallest structure in France, tallerthan the Eiffel tower.The bridge forms the last link ofthe A75 motorway , from Cler-mont-Ferrand to Béziers . TheA75, with the A10 and A71, pro-vides a continuous high-speedroute south from Paris throughClermont-Ferrand to theLanguedoc region and throughto Spain, considerably reducingthe cost of vehicle traffic travel-ling along this route. Many tour-ists heading to southern Franceand Spain follow this route be-cause it is direct and withouttolls except for the bridge it-self.(€7.40)Time line: 16 October 2001: work begins14 December 2004: official inaugurationThe bridge opened for traffic in late 2004, but that was 17 yearsafter the project began.
  39. 39. HUNGARYArea: 93036 km2Population: 9.982.000.000Capital: BudapestOfficial language: HungarianHungarian national day: 15thMarchFLAGCOAT OF ARMS
  41. 41. Jenő Bory (Székesfehérvár No-vember9,1879–Székesfehérvár,December 20, 1959) was a Hun-garian architect and sculptor.He was largely responsible forthe building of the so calledBory castle in Székesfehérvárwhich is decorated by his andhis wife’s works.He built this fantastic, castle-likestructure out of concrete withhis own hands for 41 years.HUNGARY1. BORY CASTLE - SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁRThe romantic knight’s castle ofJenő Bory stands on Old Hill(Öreghegy) on the north-east-ern outskirts of the city.There is collection of over 500creations found throughoutthe rooms, courtyard and gar-den that visitors will enjoy.
  42. 42. Júlia 6 y,Noémi 4 yMaximilián 3 y,Levente, 3 yPatrícia, 6 yViktória, 6 yThe castle is a symbol of eternal love and an exemplary marriage. The marble statues of Jenő Borypreserve his timeless love for his lovely wife.
  43. 43. Hortobágy is the largest pro-tected area, and the largest nat-ural grassland in Central Europewith cattle, sheep, oxen, horses,tended by herdsmen, and itprovides habitat for various dif-ferent species (342 bird specieshave been registered to appearin the puszta).HUNGARY2. HORTOBÁGY / THE PUSZTAViktória, 6yThe Hortobágy NationalPark - The Puszta has beeninscribed on the World Herit-age List by UNESCO on the 1stof December in 1999 in the cat-egory of cultural landscapes,based on cultural criteria. Ac-cording to its brief descriptionthe Hortobágy is a vast area ofplains and wetlands that havebeen used by humans for graz-ing their domestic animals formore than two millennia.
  44. 44. Amanda, 6y„PULI”This is an 800 km² national parkin Eastern Hungary, in the pusz-ta, it is rich with folklore and cul-tural history.The mirage can be a spectacular sight on hot sum-mer days, where you see something that is not infact there.
  45. 45. Visegrád is a small castle town in Pest county. It is situated north of Budapest on the right bank ofDanube in the Danube Bend. In the 14th century the medieval citadel became a royal residence andwas enlarged with a new curtain and palace buildings.HUNGARY3. VISEGRÁD AND DANUBE BENDViktor, 6yAt the end of the 15thcenturyKing Mattias Corvinus had inte-rior part of the castle renovatedand used Visegrád as a countryresidence.Visegrád lost importance afterthe partition of the Kingdom ofHungary following the Battle ofMohács in 1526.Ákos, 5y
  46. 46. Csenge Sára, 6yThe DANUBE is the second long-est river in Europe. The DanubeBend is a curve of the Danubein Hungary, close to the city ofVisegrád.It is often considered is one ofthe most beautiful portions ofthe river.Kornél, 6y
  47. 47. Hungary is extremely rich inthermal waters, its thermal wa-ter reserve is significant on aworld scale and on Europeanscale it is outstanding. Most ofthe mineral and medicinal wa-ters contain dissolved minerals,providing medicinal and cura-tive powers, and making themsuitable for bathing and drink-ing cures.HUNGARY4. THERMAL WATERSAuguszta, 5yMedicinal waters can be found in almost all re-gionsofHungary,andaboutthree-quartersofthewells are located in the Great Hungarian Plain.
  48. 48. Júlia, 6yAmong the 150 hot water spa baths of the countrythere are 36 special medicinal baths in which thewater contains radioactivity, sulphurous acid, saltbromine carbonate or iodine. Europe’s only cave-spa is in Northeast Hungary, in Tapolca, while HévízLake, near Lake Balaton is the best-known hot water(33 °C) medicinal-water lake in Europe.Mira, 6y
  49. 49. HUNGARY5. LAKE BALATONPető, 6yLake Balaton is often affectionately called the “HungarianSea”.Lake Balaton is a freshwater lake in Transdanubian region of Hungary. It is a largest lake in Central Eu-rope, and one of its foremost tourist destinations.
  50. 50. Tiny group, 3 yearsAll members of the family will find something to do here, especiallybathing, swimming, sailing, or wine tasting. Balaton Uplands Na-tional Park is located to north of Lake Balaton.Major, 4y
  51. 51. ITALYArea: 301 340 km²Population: 60.8 million inhabitantsCapital: RomeOfficial language: ItalianIndipendence day: April 25thFLAGCOAT OF ARMS
  52. 52. FIVE WONDERS of ITALY1. A breathtaking view from the seaside to the hills2. Andrea Delitio’s frescoes in Atri cathedral3. The ancient coins of Hatria4. Casoli Pinta: a museum under the stars5. A wonderful dish: homemade spaghetti “on guitar”1 23 45
  53. 53. In the province of Teramo (Abruzzi region of Italy), the area stretching from the seaside, near the an-cient tower of Cerrano (Pineto), up to the hillside erosions called “Calanchi” (Atri) can be regarded asan area of excellence for the uniqueness of the landscape and the presence of two natural oasis: thenew sea park called “Tower of Cerrano” and the Nature Reserve “Calanchi of Atri”.ITALY1. A breathtaking view from the seaside to the hillsLucrezia, 10yThe sea park “Tower of Cerrano” combines unpolluted nature with a wonderful monument, the Towerof Cerrano.The Tower of Cerrano was built in the 16th century by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V as a watchtower to guard against attacks from the Turks. In the sea in front of the tower there are also the ruinsof an ancient harbour.Giuseppe, 10y
  54. 54. Between the Adriatic Sea and the Gran Sasso mountain, the hills around Atri are characterized bymarked erosion forms called Calanchi. In Italy, Calanchi are one of the most picturesque landscape ofthe Adriatic region.Theresia, 10yThese erosive forms arepreservedintheregion-al WWF Reserve of Atri.Calanchi are typical ofAtri, another exampleof this form of erosionis located around thecity of Siena. Calanchiare natural erosions ofthe clay soil. This phe-nomenon affects thesloping hillsides withlittle vegetation.The removal of the soil is mainly caused by concentrated flows of rainwater sliding along the slopesof the hills. These flows take away the clay surface leaving the strongest part of the land, so Calanchiappear as deep knife-edged grooves often arranged in parallel.Emanuele, 10y
  55. 55. In the province of Teramo (Abruzzi region of Italy), the area stretching from the seaside, near the an-cient tower of Cerrano (Pineto), up to the hillside erosions called “Calanchi” (Atri) can be regarded asan area of excellence for the uniqueness of the landscape and the presence of two natural oasis: thenew sea park called “Tower of Cerrano” and the Nature Reserve “Calanchi of Atri”.ITALY2. Andrea Delitio’s frescoes in Atri cathedralMatteo, 10yThe choir of the Cathedralpainted by Andrea DelitioSaint Reparata, Atri Patron SaintPetra, 5y
  56. 56. In the wonderful frescoes in the Atri Cathedral, the painter Andrea De Litio gives us an overview of theAbruzzi landscape at his times. The frescoes represent Virgin Mary’s life, but the setting is from the XVcentury. Some art critics thought that in the detail reproduced below the artist wanted to representthe ancient harbour of Cerrano.Simone, 5yParticular: “The Escape to Egypt”
  57. 57. The coins of the old Atri (Hatria) are among the oldest in Italian history.ITALY3. The ancient coins of Hatria“Asse”, depicting god Adranus’ head, while on theback a dog crouched (weight gr. 430-350).Alessando, 5y“Semiasse”, depicting the face of a woman with aprotruding shell, while on the back Pegasus(gr. 230-150).Marta, 5y“Triente”, depicting, on one hand, a profile of ayoung man, while, on the other hand, a vessel (gr.190-130).Marta, 5y
  58. 58. Marta, 5 y“Quadrante”, with a dolphin and a fish (gr.120-70), that symbolize the power of Atri overthe sea throug the Cerrano Harbour.“Sestante”, with a shoe and a chicken and twoeggs (gr. 70-35); Plinius several times praisedthe beauty and fertility of Atri hens.“Oncia”, with an anchor and a dot and the va-lue of the money (gr. 57-16).“Semioncia”, with two symbols, the first AS,the second H (gr. 25-23).Andrea and Marta, 5y
  59. 59. Casoli of Atri is a village where Art is… at home!Casoli is a village in the Atri municipality, a smallvillage of about 1500 inhabitants, tenaciously at-tached to their land, traditions and culture. Since1996, the village has hosted an exhibition of muralpainting called “Casoli Pinta”, which has gatheredfamous painters in the production of frescoes onthe outside walls of the houses, renewing the ap-pearance of Casoli and transforming the smallvillage in an open air museum where Art is theprotagonist.ITALY4. Casoli Pinta: a museum under the starsVittoria, 5yThe volcano erupting hearts represents some past romantic memories, which cannot come back any-more, if only by painting them.Marica, 5yVulcano lancia cuori (Volcano throwing hearts) –Stefano PizziThe kites are pulled by a fantastic bird bringing messages of peace and happiness.“Il Messaggero” (The Messenger) –Giancarlo Pozzi-
  60. 60. “La Vergine della pace” (The Virgin ofpeace)- Franco Petrosemolo-There is a thin space between the hanging waterproof paintings and the walls of the house.This painting was accomplished after 11thSeptember 2001, the Twin Towers attack.The painter wants to represent a mes-sage of hope with a baby in the centreof the world holding an olive twig in hishand. On the background there are theGran Sasso mountains.This work of art represents the humanbeing who is looking for freedom, buthe always fight between the spiritualand the material worlds.It is a sign of the painter’s poetic worldto touch the people’s hearts.“I Fratelli della costa” (the Brothers of thecoast) -Gioxe De Micheli –“Una sola ala” (An only wing)- Marilisa Pizzorno -
  61. 61. Spaghetti “on guitar” isa tipycal dish of Teramoprovince.Itismadewithflour and eggs (1 eggeach 100 gr of flour).It needs two tools tomake this kind of spa-ghetti: a rolling pin andan utensil called “gui-tar” because it lookslike a real guitar.ITALY5. A wonderful dish: homemade spaghetti “on guitar”Elisa, 5yFirst of all you have to mix theingredients to make a dough,then you have to press thedough with the help of the roll-ing pin making a big and thincircle of pasta. Afterwards youhave to cut the circle of pasta inslices and put each of them onthe “guitar”. With the rolling pin,you press each slice on the “gui-tar” and you will have spahetti.Elisa, 5y
  62. 62. This typical dish is seasoned with tomato sauce, little meat balls and some parmisan cheese. To makethe little meat balls you need 300 gr of veal minced meat, a little bit of salt and one tea spoon of oliveoil. After mixing together all the ingredients, you make the little meat balls and you fry them up in hotolive oil. When they are ready, you put them on the spaghetti already mixed with the tomato sauce.Elisa, 5y
  63. 63. POLANDArea: 312,685 km2Population: 38 482 919Capital: Warszawa / WarsawOfficial language: PolishIndependence Day: 11thNovemberFLAGCOAT OF ARMS
  65. 65. is one of the world’s most fa-mous composers. He wasborn on either 22nd February,or 1st March (the date is notcompletely certain) 1810 inŻelazowa Wola, a village nearWarsaw.Frycek (as his parents used tocall him) was a very talentedchild. He inherited a musicaltalent from his Polish mother(who played the piano) and aFrench father (who played theflute and the violin).In 1810, when Chopin was only7 months old, his family movedto Warsaw, where Fryderyklived, completed his musiceducation and composed a lotof works before leaving Polandin 1830, at the age of 20. It wasshortly before the outbreak ofthe November Uprising.POLAND1. FRYDERYK CHOPINChopin’s portraits painted by our pupils – Ala Cienkowska and Krzyś Kuleszka
  66. 66. When Chopin was in Paris, he meta French writer – George Sand.They fell in love with each otherand lived together in her house inNohant for 10 years.It was George Sand, who used tosay that Chopin was more Polishthan Poland. His music was strong-ly influenced by Polish traditionsand history and, while in France,he missed his country very muchUnfortunately, Chopin sufferedfrom poor health and he died on17thOctober 1849, at the age of39. He was buried at Père LachaiseCemetery, but he wished for hisheart to be in Poland. So his sisterfulfilled his wish and brought itfrom France. It is now sealed with-in a pillar of the Holy Cross Churchon Krakowskie Przedmieście inWarsaw.During his lifetime Chopin Com-posed 59 mazurkas, 27 études, 27preludes, 21 nocturnes, 20 waltz-es, 18 polonaises, 5 rondos, 4 bal-lades, 4 impromptus, 4 scherzi, 4sets of variations, 3 écossaises, 3piano sonatas and 2 concerti.Chopin’s statue in the Royal Baths(Łazienki) – a park in Warsaw
  67. 67. MASURIA(inPolish–MAZURY)isaregionsituatedin the north – east of Poland.POLAND2. MAZURYMasuria and the Masurian Lake District are knowninPolishasKrainaTysiącaJezior,meaningthelandof a thousand lakes. These lakes were ground outof the land by glaciers during the Pleistoceneice age, when ice covered northeastern Europe.From that period originates the horn of a rein-deer found in the vicinity of Giżycko By 10,000 BCthis ice started to melt. Great geological chang-es took place and even in the last 500 years themaps showing the lagoons and peninsulas on theBaltic Sea have greatly altered in appearance. Asin other parts of northern Poland, such as fromPomerania on the Oder River to the Vistula River,this continuous stretch of lakes is popular amongtourists.
  68. 68. PUSZCZA PISKAPuszcza Piska is a bird sanctuary on a Europeanscale, featuring eleven nature reserves. The mostvaluable reserve is located at the Łuknajno Lakenear the town of Mikołajki – a Ramsar site desig-nated by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve. It is thehome of the Mute Swan, native to temperate re-gions of Europe and western Asia, Many speciesof wild animals live in the forest, among them:deer, elk, moose, wild boar, hare, fox and recentlyreintroduced lynx. On wetlands, most saturatedwith water, beaver lodges can be found. The sym-bol of the Park is a white stork with nests scat-tered over many local villages.Masuria in the eyes of : Julia, 12y, ... Lena, 12y
  69. 69. The Baltic region is home to thelargest known deposit of AM-BER, called BALTIC AMBER orSUCCINITE, with about 80% ofthe world’s known amber foundthere It dates from 44 millionyears ago.POLAND3. BALTIC AMBERAmber – GOLD OF THE NORTH – is used by artists to create jewellery and objects of everyday use suchas the following:
  70. 70. WAWEL is a hill situated on the left bank of theVistula River (Wisła in Polish) in Cracow (or Kraków,as we call it). The hill is the site of a group of his-toric buildings, including the Wawel Castle andthe Wawel Cathedral (the Cathedral Basilica of St.Stanisław and St. Wacław). The complex also com-prises the Wawel Hill Fortifications. The remains ofother buildings, dating back to different historicalperiods, have also been found on the site.POLAND4. WAWELOne of the most popular Polish legends – the legend of the Dragon of Wawel (in Polish we call himSMOK WAWELSKI) is also strictly connected with the place.THE LEGEND OF THE DRAGON OF WAWELOnceuponatimetherelivedanevildragonwhichwouldbeatapathofdestructionacrossthecoun-tryside, killing the civilians, pillaging their homesand devouring their livestock. The dragon espe-cially enjoyed eating young maidens, and couldonly be appeased if the townsfolk left a younggirl in front of its cave once a month.King Krakus (the legendary founder of Kraków),certainly wanted to put a stop to the dragon, buthis bravest knights fell to its fiery breath. With theflow of time, every girl in the city was sacrificedexcept one - the King’s daughter Wanda. In des-peration, the King promised his beautiful daugh-ter’s hand in marriage to anyone who could de-feat the dragon.Great warriors from near and far fought for theprize and failed.One day a poor cobbler’s apprentice namedDRATEWKA accepted the challenge. He stuffed alamb with sulphur and set it outside the dragon’scave. The dragon ate it and soon became incred-ibly thirsty. He turned to the Vistula River for re-lief and drank and drank. But no amount of wa-ter could quench his aching stomach, and afterswelling up from drinking half the Vistula river,he exploded.Dratewka married the King’s daughter as prom-ised, and they lived happily ever after.
  71. 71. Adrian, 7yIn Poland Smok Wawelski is very popular. Everychild knows his story, and when in Kraków, goesto see his monument.The sculpture of the dragon of Wawel was madein 1970 and placed in front of the dragon’s den. Itis stylized, with six legs, and, to the amusementof children, it noisily breathes fire every few min-utes, thanks to a natural gas nozzle installed inthe sculpture’s mouth.Currently the dragon breathes fire every 2 min-utes, or when an SMS with the text ”SMOK” is sentto the number 7168.What is interesting is the fact that the street lead-ing along the banks of the river towards the cas-tle is called ULICA SMOCZA, which translates asTHE DRAGON STREET.Iza, 12y
  72. 72. The WIELICZKA SALT MINE(Polish: KOPALNIA SOLI WIELIC-ZKA), located in the town ofWieliczka in southern Poland,lies within the Kraków metro-politan area. The mine, built inthe 13th century, produced ta-ble salt continuously until 2007,as one of the world’s oldest saltmines still in operation.The Wieliczka salt mine reachesadepthof327metersandisover300 kilometers long. The rocksalt is naturally gray in variousshades, resembling unpolishedgranite rather than the white orcrystalline look that many visi-tors may expect.The mine features an under-ground lake; and the new exhib-its on the history of salt mining,as well as a 3.5 kilometers tour-ing route that includes historicstatues and mythical figurescarved out of rock salt in distantpast. More recent sculptureshave been fashioned by con-temporary artists.The Wieliczka mine is often re-ferred to as the UndergroundSalt Cathedral of Poland. In 1978it was placed on the originalUNESCO list of the World Herit-age Sites. Eventhe crystals of the chandeliersare made from rock salt that hasbeen dissolved and reconstitut-ed to achieve a clear, glass-likeappearance. It also houses a pri-vate rehabilitation and wellnesscomplex.POLAND5. THE WIELICZKA SALT MINEPatryk, 12y
  73. 73. One of the most famous legendsconnected with the Wieliczkasalt mine is the legend of KINGA– the daughter of king Bela IV ofHungary.The legend speaks of Bolesław,Prince of Poland going to Hunga-ry to ask for the hand of the royaldaughter, Kinga. The proposalwas accepted, and, King Bela,wanting to show royal generos-ity, decided to give Boleslaw , to-gether with his daughter’s handin marriage, the most beautifuljewels from the Hungarian treas-ury.However, all that Kinga desiredwas one treasure: salt – which atthetimewaspreciousandsoughtafter – so that she could give itto her future subjects. Thus, herfather gave her the richest saltmine in his kingdom, and Kingacast her engagement ring into itsshaft.As soon as she arrived in Po-land, she had prospectors look-ing for salt. When it was foundin Wieliczka, the miners came tothe Queen with the first lump ofsalt mined from the Polish mines.Lo and behold, ensconced in itwas the engagement ring shedropped into the MarmaroszSziget mine in Hungary!
  74. 74. WALESArea: 20,779 km2 Population: 3.060.000Capital: CardiffOfficial language: English / WelshSt David’s Day 1stMarchFLAGCOAT OF ARMS
  75. 75. FIVE WONDERS of WALES1. Buildings and Castles2. Countryside and National parks3. Rugby and Millenium Stadium4. Welsh Language5. Welsh Culture1 23 45
  76. 76. Raglan CastleRaglan, with its great multi-angular tow-ers and Tudor-styling, is unlike any othercastle in Wales.From a distance, Raglan seemed to havea reddish cast, although on approachingthe gatehouse, the castle’s yellow sand-stone becomes obvious.The elaborately decorated polygonalkeep, as well as the double-drawbridgearrangement of the keep, unique in Brit-ain, demonstrate French influence.In 1492, Elizabeth Herbert married SirCharles Somerset, a natural son of HenryBeaufort, third duke of Somerset, andit is to the Somerset family as earls ofWorcester that we owe the final architec-tural touches of the castle.WALES1. Buildings and Castles of WalesWales had about 400 castles, of which over 100 are still standing, either as ruins or as restored build-ings. The rest have returned to nature, and today consist of ditches, mounds and earthworks, often incommanding positions.Tintern AbbeyThe Cistercian abbey of Tintern is one ofthe greatest monastic ruins of Wales.It was only the second Cistercian founda-tion in Britain, and the first in Wales, andwas founded on 9 May 1131 by Walter deClare, lord of Chepstow.It soon prospered, thanks to endow-ments of land in Gwent and Glouces-tershire, and buildings were added andupdated in every century until its disso-lution in 1536.However, it was never very large and im-portant, and its history was relatively un-eventful.Its position well away from the Welshheartland meant that, unlike Margam,Neath and Llanthony, it suffered little inthe periodic Welsh uprisings of the me-dieval period.Tintern Abbey. Imogen, 9y
  77. 77. Chepstow CastleChepstow is a Norman castleperched high above the banks ofthe river Wye in southeast Wales.Construction began at Chepstowin 1067, less than a year after Wil-liam the Conqueror was crownedKing of England. While Edwardhad his master castle buil-der inthe person of James of St. George,the Conqueror, some 200 yearsearlier, had his equal in the personof his loyal Norman lord WilliamFitzOsbern.FitzOsbern’s fortresses were thevehicles from which the new kingconsolidated control of his newlyconquered lands. Chepstow Castlebecame the key launching pointfor expeditions into Wales, expe-ditions that eventually subduedthe rebellious population.Caldicot CastleFounded by the Normans, devel-oped in royal hands as a strong-hold in the Middle Ages and re-stored as a Victorian family home,the castle has a romantic and col-ourful history.Caldicot Castle was built on a sitethat had long been recognizedfor its strategic value. In fact, theRomans actively made use of thearea in the early centuries AD,when Caldicot stood on the ViaJulia roadway to Caerwent, the Ro-man town of Venta Silurum (ruinsvisible) just to the north. Caldicot’splacement near the Bristol Chan-nel allowed observation of thecomings and goings of ship trafficand eased transport of supplies tothe site.It’s useful location was recognizedby the Normans as early as 1086,and they built a motte with twobaileys and a deep surroundingditch to control this portion ofsouth Wales.
  78. 78. Snowdonia National ParkSituated on the westcoast of Wales cover-ing 823 square milesofdiverselandscapes,Snowdonia NationalPark is a living work-ing area, home toover 26,000 people.As well as being the largest National Parkin Wales, Snowdonia boasts the highestmountain in England and Wales, and thelargest natural lake in Wales, as well as awealth of picturesque villages like Betwsy Coed and Beddgelert. Snowdonia isan area steeped in culture and local his-tory, where more than half its populationspeak Welsh.WALES2. CountrysideWales has a total area of 20,779 km2(8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,200 km (750 mi) of coastline, andis largely mountainous, with its highest peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (YrWyddfa), its highest summit. Wales is made up of three National Parks.Pembrokeshire National ParkThe PembrokeshireCoast was designat-ed a National Park in1952. The Pembroke-shire Coast NationalPark Authority be-came a separate au-thority in April 1996.There are 14 National Parks in total inBritain and the Pembrokeshire Coast wasthe first predominantly coastal NationalPark, recognising the special qualities ofthe coastline in this part of West Wales.The National Park is 612 square kilome-tres in area and stretches from St. Dog-maels on the Ceredigion border in thenorth to Amroth in the south. It includesthe Cleddau Waterway, an estuary andriver system that flows from the PreseliHills in the north of Pembrokeshire to thecoast beyond Milford Haven.
  79. 79. Mountains and rivers in Wales . Charlie, 7yBrecon Beacons National ParkIt stretches from Llandeilo in the west to Hay-on-Wye in the northeast and Ponty-pool in the southeast, covering 519 square miles.
  80. 80. The Millennium Stadium (Welsh:Stadiwm y Mileniwm) is the na-tional stadium of Wales, locatedin the capital, Cardiff.It is the home of the Wales na-tional rugby union team andalso frequently stages gamesof the Wales national footballteam, but is also host to manyother large scale events, such asthe Super Special Stage of WalesRally Great Britain, SpeedwayGrand Prix of Great Britain, box-ing and many music concerts,including Tina Turner, Madonna,The Rolling Stones, U2, Stere-ophonics, Paul McCartney, andthe Tsunami Relief concert.It was built to host the 1999Rugby World Cup.WALES3. The Millenium Stadium – Wales RugbyAerial view of the Millenium Stadium. Gabe, 9y
  81. 81. Watching a rugby match. Jai, 8yThe stadium opened in June1999, and the first major eventto be held was an internationalrugby union match on 26 June1999, when Wales beat SouthAfrica in a friendly by 29–19, be-fore a test crowd of 29,000. Withtotal seating capacity of 74,500,it is the third largest stadium inthe Six Nations Championshipbehind the Stade de France andTwickenham, which is the larg-est. It is also the second largeststadium in the world with a fullyretractable roof and was thesecond stadium in Europe tohave this feature.As well as international rugbyunion and association football,the Millennium Stadium hashosted a variety of sports, in-cluding, rugby league (includ-ing the Challenge Cup final on3 occasions between 2003 and2005, and Welsh Rugby Leagueinternationals), speedway, box-ing, the Wales Rally Great Britainstage of the World Rally Cham-pionship, Monster Jam and in-door cricket. The indoor cricketmatch was between The Britsand a Rest of the World teamfor the Pertemps Power CricketCup, and took place on 4 and 5October 2002.
  82. 82. Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau is the national anthem ofWales. The title – taken from the first words ofthe song – means ”Old Land of My Fathers”, usu-ally rendered in English as simply ”Land of My Fa-thers”.The words were written by Evan James and thetune composed by his son, James James, bothresidents of Pontypridd, Glamorgan, in January1856. The earliest written copy survives and ispart of the collections of the National Library ofWales.WALES4. Welsh LanguageHen Wlad fy Nhadau(Land of my Fathers)Mae hen wlad fy nhadau yn annwyl i miGwlad beirdd a chantorion enwogion o friEi gwrol ryfelwr, gwlad garwyr tra madTros ryddid collasant eu gwaed.Gwlad Gwlad,Pleidiol wyf i’m gwlad,Tra môr yn fur i’r bur hoff bauO bydded i’r hen iaith barhau.
  83. 83. Kate, 8yOriginsGlan Rhondda (Banks of the Rhondda), as it wasknown when it was composed, was first per-formed in the vestry of the original Capel Tabor,Maesteg, (which later became a working men’sclub), in either January or February 1856, by Eliza-beth John from Pontypridd, and it soon becamepopular in the locality.James James, the composer, was a harpist whoplayed his instrument in the public house he ran,for the purpose of dancing. The song was origi-nally intended to be performed in 6/8 time, buthad to be slowed down to its present rhythmwhen it began to be sung by large crowds.The popularity of the song increased after theLlangollen Eisteddfod of 1858. Thomas Llewelynof Aberdare won a competition for an unpub-lished collection of Welsh airs with a collectionthat included Glan Rhondda. The adjudicator ofthe competition, ”Owain Alaw” (John Owen, 1821-1883) asked for permission to include Glan Rhon-dda in his publication, Gems of Welsh melody(1860–64). This volume gave Glan Rhondda itsmore famous title, Hen wlad fy nhadau, and wassold in large quantities and ensured the popular-ity of the anthem across the whole of Wales.
  84. 84. Wales has a distinctive culture including its ownlanguage, customs, holidays and music.Wales is primarily represented by the symbol ofthe red Welsh Dragon, but other national em-blems include the leek and daffodil.The Welsh words for leeks (cennin) and daffodils(cennin Pedr, lit. ”(Saint) Peter’s Leeks”) are close-ly related and it is likely that one of the symbolscame to be used due to a misunderstanding forthe other one, though it is less clear which camefirst.WALES5. CulturePatron SaintThe patron saint of Wales is Saint David, Dewi Santin Welsh. St. David’s Day is celebrated on1. March.MusicWales is often referred to as ”the land of song”and is notable for its harpists, male choirs, andsolo artists. The principal Welsh festival of musicand poetry is the annual National Eisteddfod. TheLlangollen International Eisteddfod echoes theNational Eisteddfod but provides an opportunityfor the singers and musicians of the world to per-form. Traditional music and dance in Wales is sup-ported by a myriad of societies. The Welsh FolkSong Society has published a number of collec-tions of songs and tunes.Traditional instruments of Wales include telyndeires (triple harp), fiddle, crwth, pibgorn (horn-pipe) and other instruments. The Cerdd Dant So-ciety promotes its specific singing art primarilythrough an annual one-day festival.The BBC National Orchestra of Wales performsin Wales and internationally. The Welsh NationalOpera is based at the Wales Millennium Centre inCardiff Bay, while the National Youth Orchestra ofWales was the first of its type in the world.
  85. 85. Halle, 7yCuisineWales is traditionally seen as an agrarian countryand the traditional cuisines of Wales representthis heritage. Indeed, traditional foods tend to besimple, utilising readily-available ingredients andthose cuts of meat that were not readily saleable.Baking is also a large part of the country’s culi-nary culture and these dishes (such as Bara Brith[speckled bread]) tend to be fruitcakes that willkeep for many days and were often served as aworkman’s tea.Traditional recipes such as cawl (a meat-basedstew), Welsh rarebit, laver bread, brithyll aber-meurig (Abermeurig trout) and Penclawdd cock-les tend to be regional, reflecting the foods avail-able in that region.Traditional Welsh costumeThe Traditional Welsh costume is a costume onceworn by rural women in Wales.It is likely that the Welsh costume began as a ruralcostume (with regional variations in Wales) andbecame recognized as a traditional costume bythe wives and daughters of the better off farm-ers who wore it for special occasions and whengoing to market to sell their produce. From the1880s, when the traditional costume had goneout of general use, selected elements of it be-came adopted as a National Costume.From then on it was worn by women at eventssuch as Royal visits, by choirs, at church and chap-el, for photographs and occasionally at eisteddfo-dau. It was first worn by girls as a celebration onSaint David’s Day just before the First World War.The costume is now recognised as the nationaldress of Wales.
  86. 86. Friends Around Europe2011—2013