Sociolinguistic Is A sciense That studies The Language in context
A language Can be influenced by1 Social class 5 4 Network 2 3 Age Style Gender of the speakers
1 Social class Combine elements ofEducation Income Occupation
But Social class Is generally divided into and Upper class Lower class These groups have differences in vocabulary:1- table-napkin 1- Serviette2- have one’s bath 2- take a bath3- writing paper 3- note paper4- pudding 4- sweet
These two groups also have phonological variables of the following sounds: /r/ /ŋ/ /h/Higher class Lower class Higher class Lower class Heart eart Hand and produce produce (Higher class) (lower class) (nasal (alveolar r- Not r- sound /ŋ/) sound /n/) pronouncing pronouncing In verbs Drop of hs such as Reading, Readin, Singing Singin More prestige
2 Style and The use of postvocalic /r/ Highest Lower group Lowest class middle class The has most has use ofThe shallowest Postvocalic The shallowest slope /r/ slope In the most formal style
Lower middle classAnd exterior standard Insecurity about their of correctness own speech It is called HYPERCORRECTION They try to use the prestige norm used by upper class.
3 Gender Women Men tend to use tend to use More higher- More Less higher- Lessstatus variants hypercorrection status variants hypercorrection (specially in lower middle class)
3 Gender Women MenMore prestige Tend to over- Use of non- are likely to forms report standard under-report forms of their use of speech. standard forms.
In the Victorian era Speaking properly Wasassociated Queen With being Victoria female particularly A LADY
4 Age In Sweden there are Especially differences between 7 and 16 16 and 20 Awarness ofMore estandard forms Certain markers Eg: more final ts examples huset kastat
5 NetworkIs related to The group of people that we have contact For example Puerto Ricans Who have Contact with black speakers fas istead of fast Delete Final –t/d more often gol instead of gold
thanthose Puerto Ricans Who have not Contact with Black In the New York speakers City
Standardi Inequalities zation in society Are reflected inDistribution ofsocial dialects
The process ofStandardization converts One variety into A standard by spelling its Fixing and regulating grammar
Standardization and its effects inIN Papua Guinea Papua Guinea There is A difference betweenIndigenous Tok Pisin (an English languages English-based pidgin)
In Papua Guinea Has a high value.English Speaking English is considered “good” at school. Tok Pisin (an Has a high value too.English-based Speaking Tok Pisin is considered pidgin) “bad” at school. Are devaluated Indigenous languages Speaking indigenous languages is considered “worst” at school. English has become a estandard language, a socially accepted language in Papua Guinea.