Changes 2011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Changes 2011

on

  • 412 views

Changes and Trends in 500 Years of History

Changes and Trends in 500 Years of History

Statistics

Views

Total Views
412
Views on SlideShare
412
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Changes 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Changes in W. European History
  • 2. The Evolution of Communication
    By Monica Mejia and Amanda Eiser
  • 3. 1500s
    Mid 1400s: The printing press
    1490: First paper mill in England
    1500s: Printing in England, 35,000 books with 10 million copies
    Spread of education creates demand
    Also: the pencil, postal systems
  • 4. 1600s
    New mediums of print formed: newspapers, etc.
    1609: First regularly published newspaper appears in Germany
    1659: Penny post appears in London
    1696: England has over 100 paper mills
    Also: mail routes, classifieds, public libraries
  • 5. 1700s
    More portability and ease of use desired; introduction of the mass market
    1710: Three-color printing developed in Germany
    1714: Henry Mill receives patent for typewriter
    1790: In England, hydraulic press invented
    Also: the eraser, steel pen points, signaling systems, and transcontinental mail
  • 6. 1800s
    Huge wave in advancements, especially during industrial revolution
    1810: Electro-chemical telegraph constructed in Germany
    1837: Electric telegraph patented in England
    1839: Electricity runs a printing press
    1841: The advertising agency
    1851: Cable laid across the English Channel
    1873: Theory of radio waves
    1888: Public telephones
    Also: Photography, movies, x-ray photography
  • 7. 1900s
    Waves and other innovations create new verbal forms of communication, and later global communication
    Known as the Age of Technology
    1906: Voice and music broadcast in U.S.
    1924: Radio sets widespread
    1954: Regular color TV broadcasts
    1969: Videotape on cassette
    1981: The IBM PC
    1996: Widespread internet use
  • 8. Architecture
    By: Alexis Rubin and Cara Hutter
  • 9. 1500
    As the Renaissance revived Classical art, more Classical architecture was also restored.
    Renaissance architecture involved classical columns, and rounded arches, as well as use of the dome, a Renaissance staple.
  • 10. 1600
    After the religious revival of the 16th century Baroque architects desired to add spiritual accents to classical Renaissance architecture.
    St. Peter’s Basilica was completed in the Baroque style.
  • 11. 1700
    During the 1700’s the Rococo art style transferred to decorative architecture that worked well when paired with standing Baroque structures
  • 12. 1800
    Neoclassicism continued throughout the 1800s. This later phase is called Greek Revival
    Popular in Northern Europe and the United States
    Showed a rediscovery of Greek architecture.
  • 13. 1900
    Modernism reflected the rapid modernization and technological advancement of society.
    Functionalism was the idea that there was to be no unnecessary ornamentation
    Postmodernism mixed modernism with traditional architecture of the past.
  • 14. Clothing Styles for Men, Women, and Children
    By: Lauren Finley and Kimberly Shankwitz, yo
  • 15. 1500's - Renaissance
    The Italian city-states grew wealthy from commerce on the Mediterranean.  They could afford better fabrics and fancier clothes to wear to the parties they held to show off said wealth.
     
    Trade on the Mediterranean brought Italy into contact with many more cultures, leading to different, foreign-inspired variations on dress.  Arab styles were popular (though the Arabs themselves were not).
     
    A renewed interest in realistic beauty and classical art led to many people viewing fashion as an elaborate art form.
     
    The prevalence of Catholicism decreed that women's fashions would still be modest and unrevealing.
     
  • 16. 1600's - Time of Ch-ch-ch-change
    Nation-states started to grow, with the settling of colonies in full swing.  People started dressing more uniquely to show off their national pride.
     
    The religious conflicts had also become a way of life.  Dress became a way to signify what religion someone was.  For example, a Protestant might dress more soberly than a Catholic.
     
    The Scientific Revolution led to many uncertainties about the world.  Fashion became more outlandish as people tried to deal with the new perception of the universe.
     
  • 17. 1700's - Enlightenment
    •  The Enlightenment was an international and cosmopolitan movement that was strongly influenced by the French. This included fashion styles, as both ladies and men began to dress "comme les Français".
    • 18.  People believed that women were natural mothers. This kept them in their traditional clothes with long skirts and sleeves.
    • 19. Children began to be considered children, and started wearing clothes that were more comfortable and more appropriate to their age.
     
  • 20. Clothing Styles for Men, Women, and Children
    By: Lauren Finley and Kimberly Shankwitz, yo
  • 21. 1500's - Renaissance
    The Italian city-states grew wealthy from commerce on the Mediterranean.  They could afford better fabrics and fancier clothes to wear to the parties they held to show off said wealth.
     
    Trade on the Mediterranean brought Italy into contact with many more cultures, leading to different, foreign-inspired variations on dress.  Arab styles were popular (though the Arabs themselves were not).
     
    A renewed interest in realistic beauty and classical art led to many people viewing fashion as an elaborate art form.
     
    The prevalence of Catholicism decreed that women's fashions would still be modest and unrevealing.
     
  • 22. 1600's - Time of Ch-ch-ch-change
    Nation-states started to grow, with the settling of colonies in full swing.  People started dressing more uniquely to show off their national pride.
     
    The religious conflicts had also become a way of life.  Dress became a way to signify what religion someone was.  For example, a Protestant might dress more soberly than a Catholic.
     
    The Scientific Revolution led to many uncertainties about the world.  Fashion became more outlandish as people tried to deal with the new perception of the universe.
     
  • 23. 1700's - Enlightenment
    •  The Enlightenment was an international and cosmopolitan movement that was strongly influenced by the French. This included fashion styles, as both ladies and men began to dress "comme les Français".
    • 24.  People believed that women were natural mothers. This kept them in their traditional clothes with long skirts and sleeves.
    • 25. Children began to be considered children, and started wearing clothes that were more comfortable and more appropriate to their age.
     
  • 26. 1800's - Industrial Revolution
    • New inventions caused a boom in the textile industry. Cotton became cheaper, so poorer people could buy it. Cotton became the material of choice for most clothes.
    • 27. The development of factories meant a new working environment. Workers had to adapt their clothes for the new, physically intensive work.
    • 28.  New products were soon developed and white collar jobs came with them. For white collar workers, fancy clothes became impractical.
     
     
  • 29. 1900's - The Modern Era
    • With the rise of the flappers and the Women's Liberation Movement, women wanted to be equal to men. They cut off their skirts, shocking the older generation.
     
    • On the home front of World War II, clothing used less material, because most material went to the war effort.
     
    • The 1960's saw the advent of "peace, love, and happiness", which shaped fashion with the introduction of hippies and their psychedelic vibes, man.
     
     
  • 30. Educational Changes Throughout European History
     
    By: Carly Hoilman and Mikenzie F.
  • 31. Renaissance
    • Humanist schools emerged all over Europe.
     
    • Main goal:to produce "complete citizens" well-versed in secular subjects.
     
    • VittorinodaFeltre founded the most famous humanist school.
  • Reformation
    • Education in the Reformation opened to a wider crowd of people, as Protestantism depended on Bible-reading followers.
     
    •  Increase in literacy rates as a result. 
     
    • Secondary schools for humanism opened up and schools for religious instruction were established in Germany, following Melancthon's example.
  • Scientific Revolution
    • The Scientific Revolution brought about a new logical way of thinking based on observation and experimentation.
     
    • Christian views of the Reformation were challenged as Copernicus's heliocentric theory opposed Ptolemy's geocentric theory and finite universe.
     
    • Scientific societies emerged as ways to organize research, but became government-promoted ways to better the state.
  • Enlightenment
    • Literacy rate among women and men differed greatly by men having a higher percentage of literacy than women.
    • 32.  Greek, Latin, Math, Sciences, and languages were all part of education during the Enlightenment period.
    • 33.  Chapter Books and brochures came about during this time. The material that was included in them was both spiritual and secular.
     
  • 34. Romanticism and Age of Progress
    • Mass education developed during this time. People had little interest and attendance was not required.
    • 35. Primary School was no available for boys and girls between the ages of six through twelve.
    • 36. Teachers were female because this was the only job they could hold even though it gave them lower wages.
     
  • 37. Ch-
    Ch-
    Ch-
    Ch-
    Changes
    in
    Mike D’Antonio
    Kyle Schrader
    JT Hickman
    Government
  • 38. Government in the 1500s
    Divine Right monarchy still in place.
    Religion was central to politics and the Church was very much intertwined with the state.
    To weed out potential enemies of the state, governments used a religious inquisition (most famous being the Spanish Inquisition).
    Colonial governments established small governmental bodies for themselves.
    Religion was central to many political and diplomatic decisions.
  • 39. Government in the 1600s
    As a continuation, the upper class still basically dominated governments. Most countries were still run by a monarchy or some other indirect form of oligarchy, with the most wealthy and lavish citizens running the state.
    “The bureaucracy is growing to meet the needs of the expanding bureaucracy.”
    Governments increased centralization, curtailing the power of local authorities and opting for more control over the far-flung reaches of their empires.
    Countries made a move toward secularization – that is, they stopped focusing so heavily on religion in international affairs and began to focus more on what was best for the state.
    The Palace of Versailles represents the move towards secularizationby showing the power of the state and king over religion and God.
  • 40. Government in the 1700s
    The Enlightenment brought revolutionary ideas to government, including the idea that people had natural rights
    Enlightened Absolutism- rulers put some of the natural rights into action
    Enlightened Absolutists were limited by the power of the nobility and old order
    French Revolution unleashed liberalism and nationalism in governments
    Catherine the Great was an Enlightened Absolutist but realized the power of the nobility and helped to preserve their positions.
  • 41. Government in the 1800s
    Conservatives supported traditional institutions like monarchies
    Industrialization created a new liberal middle class that wanted representation
    Revolutions of 1848 caused governments to realize it was time to change
    Mass Politics-expansion of democracy through reform, prevailed in Britain and France
    Old order remained in the East
    The 19th century was a time of vast government change. Revolutions flared up across Europe and demanded representation for lower classes.
  • 42. Government in the 1900s
    New government types arose to destroy the remaining proponents of the Old Order.
    Democracy and legislatures replaced single-person or small group rule, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, by the latter half of the 1900s.
    Communism, Fascism, and others rose out of the ashes of the old order as ‘viable’ government types.
    Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union: acted much like the US Congress. This government replaced the Tsarist Regime of Imperial Russia.
  • 43. Literature Through the Ages
    Megan Valentine and Margaret Daubert
  • 44. 16th Century: Religion in Literature
    Indulgences were catalyst for Martin Luther’s ideals.
    Publishing switched from Latin to the vernacular.
    Ninety-Five Theses
    On the Freedom of a Christian Man
    Pamphlets became popular:
    “Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants”
  • 45. 17th Century: Theater and Science
    William Shakespeare known for plays, sonnets, dramas
    “Master of the English language”
    Spanish and French Theater-
    Lope de Vega
    Jean-Baptiste Racine
    Galileo’s The Starry Messenger
    Newton’s Principia
  • 46. 18th Century: Enlightenment
    Travel Literature- James Cook
    Locke vs. Newton
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau- The Social Contract
    Denis Diderot- The Encyclopedia
    Mary Wollstonecraft- The Vindication of the Rights of Women
    Production of the novel- Pamela by Samuel Richardson
    Documentation of History
  • 47. 19th Century: Romanticism and Realism
    Romanticism: nature, idealism, imagination, individualism
    Emphasis on emotion and sentiment
    Sorrows of a Young Werther- Von Goethe
    Ivanhoe- Walter Scott
    Gothic Literature
    Frankenstein- Mary Shelley
    “The Raven”- Edgar Allen Poe
    Poetry
    Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley
    Realism
    Madame Bovary- Gustave Flaubert
  • 48. 20th Century: Modernism and Postmodernism
    Psychoanalysis
    Modernism: Naturalism and Symbolism
    “stream of consciousness”
    “Theater of the Absurd”
    Waiting for Godot- Samuel Beckett
    Postmodernism
    Magic realism
  • 49. -Emphasis on education throughout the middle classes
    -Art
    -Many were illiterate
    Leisure Time
  • 50. Religious values became a revived interest...
    -Education 
    -The emergence of protestant schools 
  • 51. In the midst of religious turmoil...
    -Theater became popular among the wealthy as the patronized playwrights
    - Many also began to take interest in science as scientists began to redefine the field of science. 
  • 52. Education continued to be an important factor ...
    -Spread of literacy
    -Popular literature 
    -Alcohol and taverns
    - Grand tours
  • 53. Due to material prosperity and the hours created by the industrial system....
    -New technology
    -Emergence of mass leisure
    -Music
    -Dance halls
    -Team sports
    -Tourism
  • 54. Music from the 16th to 20th Centuries
    Jack Heiger and Gill Hanna
  • 55. 1500s
    Madrigals became prevalent
    Written for five or six voices
    Used text painting
    Spread to England
    Eg: Deck the Halls
  • 56. 1600s
    The opera, oratorio, sonata, concerto, and symphony were developed in Italy; spread across Europe
    Most musicians depended upon patrons
    Italy and Germany were musical leaders
  • 57. 1700s
    Baroque era
    Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel
    Classical era started in 1750
    Franz Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    New instruments appeared, such as the piano; orchestral music became more popular
  • 58. 1800s
    Ludwig van Beethoven was the bridge between the classical and romantic styles; used uncontrolled rhythms to create dramatic struggle and uplifting resolutions
    Era of Romanticism
    Hector Berlioz: used music to express emotions, stories, and personal experiences
  • 59. 1900s
    Music became pop culture
    Blues, jazz, impressionism, rock-and-roll, punk, rap, hip-hop, serialism, minimalism
    Began to include social commentary
    It was able to spread faster and farther through technology
    Jazz and rock were based on African American styles; influenced later styles, especially as they crossed to Britain and back
  • 60. Warfare Throughout The Ages
    Chadd David Heller and Kyle Alexander Deckman
  • 61. Warefare in the 1500'S
    • Mainly relied on calvary for distinct advantage over other armies
     
    • Soldiers practiced a code of chivalry, keeping their honor in tact
     
    • Used crude weapons to stab/slice/crush/impale/beheaded
    • 62. Wars often started because of religious differences or territorial disputes
    • 63. Ex. Habsburg-Valois War, Netherlands Revolt
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     Habsburg- Valois War, 1551 to 1559
  • 64. Warfare in the 1600's
    • War becomes more important role in determining European affairs
    • 65. Military power considered essential to a ruler's reputation
    • 66. A "military revolution occurs"
    • 67. Introduction of squads and battalions - GustavusAldophis
    • 68. Ex. Thirty Years War, Wars of Louis XIV, The Great Northern War
    T
    Thirty Years War, 1618 to 1648
  • 69. Warfare in the 1700's
    • Use large armies to create a "Balance of power" among other European Nations
    • 70. Popularization of firearms, muskets and rifles
    • 71. Gunpowder based weapons such as cannons 
    • 72. Ex. War of Austrian Succession, Seven Years War, French and Indian War
    F
    French and Indian War, 1754 to 1763
  • 73. Warfare in the 1800's
    •  Focus of war was for political measures rather than religious
    • 74. Ex. Napoleonic Wars, Crimean War, American Civil War, German Unification Wars (Danish, Austro-Purssian, etc)
    Crimean War, 1853 to 1856
  • 75. Warfare in the 1900's
    • Invention of the rapid fire machine-gun causes havoc across "No mans land"
    • 76. Trench warfare used in WWI
    • 77. Automatic rifles used in World War II, tactics become even more important
    • 78. Ex. World War I, World War II, Korean War
    World War I, 1914 to 1918