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Learning strategieschamot

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  • 1. Metacognitive Model of Strategic Learning, Chamot 1999
  • 2. Metacognitive Model of Strategic Learning, Chamot 1999
    • The MMSL organizes learning strategies in such a way that they become manageable and helpful to students and teachers.
    • It describes ways to transfer strategy use to other subject
    • areas, as well as to real life situations.
    • Students can use these strategies for all the modalities- reading, listening, writing and speaking-as well as the
    • relation of vocabulary and content information.
  • 3. The model consists of four metacognitive processes: Monitoring Problem solving Planning Evaluating
  • 4. Planning Strategies
    • It is similar to how people plan, organize and schedule
    • events in their lives.
    • It helps people develop and use forethought.
    • It encourages thinking and reflection.
    • It helps people to set goals.
    • Students focus their attention on the task and ignore
    • distractions.
  • 5.
    • Planning Strategies
    • Set Goals
    • 2) Directed Attention
    • 3) Activate Background Knowledge
    • 4) Predict
    • 5) Organizational Planning
    • 6) Self-management
  • 6. Monitoring Strategies
    • They are used to measure their effectiveness while
    • working on the task.
    • Students monitor how they are doing as they work.
    • Students monitor by making adjustments to how they are working as necessary.
    • Students monitor their comprehension and production
    • Students regulate their learning.
  • 7.
    • Monitoring Strategies
    • Ask If It Makes Sense
    • 2) Selectively Attend
    • 3) Deduction/Induction
    • 4) Personalize/Contextualize
    • 5) Take Notes
    • 6) Use Imagery
    • 7) Manipulate /Act Out
    • 8) Talk Yourself Through It
  • 8. Problem-Solving Strategies
    • They are used when the students have difficulty at any time during the task.
    • Students use any resource available to them to solve the problem.
    • Students that use them appropriately are more successful at learning tasks.
  • 9.
    • Problem-Solving Strategies
    • Inference
    • 2) Substitute
    • 3) Ask Questions to Clarify
    • 4) Use Resources
  • 10. Evaluating Strategies
    • Evaluating Strategies allow the students to see if they carried out their plans
    • And to check how well strategies helped.
    • The students evaluate the appropriateness of their predictions and guesses.
    • Students can verify if they met their goals or not.
  • 11.
    • Evaluating Strategies
    • Verify Predictions and Guesses
    • 2) Summarize
    • 3) Check Goals
    • 4) Evaluate Yourself
    • 5) Evaluate Your Strategies
  • 12. Workshop 5
    • Work in pairs. Read about the Metacognitive Model of
    • Strategic Learning. (from page 11 to page 33)
    • Prepare an activity based on any of the strategies
    • described in the Model. Think about the type of students you
    • have and the level of their English.
    • Show the activity to the class.
  • 13. Framework for Strategy Instruction
  • 14. Framework for Strategies Instruction Preparation Activate background knowledge Presentation Explain Attend Model Participate ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Practice Prompt strategies Apply strategies Give feedback with guidance ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Evaluation Assess strategies Assess strategies Expansion Support Use strategies independently Transfer Transfer strategies to new tasks Teacher Responsibility Student Responsibility
  • 15. Framework for Strategies Instruction Features
    • Strategies instruction starts out as more teacher-directed .
    • Students take more responsibility over time .
    • The teacher presents the idea that good learners plan, monitor, problem-solve and evaluate during language tasks.
    • Instruction that makes the strategies explicit helps students think about their strategies so they can develop conscious control of their learning and language use .
  • 16.
    • Independent learning happens when students practice strategies and try strategic thinking themselves .
    • Students need the support of remainders to use the strategies they have learnt.
    • Teachers can ask students to explain how they figured out
    • they responses they gave in class.
  • 17.
    • Teachers can provide feedback by praising effective thinking and by pointing out the strategies that students are using.
    • The teacher should ask students to evaluate how well the strategy is working and which strategies might be best for a given task or problem.
    • After students have internalized the use of the strategies, the teacher can encourage them to expand their use by transferring it to other situations.
  • 18. Phase 1: Preparation
    • Creating the Learner-Centered Classroom
    • a) Set learning responsibilities , that is the teacher and the
    • students share responsibility in the learning process.
    • Teacher model, facilitator
    • Students active participants
    • Create a Classroom Contract, that is an arrangement
    • between teacher and students about how each will contribute
    • to and behave in the classroom.
  • 19. Sample Student-Teacher Classroom Contract Characteristics of a good teacher Characteristics of a good learner
    • Interesting
    • Intelligent
    • Understanding
    • Patient
    • Friendly
    • Organized
    • Good listener
    • Pays attention
    • Does homework
    • Cooperates
    • Asks questions
    • Independent
    • Listens to teacher and classmates
    • Active in class
  • 20.
    • Use analogies with students to explain the roles of teacher
    • and students in the learning process.
    • Example:
    • Learning a language is like playing on a soccer team.
    • The teacher is the coach who presents different kinds of plays,
    • gives advice and opportunities for practice, and provides
    • feedback and support when it comes time to play a game.
    • Students are the team players who actually play and must
    • make decisions and evaluate themselves during the game.
  • 21.
    • b) Learning Reflections: The learner-center classroom requires
    • students’ awareness of their learning process.
    • Ask students to think about the different types of learning
    • activities they find useful when studying a language.
    • Ask students to reflect on how learning a language is
    • similar to and different from learning in other subjects.
  • 22. Self-Reflections on Language Learning (page 56)
    • How do you learn a language?
    • How do you like to learn a language? What is successful
    • for you?
    • ___Reading with a dictionary ___Translating
    • ___Reading a textbook ___Studying with friends
    • ___ Making vocabulary lists ___Watching TV
    • ___Speaking with native speakers ___Writing stories
    • ___Listening to the radio ___Speaking with classmates
    • ___Listening to tapes and repeating ___Learning songs
    • ___Studying grammar ___Studying by yourself
    • ___Writing letters ___Focusing on pronunciation
    • and intonation
  • 23.
    • c) Setting Personal Language Goals
    • Get students involved in learning by having them set
    • language goals for themselves .
    • Long –term goals are usually a result of students’
    • motivation for choosing the language of study. They may be
    • originated from these areas:
    • Professional (I need to know the language for a career)
    • Educational (I want to be able to use the language on
    • a college level)
    • Social (I want to participate in conversations with friends
    • that speak this language)
    • Personal (My family heritage is related to this language)
  • 24.
    • Short –term goals , which are set more often, are used as
    • enabling steps toward long-term goals.
    • They are more immediately reachable than long-term goals.
    Example: Long-term goal read detective stories in the target language Short-term goal read short detective stories focus on vocabulary to law and crime
  • 25.
    • d) Self-Assessment of Language Abilities
    • To evaluate one’s own strengths and weaknesses is a critical step toward learning how to regulate learning.
    • It increases students’ motivation by increasing involvement in language learning.
    • Students think about what worked and did not work and why one learning approach was more or less successful than another.
  • 26. Personal Language Goals and Self-Assessment (page 17) Short-term goals Please rate your current ability in English (0=no ability, 5= excellent ability) Reading: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Listening: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Speaking: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Writing: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Realistically, What are your goals for this term? Reading: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Listening: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Speaking: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Writing: 0 1 2 3 4 5
  • 27. Long-term goals How do you want to be able to use English in your life? What ability level do you need for your goal? Reading: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Listening: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Speaking: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Writing: 0 1 2 3 4 5
  • 28.
    • 2) Identifying Students’ Existing Learning Strategies
    • Find out what strategies students already use .
    • It helps students to become aware of their existing
    • strategies use.
    • It helps the teacher decide which strategies to focus on in
    • the instruction.
    • Class discussion about learning strategies
    • Group discussion and structured interviews (page 18)
    • Think-Alouds (page 19)
    • Diaries
    • Questionnaires (pages 19-20)
  • 29. Phase 2: Presentation
    • General Guidelines for Presenting Learning Strategies
    • Teacher Modeling: demonstrate how the strategy is used
    • by modeling it on a similar task.
    • b) Naming the Strategy: The strategy name should be
    • written out for students on a board, a poster, or a strip of
    • cardboard that the teacher can raise every time the strategy
    • name is mentioned.
    • c) Explaining the Importance of the Strategy: Students may
    • not realize the value of strategic learning for themselves
    • until they have practiced it over time.
  • 30. d) Telling When to Use the Strategy: describe typical situations in which the focus strategy may be helpful. e) Asking Students to Describe Their Use of the Strategy: teachers should give students an opportunity to share ways in which they have already used the strategy.
  • 31. 2) Suggested Activities for Presenting Learning Strategies
    • Learning strategies can be presented:
    • Introduction of a new topic.
    • When the teacher perceives students are experiencing difficulties with a task.
    • Sample Lesson for Introducing a Strategy (pages 20-21)
    • 2) Teacher Think-Alouds to Present Strategies (page 21)
    • Follow-up Strategy Instruction Based on the Think-Aloud
    • (page 22)
    • 4) Telling a Story (pages 23-24)
  • 32.
    • Workshop 6
    • Choose one of the activities for presenting learning strategies and adapt it to one of your classes.
  • 33. Phase 3: Practice Students should practice strategies while working on authentic, meaningful language tasks that are part of the language class. b) Select Appropriate Challenging Tasks The task should be : Authentic Moderately challenging Based on real communicative needs a) Integrate Strategies Practice into Regular Course Work 1) General Guidelines for Practicing Learning Strategies
  • 34. c) Encourage Students to Practice the Strategies Introduced
    • Teachers need to explicitly guide students to practice
    • strategies during language learning tasks. (page 25)
    • Add instructions to the task that remind students to
    • use the strategy. (page 25)
    • Model strategies by thinking aloud.
  • 35. d) Encourage Students to Choose Their Own Strategies and to Develop a Repertoire of Strategies
    • Students need opportunities to practice choosing strategies for themselves.
    • As students become more independent in using strategies, cues should be less frequent and less explicit.
  • 36. 2) Suggested Activities for Practicing Learning Strategies
    • Cooperative Learning and Group or pair Work
    • b) Reciprocal Teaching (page 26)
    • c) Role-playing Activities (page 27)
    • d) Problem-Solving Activities
  • 37. Phase 4: Evaluation
    • Suggested Activities for Evaluating Learning Strategies
    • Expanding through discussions
    • Class Discussions
    • Learning Strategies Checklists (page 28)
    • Charts and Graphic Organizers (page 29)
    • Learning Logs (pages 29-30)
    • Journals and Diaries (page 30)
    • Questionnaires (page 31)
    • Interviews (page 32)
    • Portfolio Assessment
  • 38. Phase 5: Expansion
    • Suggested Activities for Expanding the Application of
    • Learning Strategies
    • Expanding through discussions (page 33)
    • Expanding through other Language Activities (page 32-33)
    • Expanding to Other Academic Subjects (page 34)
    • Expanding to Nonacademic Situations (page 34)
    • Expansion Through Positive Feedback
    • Expansion Through Learning Logs (page 35)
  • 39.
    • Workshop 7
    • Use the 5 phases of the Chamot Metacognitive Model of Strategic Learning to teach one of the units you teach in your classes.