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Fire Fighting Of Shopping Plaza
Rizvi college of architecture
A fire escape is a
of emergency exit,
usually mounted to the
outside of a building or
occasionally inside but
separate from the main
areas of the building. It
provides a method of
escape in the event of
a fire or other emergency
that makes the
stairwells inside a
Proper signage's and directions were
provided on each floor.
MISSUSE OF STAIRCASE
•Improper storage of
flammable materials in fire
•Hose reel system
adjacent to the staircase.
•Curved design makes its
inefficient for use as a fire
•Fire Exist doors are opened by a push bar.
•Speaker were provided on fire exist for guidance in case of emergency.
•Glass ventilators on either side of the staircase.
•Smoke outlets/ventilation system from basement.
ENTRY / EXIT
A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an
indicator of fire.
Smoke detectors are typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic
enclosure about 150 millimetres (6 in) in diameter and 25 millimetres
(1 in) thick,
Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection (photoelectric)
or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection
methods to increase sensitivity to smoke.
Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential
buildings are usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is
powered by the building power with a battery backup.
TYPES OF SMOKE DETECTORS
PHOTOELECTRIC :In this type principle
of reflected or scattered light is
used to indicate the presence of visual
IONIZATION: In this type radioactive
source is used to ionize the air within
A pulsed light beam from a light-emitting diode (LED) with its associated optics is
projected across the interior of a blackened chamber that may contain smoke to be
detected. A photocell, with its optics, looks toward the projected beam along a line
perpendicular to the beam. When smoke enters the chamber, the smoke particles
reflect a small portion of the light beam toward the photocell, which provides a voltage
to be amplified and causes an alarm. The light source may be monitored ahead of the
smoke chamber and regulated to prevent variation of the light intensity from causing
erratic detector behavior.
• A small amount of
ionizes the air inside a
chamber that is open to
the ambient air.
• A measured, small
electrical current is
allowed to flow through
the ionized air.
• The small, solid particle
products of combustion
that enter the chamber as
a result of fire interfere
with the normal
movement of ions
(current), and when the
current drops low enough,
an alarm results.
• A two-position switch to
control sensitivity may be
Heat and Smoke Vents
•Heat and Smoke Vents are installed in buildings as an
active fire protection measure
•They are openings in the roof which are intended to vent
the heat and smoke developed by a fire inside the building
by the action of buoyancy, such that they are known as
Reasons to install vents
• Storage occupancies - The heat release rate from high piled storage
commodities is expected to be very high. In such cases, it is considered by
some fire protection professionals desirable to vent the heat from the
building if the temperatures in the building reaches sufficiently high levels
to endanger the structural stability of the roof system.
• Smoke venting is also considered to provide a minor benefit to increase
the visibility in the interior space to facilitate manual fire fighting efforts
for a limited period of time.
• The use of vents in sprinklered buildings has been controversial over the
last 25 years. Vent technology and sprinkler technology were developed
independently of one another. Their interaction as beneficial technologies
working together has not been successfully demonstrated. Many fire
protection professionals are concerned that vents may cause sprinkler
systems to fail to control a fire.
• Large internal volume spaces – Venting smoke from large spaces which
regularly contain large numbers of people, such as malls and atria
Types of vents
Automatic heat and
smoke vents are
in two general
actuator, or electric
• Drop-out vent –
shrinks in the
presence of heat
An area of refuge is a location in a building designed to hold occupants during a
fire or other emergency, when evacuation may not be safe or possible. Occupants
can wait there until firefighters come to rescue them.
This can apply to the following:
•any persons who cannot access a safe escape route
•any persons assisting another person who is prevented from
•patients in a hospital
•people with disabilities
•very young children or infants
•medical personnel who may be operating on a patient at the time
of the emergency
•operators in a nuclear power station
• An area of refuge is typically equipped with a steady supply of fresh
• The ducting that must supply such fresh air is referred to as
• Such ductwork are items of passive fire protection, ,
• The idea is that the ductwork must remain operable even while
exposed to fire for a duration stipulated for each occupancy by the
local building code.
• A two way communication system is required on each floor above
or below the main floor in a newly constructed building.
• A call box is required in each area of refuge which will call into a
central location called a base station. If the station is not attended
24 hours a day, the call must automatically call to an outside
location and have two-way voice person to person communication
SPRINKLER SYSTEMS- A fire sprinkler system is an
active fire protection measure, consisting of a water supply
system, providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water
distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are
connected. Sprinkler systems provide early fire control or
extinguishment, helping to mitigate the hazards for occupants and
TYPES OF SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
Wet standpipe system
Dry standpipe- system
SYSTEMS FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHING
• Carbon Dioxide Fire
Carbon Dioxide extinguishers
contain pressurized liquid
carbon dioxide, which turns
to gas when expelled. Of
particular importance if the
fire protection is needed in
areas with sensitive
Effective on Class B or C fires.
• Class D Fire Extinguisher:
Class D Fire is one that
involves combustible metals
or combustible metal alloys.
There are basically two types
of Class D fire extinguishers.
The extinguishing agent for
type 1 Class D is Sodium
Chloride. The extinguishing
agent for type 2 Class D is a
copper based dry powder.
• Clean Agent Fire Extinguisher:
Like CO2 , clean agent fire extinguishers store agent as a liquid, which turns to gas when it
hits the air. Effective on Class A, B, and C fires.
• Water Mist Fire Extinguisher:
Water Mist fire extinguishers are environmentally friendly, clean, and easy to use. Water
Mist fire extinguishers have no ODP (ozone depletion potential), no environmental concerns
about its atmospheric life, and it has no toxic products of decomposition. Perfect for Class A
fires, especially where a potential Class C (electrical) hazard exists.
• Water & Foam Stored Pressure Fire
Stored pressure water fire extinguishers
extinguish fires by providing a cooling, soaking
stream of water. Effective for a Class A fire.
AFFF Foam fire extinguishers are typically used
to fight Class B fires, but are rated to fight Class
A fires as well. FFFP Foam fire extinguishers are
also Class A:B rated. FFFP foam is alcohol
resistant and is effective on a wide variety of
Class B materials
• Class K Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher:
Purple K extinguishers contain specially
fluidized and siliconized potassium bicarbonate
dry chemical which is particularly effective on
Class B. Wet Chemical fire extinguishers are
the best restaurant kitchen appliance.
• Wheeled Unit Fire Extinguisher:
A wheeled fire extinguisher is designed with a
larger fire in mind. A wheeled unit allows the
fire extinguisher operator to transport a
larger cylinder to the location of a fire.
• A heat detector is a fire alarm device designed to respond
• when the convected thermal energy of a fire increases the
temperature of a heat sensitive element. The thermal mass and
conductivity of the element regulate the rate flow of heat into the
element. All heat detectors have this thermal lag. Heat detectors
have two main classifications of operation, "rate-of-rise" and "fixed
Hose reel system is intended
for the occupant to use
during the early stages of a
fire and comprises hose reel
pumps, fire storage tank,
hose reels, pip work and
A typical hose reel
installation is shown.
Hose Reel System
Types of Hose:
AttackHose is a fabric-covered, bring water from the fire
pumper to the nozzle. This hose ranges in nominal inside
diameter from1.5 to 3 in (38 to 76 mm) and is designed to
operate at pressures up to about 400 psi (2,760 kPa). The
standard length is 50 ft. (15.24 m).
Supply and relay Hose is large-diameter, fabric-covered, bring
water from a distant hydrant to the fire pumper or to relay
water from one pumper to another over a long distance. These
hoses range in nominal inside diameter from 3.5 to 5.0 in (89
to 127 mm). They are designed to operate at pressures up to
about 300 psi (2,070 kPa) for the smaller diameters and up to
200 psi (1,380 kPa) for the larger diameters. The standard
length is 100 ft. (30.48 m)
Forestry Hose is a fabric-covered, used to fight fires in grass,
brush, and trees where a lightweight hose is needed in order to
maneuverer it over steep or rough terrain. Forestry hose comes
in 1.0 and 1.5 in (25 and 38 mm) nominal inside diameters and
is designed to operate at pressures up to about 450 psi
(3,100 kPa). The standard length is 100 ft. (30.48 m).
Booster Hose is a rubber-covered, thick-walled used to fight small
fires. Booster hose comes in 0.75 and 1.0 in (19 and 25 mm) nominal
inside diameters and is designed to operate at pressures up to 800 psi
(5,520 kPa). The standard length is 100 ft. (30.48 m).
Suction Hose or Hard Suction is a rubber-covered, semi-rigid hose
with internal metal reinforcements. It is used to suck water out of
unpressurized sources, such as ponds or rivers, by means of a
vacuum. Suction hose ranges in nominal inside diameter from 2.5 to
6.0 in (64 to 152 mm). The standard length is 10 ft (3.05 m).
A standpipe is a type of rigid water piping which is built into multi-story buildings in a vertical
position, to which fire hoses can be connected. Standpipes classes are as follows:
• Class I system. A system providing 2 1
2-inch (64mm) hose connections to supply water for
use by fire departments and in handling heavy fire steams.
• Class II system. A system providing 11
2-inch (38mm) hose connection to supply water for
use by the fire department during initial response.
• Class III system. A system providing both 11
2-inch (38mm) and 21
2-inch (64mm) hose
There are two types of standpipes:
• Automatic Dry
• Automatic Wet
• Manual Dry
• Manual Wet
Many high-rise or other large buildings have an internal system of water mains
(standpipes) connected to fire-hose stations and landing valves. Trained occupants or
employees of the building management operate the hoses until the fire department
arrives. Fire fighters can also connect their hoses to outlets near the fire.
There are two types of standpipes/ riser : “Wet Risers" and “Dry Risers"
Standpipe/ Riser Systems
Wet risers are a form of internal
hydrant for the fireman to use and
are always charged with water. Wet
risers are only required for building
where the topmost floor is higher
than 30.5 meters above the fire
appliance access level.
Wet riser system comprises duty fire
pumps with standby pump
discharging into riser pipe with
landing valves at each level and to jet
at the fire. A jockey pump is usually
provided to maintain system
A typical wet riser installation is
Wet Riser System
Fire pumps are used to boost the water pressure in sprinkler and standpipe systems
and to deliver the required amount of water. The pipes supplying water to the hoses
are pressurized all the time. Three pumps supply the water from the tank to the
hoses. The pumps are the duty pump, the stand-by pump, and the jockey pump.
Pressure switches along the pipe control the starting of each pump. The pressures are
monitored at the pump room to control the pumps. A typical system for a high-rise
building is described below.
The first pump to start will be the jockey
pump. The controlling pressure switch is set
to start the pump at a pressure of 150 psi
and stop it when the pressure reaches 230
If a small leak exist in the wet riser piping -
either on the wet riser or hose reel - the
pump will start in order to compensate for
If the pressure drops below 125 psi, this means a
wet riser landing valve or a hose reel gate valve has
been opened. The pressure switch that senses this
set pressure activates and starts the duty pump.
If for any reason the pressure continues to drop
below 125 psi, it means either the duty pump has
not started or is not available (under repair). The
stand-by pump then takes over the function, not
performed by the duty pump. The stand-by pump
is set to cut-in at 95 psi.
Once the water flow is not needed any more the
pressure builds up in the piping network. The duty
or stand-by pumps stops after the cut-out pressure
is reached at 220 psi.
The jockey pump continues to run until the system
pressure reaches its cut-out pressure of 230 psi.
Dry risers are a form of internal hydrant for
the fireman to use and are always charged
with water. Wet risers are only required for
building where the topmost floor is higher
than 18.3 meters and less than 30.5 meters
above the fire appliance access level.
Dry risers are normally dry and depend on
the fire engine to pump water into the
system. Dry riser system comprises a riser
pipe with landing valves at each floor and to
which rubber-lined hose with nozzles can be
connected to direct the water jet at the fire.
Breeching inlet into which the firemen
pump water are provided at ground level
and connected to the bottom of the dry
A typical dry riser installation is shown.
Dry Riser System
Why dry riser are used in cold countries?
In cold countries, the weather
some times get below freezing
point, and then it is hard to keep
pipes insulated and they tend to
freeze up when water is held
inside them. With a dry riser you
will have either a hosepipe or a
sprinkler system that does not
have any water in it but instead is
filled with air.
Suppression Gas System
A suppression gas extinguisher
system consists of gas cylinders,
steel piping, discharge nozzles,
heat, and smoke detector and a
control panel, which monitors the
space, activates both visual and
audio alarms before releasing the
The gas discharged after a time
delay upon detection of fire to
warn any occupant to evacuate
the room. Such systems are
usually provided for electrical
transformer room, switch room
and standby generator room and
should not be installed for room,
which is normally occupied.
A typical Carbon Dioxide
extinguisher installation is shown.
Wet Chemical System
Wet chemical systems are
designed to provide fire protection
for commercial kitchen hoods.
They provide efficient, automatic
detector response with fast-acting
fire suppression with no danger of
re-flash or re-ignition. The
installation comprises gas
cylinders, steel piping, discharge
nozzles, control head, detector
with fusible element and manual
pull station. The system provides
automatic actuation and can be
manually actuated through a
manual pull station. Upon
actuation, the system discharges a
pre-determined amount of agent
to the duct, plenum, and cooking
A typical wet chemical system
installation is shown.
Foam Deluge System
Foam deluge systems, sprinkler heads
are open and the pipe is not
pressurized with air. Foam Deluge
systems are connected to a water
supply through a deluge valve that is
opened by the operation of a smoke or
heat detection system. Foam is mixed
in with the water supply from a foam
bladder tank. The detection system is
installed in the same area as the
sprinklers. When the detection system
is activated foam water discharges
through all of the sprinkler heads in the
system. Foam Deluge systems are used
in places that are considered high
hazard areas such as power plants, off
shore oil rigs, aircraft hangars and
chemical storage or processing
A sample of foam deluge system
installation is shown
FIRE ALARM CONTROL PANEL (FACP)
A Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP), or Fire
Alarm Control Unit (FACU), is the
controlling component of a Fire Alarm
System. The panel receives information
from environmental sensors designed to
detect changes associated with fire,
monitors their operational integrity and
provides for automatic control of
equipment, and transmission of information
necessary to prepare the facility for fire
based on a predetermined sequence.
WHERE FIRE ALARM CONTROL PANEL SHOULD BE
The Fire Alarm Control panel should
normally be sited in an area as follows:
Preferably in an area of low fire risk and on
the ground floor by the entrance used by the
Brigade and preferably viewable from
outside of the building. It should be located
in an area
common to all building users and where
automatic detection is in use, the Control
be in a protected area.
PRINCIPLE TYPES OF ALARM SYSTEM
All Fire Alarm Systems essentially
operate on the same principle. If a
detector detects smoke or heat, or
someone operates a break glass
unit, then alarm sounders operate
to warn others in the building that
there may be a fire and to
• Analogue Addressable
Automatic Sprinkler System
An automatic sprinkler system is
intended to detect, control and
extinguish a fire, and warn the
occupants of occurrence of fire.
The installation comprises fire
pumps, water storage tanks,
control valve sets, sprinkler heads,
flow switches, pressure switches,
pipe work and valves. The system
operates automatically without
human intervention. The sprinkler
head has a liquid filled glass bulb
that breaks due to the heat of the
fire and release water that sprays
The installation is the most
common type and a typical
sprinkler is shown.
External Fire Hydrant
Fire hydrant installation consists of a
system of pip work connected
directly to the water supply main to
provide water to each and every
hydrant outlet and is intended to
provide water for the firemen to
fight a fire. The water is discharged
into the fire engine form which it is
then pumped and sprayed over fire.
Where the water supply is not
reliable or inadequate, hydrant
pumps should be provided to
pressurize the fire mains.
A typical hydrant installation fed
directly from JBA water main and
pressurized by fire pumps is shown
An emergency exit in a structure is a special exit for emergencies such as a
fire: the combined use of regular and special exits allows for faster
evacuation, while it also provides an alternative if the route to the regular
exit is blocked by fire, etc.
It is usually a strategically located (e.g. in a stairwell, hallway, or other likely
place) outward opening door with a crash bar on it and with exit signs
leading to it.
A fire escape is a special kind of emergency exit, mounted to the outside of
Local building codes will often dictate the number of fire exits required
for a building of a given size. This may include specifying the number of
For any building bigger than a private house, modern codes invariably
specify at least two sets of stairs. Furthermore, such stairs must be
completely separate from each other
An exit sign is a device in a public facility denoting the location of the
emergency exit, guiding people to the closest exit in case of fire or other
emergency. Most relevant codes (fire, building, health or safety) require
exit signs to be permanently lit. Exit signs are designed to be absolutely
unmistakable and understandable to anyone
A small minority of nations adhered to the exit signs that show the word "EXIT"
(or similar in another language). The English word "exit" comes directly from the
Latin word meaning "(he or she) goes out.“
Now-a-days emergency exits are given more important with proper design and
Emergency exits are to highlighted because during the fire it should be visible
from a distance so that people can run in that direction to be safe
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Fire detectors are designed to
detect one or more of the three
characteristics of fire – smoke,
heat and flame. Besides that,
every fire detection system must
include manual call point (break
glass), so that in the event of fire,
help can be called immediately.
During a fire, activation of an
alarm sounders or bells is to
arouse the attention of the
occupants so that evacuation can
be carried out without causing
harm to the occupants.
A sample of fire detection and
alarm system installation is shown
Things to be taken care of
• Fire protection should be provided in malls with all care and condition that
are required to save once life
• The staircase that are to be provided should be at minimum distance of
• Advantage for fire protection is that is safe life during emergency
• Care should be taken that the building in and out is properly maintain
• Signage that are to be provided should be properly seen from far away.
• Bright colors should be used for signage.
•The distance between
Bandra fire station &
Globus is about 1 km.
•The average time for a
fire brigade to reach
Gobus will be about
•The Fire-Fighting Access
is through the back
•The Entrance connects
the main road 10 m wide
Clothes are the major fire load of the building and there is inadequate
storage of it especially in small store areas and in the service staircase.
These areas can be a possible fire hazard.
Exposed wires and instruments strewn along with clothes
can be a potential fire hazard.
DEFUNCT FIRE DETECTORS
Some of the detectors are defunct and there is a lack of periodic inspection.
The detectors should be maintained and taken care of.
CLUTTER FREE FIRE EXIT
They should store clothes in a orderly manner in the store rooms
and the fire exit / service staircase should be made clutter free.
There should be periodical checking of functionality of
various equipments like Speakers, hydrants, alarms
extinguishers, detectors, sprinklers etc.
If any malfunctioned should immediately be replaced
The employees should be
well informed about fire safety
They were lacking of such
They should have a proper
Fire fighting unit dedicated to
They should conduct fire drills.
They should properly maintain
storage, and exit area