Automated Warning Devices: CAS & TCAS

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  • 1. April 19, 2012Presented by: Ethan SchaecherUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 2. ACAS & TCAS History • Airborne Collision Avoidance System • Traffic alert & Collision Avoidance System Basics Operation Implementation FutureUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 3. ACAS & TCAS• 1956 Grand Canyon mid-air collision• United Airlines 718 struck TWA 2• 128 Fatalities • Started a wave of new flight regulation operations throughout the U.SUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 4. ACAS & TCAS• The 1960 New York Air Disaster• United Airlines 826 struck TWA 266 over NYC• 134 FatalitiesUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 5. • Following the Grand Canyon mid-air collision and amidst FAA the New York air disaster, FAA & ICAO took action. • Air traffic had more than doubled since WWII • Both started working requiring a form of aircraft anti- collision technology for airlines & GA. ICAOUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 6. ACAS Use Actively interrogates the transponders of other TCAS aircraft- expensive – Aircraft Anti-Collision larger aircraft. Technology Less expensive, passive PCAS form of TCAS, designed for GA – listens to responses from other interrogationsASAS ACAS Low cost, low power,• Airborne separation • Airborne collision FLARM commonly used in gliders or other light aircraft. assurance system avoidance system• Longer range systems • Short-range systems Uses radar altimeter to used to maintain intended to prevent GPWS detect proximity to the ground below – common standard en route actual metal-on- on airliners. separation between metal collisions. aircraft. Uses digital terrain map, together with info from GPS – Predicts if current TAWS flight path could put aircraft in conflict with mountains or high towers. Provides pilots with computer-generated sim. Synthetic Vision of their outside environment in times of low or zero visibilityUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 7. • So how does TCAS work? - It Involves communication between all aircraft that have the required transponder. - Every TCAS-equipped aircraft interrogates all other aircraft in a determined range. - TCAS builds a 3D map of aircraft in the airspace, determining their range, altitude, and bearing. - By using the current range and altitude difference to predict future values, TCAS concludes if a collision threat exists or not.University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 8. • So how does TCAS work? - TCAS interacts with aircraft via operating mode C or S transponder. - If a potential collision is predicted by TCAS, the system acts by alerting with an avoidance maneuver.University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 9. • So how does TCAS work? - Operation Modes:  Stand-by – Power is applied to TCAS and Mode S only  Transponder – Mode S Transponder in use, TCAS on stand-by  Traffic Advisories Only – Mode S in full function, but TCAS will only issue Traffic Advisories (TA’s)  Automatic – Mode S in full function, TCAS in full functionUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 10. • ICAO TCAS ManualUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 11. • ICAO TCAS ManualUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 12. ACAS & TCAS • Traffic Advisories (TA) - Visual search for traffic - Contact ATC • Resolution Advisories (RA) • Immediate action required unless safe operation jeopardized • At times, aircraft will maneuver contrary to ATC instructions • Clear of Conflict (CC) - ATC regains controlUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 13. University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 14. University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
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  • 16. University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 17. • Versions of TCAS • TCAS I  Now mainly intended for GA use.  Monitor traffic in range of 40 miles  Alerts with Traffic Advisories TA’s, but with no course of action!  Pilot’s decision on how to act, with assistance of ATC • TCAS II (Version 7.0)  Current and most advanced generation in use  Now mainly intended for commercial aircraft  Issues Traffic Advisories (TA’s) AND Resolution Advisories  RA’s between two aircraft coordinated before alerted.  Version 7.1 – Will correct RA’s in real time (If pilot in other aircraft fails to act on their initial RA)University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 18. Versions of TCAS • TCAS III  Researched to try and add horizontal RA capability  Failed attempts, the required surveillance tech not yet available, antennas not accurate enough  Version III scrapped • TCAS IV  Uses additional position info encoded on an air-to-air data link to generate bearing info, Needed antenna accuracy no longer needed.  Version abandoned after a new development started, ADS-BUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 19. • Current ICAO Approved Manufacturers of TCAS Version II (7.0 and 7.1)  Honeywell  Rockwell Collins  ACSS (Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems) • Current ICAO Implementation of TCAS:  TCAS II 7.0 in widespread use  TCAS II 7.1 implementation has begun  All forward fit of 7.1 by January 2014  All retrofit by January 2017University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 20. • ADS-B – Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast - Messages containing identity, location, & velocity are transmitted from aircraft to aircraft. - The use of ADS-B can enhance the performance of TCAS by reducing its interrogation operations. - Information can be sent and received quickerUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 21. University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 22. University of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 23. ACAS & TCAS History • Airborne Collision Avoidance System • Traffic alert & Collision Avoidance System Basics Operation Implementation FutureUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160
  • 24. April 19, 2012Presented by: Ethan SchaecherUniversity of Nebraska - Omaha Aviation Safety – AVN 1160