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Opportunities to improve the lives of poor farmers through livestock interventions in Africa.

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Presentation by Gregg BeVier at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

Presentation by Gregg BeVier at the 5th All Africa conference on animal production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-28 October 2010.

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  • NOTE: There is a series of images beneath this title slide that will loop while your audience is getting settled in. Hit ESC to advance to your title slide.
  • More than a decade ago (in 1997), Bill and Melinda read an article about all of the diseases killing millions of children every year in poor countries. One pathogen really caught their attention called rotavirus. Rotavirus is one of the main causes of diarrhea — kids in the United States get it all of the time and we give them Pedialyte. But when kids in the developing world get it they often die. Bill and Melinda concluded that in our world not all lives were being treated as if they had equal value, so right then they decided that this would be the priority of their giving. They started making grants in support of global health initiatives, as well as initiatives within the United States. One of their first initiatives was helping libraries in the United States get connected to the Internet in 1997. They officially set up the foundation in 2000, solidifying their commitment to philanthropy. Then, six years later, the foundation was pleasantly shocked when Warren Buffett donated most of his shares of Berkshire Hathaway stock (and doubled our endowment). When Warren made the announcement, Melinda said “it’s something that we take very seriously, we feel an incredible responsibility. I think when you give away your own wealth it’s one thing, but to give away the body of somebody else’s life’s work is really quite something.”This decision helped lead to the work of the Global Development Program.
  • The belief at the core of our work is that all lives have equal value. This is something the Gates family has always believed, and it drives everything we do.
  • Here are the major areas where we decided to work: We give about a quarter of our resources to the Global Development Program, a quarter to the United States Program, and half to the Global Health Program. These are rough guidelines for allocation that may change over time.The U.S. and Global Health Programs are well established, while the Global Development Program was just created about two years ago. The program grew out of recognition of the deep links between health and development, and of the opportunities for the foundation to have an impact in developing countries in areas beyond health.Even though we formally organize our grantmaking into these three programs, we work closely together across the foundation and learn from each other about what works and what doesn’t.
  • We focus on small farmers, most of whom are women. Our efforts are concentrated on farm families who live on just a few hectares of land. Reducing hunger and poverty on a large scale begins with them.
  • Here are a few of the key considerations we keep in mind when we think about where and how to invest our resources.
  • The need to make agriculture more productive and sustainable is clear and compelling. Simply put, a majority of people living on less than $1 a day rely on agriculture, but struggle to grow enough food to eat. If you are concerned about reducing hunger and poverty, agriculture is a great place to start.
  • We’ve also seen amazing progress in parts of the developing world. During the Green Revolution, improvements in staple crops like maize, wheat, and rice helped double the amount of food produced, save hundreds of millions of lives, and drive broader development throughout much of Asia and Latin America. While there were also some unintended consequences that left us with important lessons for today, the Green Revolution demonstrated that large-scale progress is possible. Today, many people in countries like India and China are reaping the benefits of agricultural investments and innovations made a generation ago. One of the heroes of the Green Revolution is Norman Borlaug, a crop breeder who developed high-yielding wheat varieties that enabled the success of the Green Revolution. He is one of only five people who have been awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Congressional Medal of Honor, and the Nobel Peace Prize. The other four are Nelson Mandela, Elie Wiesel, Mother Theresa, and Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Still, agriculture in developing countries has been neglected over the past several decades. In Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, governments allocate only approximately four percent of their budgets to agriculture. Among donor countries, agriculture made up only three percent of official development assistance in 2005—down nearly fivefold from just two decades ago. And of the $36 billion spent on agricultural research in 2000, only $1.5 billion—about four percent—was spent on Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • We focus on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Seventy eight percent of the people who live on less than $1 a day live in these two regions.
  • Still, agriculture in developing countries has been neglected over the past several decades. In Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, governments allocate only approximately four percent of their budgets to agriculture. Among donor countries, agriculture made up only three percent of official development assistance in 2005—down nearly fivefold from just two decades ago. And of the $36 billion spent on agricultural research in 2000, only $1.5 billion—about four percent—was spent on Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Still, agriculture in developing countries has been neglected over the past several decades. In Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, governments allocate only approximately four percent of their budgets to agriculture. Among donor countries, agriculture made up only three percent of official development assistance in 2005—down nearly fivefold from just two decades ago. And of the $36 billion spent on agricultural research in 2000, only $1.5 billion—about four percent—was spent on Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • In 2007, the foundation made just over $2 billion in grants. While that may sound like a lot of money, it’s nowhere near enough to solve the kinds of problems we all work on. That’s why partnerships and advocacy are so critical.This slide shows the gap in our resources and other investments for agricultural development.
  • Sometimes it’s worth reminding ourselves of the many reasons why we’re optimistic about the future. Here are just a few. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE MAKING PROGRESS The percentage of people in developing countries living in extreme poverty has actually fallen significantly in the past two decades. In 1990, more than 30 percent of people lived on less than $1 a day. In 2004, the number had fallen below 20 percent. 25 years ago there were only a handful of African democracies (Botswana, Senegal, and Mauritius); today more than 40 countries hold regular elections. Not all are exemplary, but the trend is overwhelmingly positive. And according to the 2008 Mo Ibrahim Index, governance has improved in almost two-thirds of African countries. Some 31 of 48 sub-Saharan countries recorded higher scores than last year. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYWe’re also optimistic about the incredible benefits that science and technology can make when applied to the problems poor people face. In Kenya, for example, millions of people are already using a service called M-PESA, which allows people to store and transfer money through their mobile phones. This could have big implications for small farmers.RENEWED ATTENTION TO HUNGER, POVERTY, AND AGRICULTUREThe Millennium Development Goals have helped focus the world’s attention on hunger and poverty. We’re also pleased that African leaders have committed themselves, through the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP), to increased spending and outcomes on agriculture. McKinsey Report:Africa’s retail and wholesale sectors are growing just as fast (at a 6.8% CAGR) as the agricultural sector (at a 5.5% CAGR), a promising trend for a healthy economy.Microeconomic reforms have strongly correlated with economic growth.Labor productivity, measured between 2000 and2008, has grown for the first time in decades: 2.7% growth versus negative growth since 1980.  GDP has grown by 5% during this period.Private foreign capital flows to Africa have risen sharply since 2003, reaching $90 billion in 2007, far surpassing aid and remittances which historically has been the biggest inflow of foreign capital.The number of households in the bottom income bracket is expected to be halved by 2020.Africa represents approximately 60% of the total potential arable cropland globally, making it a high priority for agribusiness wishing to invest over the long-term.An African Green Revolution could more than triple the value of agriculture production by 2030, where horticulture processing presents the largest opportunity for value addition.Transportation accounts for the biggest share of infrastructure spend by African governments.
  • [A place for you to insert your own photo and tell your own story...]

Transcript

  • 1. Opportunities to improve the lives of poor farmers through livestock interventions in Africa
    Presenter Name Line 1
    Presenter Name Line 2
    Presenter Name Line 3
    Gregg BeVier
    All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture
    Oct 25, 2010
  • 2. How We Got Started
    2
    2000
    2006
    1997
    2000
    2006
    1997
    Bill and Melindaread an article about rotavirus
    They officially
    create the
    foundation
    Warren Buffettdecides to giveBerkshire Hathawaystock
  • 3. Our Core Belief: All Lives Have Equal Value
    3
  • 4. Our Grantmaking Areas
    4
    25%
    Global Development
    Program
    50%
    Global Health
    Program
    Increasing opportunities for people in developing countries to lift themselves out of hunger and poverty
    Discover, develop,and deliver lifesavinghealth solutions to the people who needthem most.
    25%
    United States
    Program
    Greater opportunity for all Americans through the attainment of secondary and postsecondary education
  • 5. Focus on Small Farmers
    5
    More than 1 billion people live on less than $1 a day. What does that mean?
    There’s a good chance they:
    • Don’t have clean water or safe sanitation
    • 6. Spend long hours doing backbreaking work
    • 7. Eat only 1 or 2 meals a day
    • 8. Aren’t able to send their kids to school
    • 9. Lack basic financial services
  • Grantmaking Principles
    6
    There are many ways to address hunger and poverty. We’ve focused on a limited set of areas with the potential to be:
    • Effective in addressing a problem that has received insufficient attention and has potential for a significant breakthrough
    • 10. Scalable so solutions can ultimately reach many of the people who need them most
    • 11. Sustainable through long-term operations and financing
  • Why Agricultural Development?
    7
    Agriculture is key to reducing hunger and poverty
    • Most people living on $1 a day rely on agriculture for food and income.
    • 12. In sub-Saharan Africa, farming accounts for 2/3 of labor and 1/3 of GDP
    Labor in sub-Saharan Africa
    Other labor
    Farming
    Gross domestic product
    ratios in sub-Saharan Africa
    Other labor
    Farming
  • 13. The Green Revolution
    8
    Rural poverty in India
    • We know progress is possible. From the 1960s to the 1980s, crop improvements in Asia and Latin America helped:
    • 14. Double food production
    • 15. Save hundreds of millions of lives
    • 16. Lay a foundation for growth in countries like India and China
    Poverty rate, %
    60
    50
    20%
    GREEN
    REVOLUTION
    PERIOD
    40
    1985
    1980
    1975
    1970
    1965
    Nearly 20% reduction inpoverty in just two decades
  • 17. Agriculture’s Impact Ignored
    9
    Despite its importance, agriculture has been neglected over the last several decades by both developing and donor countries—especially in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Donors
    Sub-Saharan African Gov’ts
    Average yield for a farmer
    Sub-Saharan Africa
    India
    China
    Agricultural
    spending as %
    of gov’t budget
    Agriculture as
    % of GDP
    Tons of cereal per acre
    0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
    United States
    1985
    2006
  • 18. Address Areas of Greatest Need
    10
    Legend
    Sub-Saharan Africa
    South Asia
    We focus on sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where nearly 80 percent of people making less than $1 a day live
  • 19. Livestock are widely held by small shareholders
    Increase income from livestock is primary focus but
    Reduce hunger & improve nutrition
    Increase asset base
    Improve farm productivity
    Focus on entire value chain: genetics, health, nutrition, market access, data and policy
    Consider environmental impact
    11
    Livestock Theory of ChangeImproving livestock productivity & market access will increase small shareholder income
  • 20. Why Livestock ?
    12
    70% Of The People In The World’s Poorest 62 Countries Are Dependent Upon Livestock
    • In the last 30 years, access to livestock technology and market access has decreased when compared to the developed world
    • 21. In the next 20 years the protein gap that is already an issue is set to expand in Africa and the Indian subcontinent
    • 22. It is estimated that 25% of the animals of poor livestock keepers die each year
  • Why livestock?
    13
    Animal Source Foods – highly strategic in nutritionally challenged populations (women & children)
    • Dense sources of protein, energy
    • 23. Delivers essential, highly available micronutrients more effectively than plant-based food
    • 24. Associated with
    • 25. Better growth, cognitive function and physical activity of children
    • 26. Better pregnancy outcomes
    • 27. Reduced morbidity from illness
    Source: ILRI
  • 28. Livestock can be a key lever of change for smallholders because the majority own livestock
    Sub-Saharan Africa
    Number of Poor by Daily Income Grouping
    (millions)
    (61%)
    (60%)
    Source: ILRI 2008 based on World Bank (2001) and LID (1999)
  • 29. 15
    Case studies show that the rural poor obtains at least a third of their income from livestock
    Percent of income derived
    from Livestock
    Source: ILRI 2008; Listening to the Voices of the Poor, LDG 2007
  • 30. Stages of Progression Out of Poverty
    16
    Purchasing a dairy cow
    Buying land/plots
    Constructing permanent houses
    Investing in a business
    Purchase a local cattle
    Improvements to housing, furniture
    Secondary education for children
    Buy or lease land
    Food
    Clothing
    Repairs to house
    Primary education for children
    Purchase a chicken
    Purchase a sheep or goat
    Source: Pathways Out Of Poverty in Western Kenya and the Role of Livestock (ILRI), 2004
  • 31. Major Reasons for Escaping Poverty% of households that had escaped poverty mentioned these reasons:
    17
    Employment in private or public sector
    Cash income from crop farming
    Diversification into livestock farming
    Help from relatives or friends
    Petty trade / business
    Small family size
    Education
    Bride wealth
    Source: Pathways Out Of Poverty in Western Kenya and the Role of Livestock (ILRI), 2004
  • 32. Livestock Opportunities and Challenges
    18
    Opportunities
    Challenges
    Regular income stream from livestock acts as a hedge against inflation and supplements smallholders’ seasonal crop income.
    One of the most widely held assets, livestock is also a large cash source when critical.
    Livestock is a key source of food, especially for women and children in the household, reducing hunger and improving nutrition in areas with high under-nourishment rates
    Livestock can enhance farm productivity through draught power and nutrient recycling.
    Negative environmental consequences can result from intensification of livestock production.
    Livestock production isless efficientuse of energywith high conversion rates compared with crop production.
    Under-investment by public and private organizations in the sector results in a data-poor environment with limited success stories.
    Pastoralists are the poor livestock keepers most dependent on livestock; however, comprehensive interventions are challenging due to environmental, socio-cultural and political contexts.
  • 33. Cattle, chickens and goats are the main livestock kept across SSA and SA, with buffaloes also kept in large numbers in India
    *Almost all buffaloes are in India
    Note: Analysis does not include smaller livestock such as bees, other birds, rabbits and silk worms
    Source: FAOSTAT Oct 2008, Team analysis
    19
  • 34. 20
    Focusing on milk, beef, chicken meat and eggs will address the vast majority of the opportunity
    ESTIMATES
    Livestock Income Increase Potential by Region and Product
    $4.4B
    $1.7B
    $7.2B
    $0.1B
    Sheep Meat
    TOTAL:
    $13.5 Billion
    Annual Impact
    Goat Milk $0.5B
    Sheep Milk $0.8B
    Goat Milk
    Goat Meat
    Goat Meat $0.3B
    Eggs $0.1B
    Beef $0.7B
    Eggs $0.4B
    Chicken Meat $0.2B
    Eggs
    $0.8B
    Beef $0.3B
    Milk
    $5.4B
    Chicken Meat
    Milk
    $2.7B
    Beef
    $0.3B
    Milk
    $0.3B
    South Asia
    West Africa
    East Africa
    Central Africa
    Current Producer Income:
    $18.9B
    $3.5B
    $11.3B
    $0.5B
    Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis
  • 35. 21
    Cattle and poultry products are the largest contributors to household income with the most significant opportunities for improvement
    % Output increase opportunity by closing productivity gap
    Cow Milk (49% of livestock income, 45% productivity gap)
    336M
    Sheep Milk (2% income, 126% gap)
    High priority
    Low priority
    345M
    No. of poor livestock keepers
    Chicken Eggs (10% income, 33% gap)
    Goat Meat
    (4% income, 27% gap)
    Beef (12% income, 31% gap)
    269M
    275M
    420M
    420M
    Prioritized Species/ Livestock Products
    Goat Milk
    (6% of income,
    27% gap)
    336M
    Chicken Meat (14% income, 8% gap)
    Sheep Meat
    (3% income, 12% gap)
    269M
    % of Total Livestock Producer Income in top 20 countries
    Note: Productivity gap calculated by comparing output per animal against Average of top quartile among Least Developed Countries.
    For India, productivity gap is calculated by comparing regions to top quartile of most productive producers in India. Includes only prioritized countries
    Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis
  • 39. 22
    Countries with the most number of poor livestock keepers and the biggest potential impact on household income
    60%
    Ethiopia
    Tanzania
    Burkina
    Faso
    Bangladesh
    Impact on Household Income
    Percent Increase
    30%
    Sudan
    Ghana
    Niger
    (6M, 13%)
    Mozambique
    (overlapped) Uganda (10M, 11%)
    (overlapped) Madagascar (7M, 13%)
    Nigeria
    Mali
    Somalia
    DRC
    367M
    India
    Cameroon
    Zambia
    Kenya
    Pakistan
    0%
    0
    35
    70
    Number of Livestock Farmers (Million)
    South Asia
    Livestock Product
    East Africa
    West Africa
    *Countries to be confirmed pending post-conflict country strategy development
    Central Africa
    Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis
  • 40. Opportunity for Impact
    Animals play a role in all farming systems
    But productivity and consumption rates continue to lag
    FAO 2009 SOFA Report
  • 41. 24
    Preliminary assessments indicate that addressing productivity constraints and linking farmers to markets could add significant value for smallholders
    Beef
    Milk
    Full Potential Value Creation Opportunity
    Billion Dollars
    Full Potential Value Creation Opportunity
    Billion Dollars
    $0.8
    $1.3
    $4.1
    $8.5
    Other
    Other
    Nutrition
    Nutrition
    Health
    $4.3
    Health
    $0.5
    Hen Eggs
    Chicken Meat
    Full Potential Value Creation Opportunity
    Billion Dollars
    Full Potential Value Creation Opportunity
    Billion Dollars
    $1.2
    $1.3
    $0.4
    $0.4
    Other
    Other
    Nutrition
    Nutrition
    Health
    $0.1
    Health
    $0.02
  • 42. 25
    Livestock Revolution: Countries took different paths to dramatically increase output
    Case Example: India
    Average Annual GDP Growth:
    (1980-2006)
    6.4%
    Key Enablers and impact on smallholder farmers
    Dairy
    • Rapid GDP growth and urbanization created demand for dairy and meat
    • 43. Large holdings and foreign investment into dairy sector
    • 44. Cooperative movements, such as the National Dairy Development Board, successfully links smallholder farmers to formal sector, and providing access to essential feed and animal health inputs, as well as knowhow for intensification of production
    Poultry
    • Discontinuous development in poultry with “bursts” of intensification through industrial investors stepping in as urbanization and demand increases
    • 45. Smallholder farmers becoming competitively disadvantaged vs. large scale producers
    Production Output (million tons)
    CAGR
    (1980-2007)
    Output Per
    Animal
    Total
    Output
    4%
    2.8%
    12%
    0.0%
    2005
    1980
    1985
    1990
    1995
    2000
    Source: FAOSTAT August 2008, World Development Report
  • 46. 26
    There are numerous potential areas for intervention along livestock value chains, ranging from science and technology to market linkages
    R&D and Delivery
    Value Chains
    Processing
    Markets
    Storage, aggregation, transportationandagro-enterprise
    Con-
    sumers
    On farm maintenance
    Genetics
    Health
    Nutrition
    Improve genetic material of animals
    Managing quality and quantity of feed
    Prevent and treat animal diseases to reduce mortality rates
    Managing other farm inputs and management practices to maximize benefit from breed, feed and health initiatives
    Connecting smallholder farmers to the formal sector and increasing benefits from the informal sector
    Processing raw products – ranging from minimal and major value addition
    Enabling access to local, regional and global markets
  • 49. Our Approach To Livestock
    27
    Focus
    • Income generation for smallholders & nutrition
    • 50. Limited set of high leverage interventions: sustainability & scale
    • 51. Areas of interest: Animal breeding and genetics, animal health, animal nutrition, husbandry, market linkages
    • 52. Species: cattle (dairy & beef), small ruminants, chicken
    • 53. Geographies: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia
    • 54. Current grants: EADD, Care Bangladesh, GALVmed, BAIF, African Cattle Genetics, Disease Resistance Research
    • 55. Grants under review: Animal Health Delivery & Livestock Point-of-Care Diagnostic tests
  • CARE: Strengthening the dairy value chain in Bangladesh by connecting smallholder dairy farmers to the formal market sector ($5.3M over 4 yrs.)
    East Africa Dairy Development Project, Heifer International: To demonstrate dairy chilling hubs can sustain delivery of technology and services to poor farmers ($42.9 over 4 yrs.)
    BAIF: To develop alternate models for up-scaling artificial insemination delivery ($6M over 5 yrs.)
    28
    Livestock Grants
  • 56. University of New England: To determine genotype and phenotype of dairy cattle using DNA testing and household enumeration ($3M over 2 yrs.)
    University of Georgia: To develop disease resistant chickens using stem cell technology ($1.4 M over 4 yrs.)
    Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicine (GALVmed): The project aims to bring to market affordable and accessible vaccines addressing critical needs of smallholders through public-private partnerships ($22.5 over 3 yrs.)
    Livestock Grants
  • 57. Diagnostics For All: To develop convenient, easy to use, low-cost, point of care diagnostic tests for livestock. ($3M over 2 years)
    FARM-Africa: To establish 150 animal health franchises in Kenya to deliver veterinary products and services to the poor ($5.1M over 4.5 yrs.)
    2011: we have a strategy refresh in process; our initial plans were to target poultry & small ruminants as well as greater investment in genetics and health R&D.
    Livestock Grants in process
  • 58. 31
  • 59. A Drop in the Bucket
    32
    Our resources, while significant, pale in comparison to the need. Partnerships and advocacy are critical to success.
    Global agricultural spending
    for sub-Saharan Africa
    Our agricultural grantmaking commitments in 2008
    $445M
    ~$9B*
    ~5% of total Ag spending in SSA
    * Latest figures available are 2006
  • 60. Reasons for Optimism
    33
    Developing countries are making progress
    • Poverty rates down
    • 61. Improved governance
    Science and technology
    • Applying technology to small farmers’ challenges
    • 62. Mobile phone revolution
    Renewed attention to hunger, povertyand agriculture
    • The MDGs and CAADP
    • 63. Increased media coverage and financial commitments to agriculture
  • Thank You
  • 64. The Challenge
    Much of increase will come from industrial sector for poultry and swine
    • Not as well developed where the poor are
    Poor will need to depend on local systems
    • Limited capacity to respond
    • 65. Offers opportunity for broad-based income generation from high-value Animal Source Foods
    • 66. Transition strategy
  • Success Is Possible
    Success Is Possible
  • 67. October 24, 2010
    Millennium Development Goals
    1. Poverty & hunger
    5. Maternal health
    2. Primary education
    6. Combat diseases
    3. Gender equality
    7. Env’t sustainability
    4. Child mortality
    8. Partnerships
    www.un.org/millenniumgoals
  • 68. 38
    Cattle and poultry products are the largest contributors to household income with the most significant opportunities for improvement
    ESTIMATES
    % Output increase opportunity by closing productivity gap
    Cow Milk (49% of livestock income, 45% productivity gap)
    336M
    Sheep Milk (2% income, 126% gap)
    High priority
    Low priority
    345M
    No. of poor livestock keepers
    Chicken Eggs (10% income, 33% gap)
    Goat Meat
    (4% income, 27% gap)
    Beef (12% income, 31% gap)
    269M
    275M
    420M
    420M
    Goat Milk
    (6% of income,
    27% gap)
    Prioritized Species/ Livestock Products
    336M
    Chicken Meat (14% income, 8% gap)
    Sheep Meat
    (3% income, 12% gap)
    269M
    % of Total Livestock Producer Income in top 20 countries
    Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis
  • 72. 39
    Since the early 1980s, many developing countries have experienced dramatic increases in livestock output production, while Africa stagnated
    Beef
    Chicken Meat
    Production in million Tonnes
    Production in million Tonnes
    Asia
    Europe
    N. America
    N. America
    S. America
    S. America
    Europe
    Asia
    Africa
    1970
    2005
    1975
    1980
    1985
    1990
    1995
    2000
    1970
    2005
    1975
    1980
    1985
    1990
    1995
    2000
    1970
    2005
    1975
    1980
    1985
    1990
    1995
    2000
    1970
    2005
    1975
    1980
    1985
    1990
    1995
    2000
    Africa
    Eggs
    Cow Milk
    Production in million Tonnes
    Production in million Tonnes
    Europe
    Asia
    Asia
    N. America
    S. America
    Europe
    S. America
    Africa
    N. America
    Africa
    Source: FAOSTAT August 2008
  • 73. 40
    Dairy and chicken products have the highest productivity increase potential based on current technology
    Productivity Increase Opportunity
    Least Developed
    Countries¹
    Developing
    Countries¹
    Least Developed
    Countries (stretch)²
    Cow’s Milk – Output per animal per year (tonnes)
    98%
    125%
    450%
    Beef – Output per animal (tonnes)
    50%
    33%
    67%
    Hen Eggs – Output per thousand animal (tonnes)
    65%
    49%
    201%
    Chicken Meat – Output per thousand animals (tonnes)
    114%
    22%
    137%
    Least Developed Countries
    World Developing Countries
    World Developed Countries
    ¹Productivity Increase Opportunity (Least Developed and Developing Countries)=Total Output increase from raising productivity in low performing countries to meet top quartile averages within the grouping
    ² Least Developed Countries (stretch) = Total Output Increase from raising productivity in Least Developed Countries to meet top quartile levels among Developing Countries
    Source: FAOSTAT August 2008, Team analysis
  • 74. 41
    Although goats are widely kept by smallholder producers, opportunities to increase the productivity of goats are much more limited than cattle and poultry
    Goat Milk – Output per animal per year (tonnes)
    Productivity Increase Opportunity
    Least Developed
    Countries¹
    Developing
    Countries¹
    Least Developed
    Countries (stretch)²
    13%
    39%
    77%
    *Small sample size
    Goat Meat – Output per animal (tonnes)
    39%
    234%
    41%
    *Small sample size
    Least Developed Countries
    World Developing Countries
    World Developed Countries
    ¹Productivity Increase Opportunity (Least Developed and Developing Countries)=Total Output increase from raising productivity in low performing countries to meet top quartile averages within the grouping
    ² Least Developed Countries (stretch) = Total Output Increase from raising productivity in Least Developed Countries to meet top quartile levels among Developing Countries
    Source: FAOSTAT August 2008, Team analysis
  • 75. 42
    Potential income impact from livestock interventions vary significantly across countries with milk as the most frequent major driver
    Livestock Income Increase Potential by Country* by Product
    Biggest potential sources of productivity increase given current animal numbers:
    145%
    114%
    105%
    99%
    62%
    53%
    44%
    42%
    41%
    42%
    37%
    35%
    29%
    27%
    30%
    24%
    22%
    16%
    South Asia
    West Africa
    East Africa
    Central Africa
    *Countries with each region prioritized by number of poor livestock keepers
    Note: Methodology assumes (1) current livestock product prices remains unchanged, and (2) productivity increase on current animal count
    Source data : FAOSTAT August 2008, ILRI (2008) based on FAOSTAT and India Livestock Census (2003), Team analysis